Refractory seizure disorders

Also known as: Status epilepticus / Grand mal status

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00829DiazepamA benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid activity. It is used in the treatment of severe anxiety disorders, as a hypnotic in the short-term management of insomnia, as a sedative and premedicant, as an anticonvulsant, and in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p589)
DB00949FelbamateFelbamate is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy. It is used to treat partial seizures (with and without generalization) in adults and partial and generalized seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in children. It has a weak inhibitory effect on GABA receptor binding sites.
DB01320FosphenytoinFosphenytoin is a water-soluble phenytoin prodrug used only in hospitals for the treatment of epileptic seizures. It works by slowing down impulses in the brain that cause seizures. Its main mechanism is to block frequency-dependent, use-dependent and voltage-dependent neuronal sodium channels, and therefore limit repetitive firing of action potentials.
DB06218LacosamideLacosamide is a functionalized amino acid that has activity in the maximal electroshock seizure test, and is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures and diabetic neuropathic pain. Recent studies indicate that Lacosamide only affects those neurons which are depolarized or active for long periods of time, typical of neurons at the focus of an epileptic seizure, as opposed to other antiepileptic drugs such as carbamazepine or lamotrigine which slow the recovery from inactivation and reduce the ability of neurons to fire action potentials.
DB01202LevetiracetamLevetiracetam is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy. Levetiracetam may selectively prevent hypersynchronization of epileptiform burst firing and propagation of seizure activity. Levetiracetam binds to the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A, which is thought to be involved in the regulation of vesicle exocytosis. Although the molecular significance of levetiracetam binding to synaptic vesicle protein SV2A is not understood, levetiracetam and related analogs showed a rank order of affinity for SV2A which correlated with the potency of their antiseizure activity in audiogenic seizure-prone mice.
DB00186LorazepamLorazepam is a short-acting and rapidly cleared benzodiazepine used commonly as a sedative and anxiolytic.[A957] It was developed by DJ Richards, presented and marketed initially by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals in the USA in 1977. The first historic FDA label approval is reported in 1985 by the company Mutual Pharm.[L5095]
DB00683MidazolamMidazolam is a short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant, sedative, hypnotic, and amnesic properties [A173842]. It belongs to a class of drugs called _benzodiazepines_. This drug is unique from others in this class due to its rapid onset of effects and short duration of action [A173842]. Midazolam is available by oral, rectal, intranasal, intramuscular (IM), and intravenous (IV) routes and has been used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as pre-anesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia [F2977]. In late 2018, the intramuscular preparation was approved by the FDA for the treatment of status epilepticus in adults [FDA label]. Midazolam is considered a schedule IV drug in the United States. This category is defined by drugs, substances, or chemicals with a low potential for abuse and low risk of dependence [L5074]. This drug was initially approved by the US FDA in 1985, and has been approved for various indications since [FDA label].
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00829DiazepamTranslocator proteintarget
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00829DiazepamSerum albumincarrier
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltatarget
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pitarget
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetatarget
DB00829DiazepamMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00829DiazepamProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00829DiazepamGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00949FelbamateGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Atarget
DB00949FelbamateGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Btarget
DB00949FelbamateGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Atarget
DB00949FelbamateCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00949FelbamateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00949FelbamateCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00949FelbamateCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB01320FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinSerum albumincarrier
DB01320FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB06218LacosamideSodium channel protein type 9 subunit alphatarget
DB06218LacosamideSodium channel protein type 3 subunit alphatarget
DB06218LacosamideSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
DB06218LacosamideCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB06218LacosamideCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB06218LacosamideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01202LevetiracetamSynaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2Atarget
DB01202LevetiracetamMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01202LevetiracetamCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB01202LevetiracetamVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Btarget
DB01202LevetiracetamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00186LorazepamTranslocator proteintarget
DB00186LorazepamUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15enzyme
DB00186LorazepamGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00186LorazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00683MidazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00683MidazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00683MidazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00683MidazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00683MidazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00683MidazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB00683MidazolamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00683MidazolamCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00683MidazolamUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4enzyme
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00186Lorazepam1Completed1
DB05087Ganaxolone2Recruiting1
DB01202Levetiracetam2Unknown Status1
DB00829Diazepam2 / 3Completed1
DB00186Lorazepam2 / 3Completed1
DB01068Clonazepam3Completed1
DB00829Diazepam3Completed1
DB01320Fosphenytoin3Completed1
DB01221Ketamine3Recruiting1
DB01221Ketamine3Withdrawn1
DB06218Lacosamide3Withdrawn1
DB01202Levetiracetam3Withdrawn1
DB00186Lorazepam3Completed6
DB00186Lorazepam3Terminated1
DB09117Paraldehyde3Completed1
DB00312Pentobarbital3Terminated1
DB01174Phenobarbital3Withdrawn1
DB00818Propofol3Terminated1
DB00599Thiopental3Terminated1
DB01202LevetiracetamNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00186LorazepamNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00683MidazolamNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00818PropofolNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00599ThiopentalNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00313Valproic AcidNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00313Valproic AcidNot AvailableUnknown Status1