Ocular inflammatory conditions

Also known as: Eye inflammation / Ophthalmic inflammation / Inflammation of the eye / Ocular Inflammation / Ophthalmitis / Eye inflammation NOS / Endophthalmitis

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00572AtropineAn alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly solanaceae.
DB00443BetamethasoneA glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralocorticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p724)
DB00963BromfenacBromfenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for ophthalmic use. Ophthalmic NSAIDs are becoming a cornerstone for the management of ocular pain and inflammation. Their well-characterized anti-inflammatory activity, analgesic property, and established safety record have also made NSAIDs an important tool to optimize surgical outcomes.
DB00586DiclofenacDiclofenac is a phenylacetic acid derivative and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).[label] NSAIDs inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and-2 which are the enzyme responsible for producing prostaglandins (PGs). PGs contribute to inflammation and pain signalling. Diclofenac, like other NSAIDs, is often used as first line therapy for acute and chronic pain and inflammation from a variety of causes. Diclofenac was the product of rational drug design based on the structures of [phenylbutazone], [mefenamic acid], and [indomethacin].[A180796] The addition of two chlorine groups in the ortho position of the phenyl ring locks the ring in maximal torsion which appears to be related to increased potency. It is often used in combination with [misoprostol] to prevent NSAID-induced gastric ulcers. Diclofenac was first approved by the FDA in July 1988 under the trade name Voltaren, marketed by Novartis (previously Ciba-Geigy).[L7360]
DB06781DifluprednateDifluprednate is a topical corticosteroid indicated for the treatment of infammation and pain associated with ocular surgery. It is a butyrate ester of 6(α), 9(α)-difluoro prednisolone acetate. Difluprednate is abbreviated DFBA, or difluoroprednisolone butyrate acetate. It is indicated for treatment of endogenous anterior uveiti.
DB00324FluorometholoneA glucocorticoid employed, usually as eye drops, in the treatment of allergic and inflammatory conditions of the eye. It has also been used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p732)
DB00873LoteprednolNot Available
DB14596Loteprednol etabonateLoteprednol Etabonate (LE) is a topical corticoid anti-inflammatory. It is used in ophthalmic solution for the treatment of steroid responsive inflammatory conditions of the eye such as allergic conjunctivitis, uveitis, acne rosacea, superficial punctate keratitis, herpes zoster keratitis, iritis, cyclitis, and selected infective conjunctivitides. As a nasal spray, it can be used for the treatment and management of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Most prescription LE products, however, tend to be indicated for the treatment of post-operative inflammation and pain following ocular surgery [FDA Label]. A number of such new formulations that have been approved include Kala Pharmaceutical's Inveltys - the first twice-daily (BID) ocular corticosteroid approved for this indication, designed specifically to enhance patient compliance and simplified dosing compared to all other similar ocular steroids that are dosed four times daily [L4545]. Moreover, LE was purposefully engineered to be a 'soft drug', one that is designed to be active locally at the site of administration and then rapidly metabolized to inactive components after eliciting its actions at the desired location, thereby subsequently minimizing the chance for adverse effects [A38693].
DB00781Polymyxin BPolymyxin B was discovered in the 1940s[A176429]. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes[A176426]. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic[A176426,FDA Label]. All gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and the gram-negative cocci, are resistant[A176426]. It is appropriate for treatment of infections of the urinary tract, meninges, and blood stream, caused by susceptible strains of _Pseudomonas aeruginosa_[FDA Label]. Polymyxin B has a narrow therapeutic index and so its use is limited and unlikely to be used first line[A176429].
DB00860PrednisoloneA glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
DB00635PrednisoneA synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from cortisone. It is biologically inert and converted to prednisolone in the liver.
DB00896RimexoloneRimexolone, marketed as a 1% eye drop solution is a glucocorticoid steroid. It is used to treat inflammation in the eye. It is marketed as Vexol.
DB00620TriamcinoloneTriamcinolone is a corticosteroid used to treat various inflammatory conditions in the body from allergic rhinitis to acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis.[L8255] Triamcinolone can be used as a one time adjunct treatment of osteoarthritic knee pain,[L8264] or first line as a topical treatment of corticosteroid responsive dermatoses.[L8249] Triamcinolone is more commonly seen in the forms triamcinolone hexacetonide, triamcinolone acetonide, and triamcinolone diacetate.[L8246,L8249,L8252,L8255,L8258,L8261,L8264] Triamcinolone was granted FDA approval on 3 December 1957.[L8243]
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00572AtropineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00572AtropineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00572AtropineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB00572AtropineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB00572AtropineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00572AtropineGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00572AtropineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00572AtropineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2target
DB00572AtropineBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00443BetamethasoneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00443BetamethasoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00443BetamethasoneP-glycoprotein 1transporter
DB00443BetamethasoneCytochrome P450 19A1enzyme
DB00443BetamethasoneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00963BromfenacProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB00963BromfenacProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00963BromfenacProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB00586DiclofenacProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacSerum albumincarrier
DB00586DiclofenacMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB00586DiclofenacMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB00586DiclofenacSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00586DiclofenacSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00586DiclofenacSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1transporter
DB00586DiclofenacSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB00586DiclofenacUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00586DiclofenacBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00586DiclofenacUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4enzyme
DB00586DiclofenacArachidonate 5-lipoxygenaseenzyme
DB00586DiclofenacSodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphatransporter
DB00586DiclofenacAcid-sensing ion channel 1transporter
DB00586DiclofenacPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 2transporter
DB00586DiclofenacPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 3transporter
DB00586DiclofenacPhospholipase A2, membrane associatedenzyme
DB06781DifluprednateGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB06781DifluprednateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00324FluorometholoneCorticosteroid-binding globulincarrier
DB00324FluorometholoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00324FluorometholoneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00324FluorometholoneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB14596Loteprednol etabonateGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB14596Loteprednol etabonateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB14596Loteprednol etabonateSerum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1enzyme
DB00781Polymyxin BBacterial outer membranetarget
DB00781Polymyxin BSolute carrier family 15 member 2transporter
DB00860PrednisoloneCorticosteroid-binding globulincarrier
DB00860PrednisoloneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00860PrednisoloneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00860PrednisoloneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00860PrednisoloneP-glycoprotein 1transporter
DB00635PrednisoneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00635PrednisoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00635PrednisoneP-glycoprotein 1transporter
DB00635PrednisoneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00635PrednisoneCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00635PrednisoneSerum albumincarrier
DB00635PrednisoneCorticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 1target
DB00635PrednisoneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00896RimexoloneCorticosteroid-binding globulincarrier
DB00896RimexoloneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00896RimexoloneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00896RimexoloneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00620TriamcinoloneCorticosteroid-binding globulincarrier
DB00620TriamcinoloneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00620TriamcinoloneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00620TriamcinoloneProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
DB00620TriamcinoloneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00620TriamcinoloneCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00620TriamcinoloneSerum albumincarrier
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00963Bromfenac1 / 2Completed1
DB01234Dexamethasone2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00218Moxifloxacin2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB05032REV1312Unknown Status1
DB14502Sodium phosphate, dibasic2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB14596Loteprednol etabonate3Completed3
DB14596Loteprednol etabonate3Terminated1
DB00620TriamcinoloneNot AvailableCompleted1