|DB00829||Diazepam||A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid activity. It is used in the treatment of severe anxiety disorders, as a hypnotic in the short-term management of insomnia, as a sedative and premedicant, as an anticonvulsant, and in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p589)|
|DB00949||Felbamate||Felbamate is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy. It is used to treat partial seizures (with and without generalization) in adults and partial and generalized seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in children. It has a weak inhibitory effect on GABA receptor binding sites.|
|DB01320||Fosphenytoin||Fosphenytoin is a water-soluble phenytoin prodrug used only in hospitals for the treatment of epileptic seizures. It works by slowing down impulses in the brain that cause seizures. Its main mechanism is to block frequency-dependent, use-dependent and voltage-dependent neuronal sodium channels, and therefore limit repetitive firing of action potentials.|
|DB06218||Lacosamide||Lacosamide is a functionalized amino acid that has activity in the maximal electroshock seizure test, and is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures and diabetic neuropathic pain. Recent studies indicate that Lacosamide only affects those neurons which are depolarized or active for long periods of time, typical of neurons at the focus of an epileptic seizure, as opposed to other antiepileptic drugs such as carbamazepine or lamotrigine which slow the recovery from inactivation and reduce the ability of neurons to fire action potentials.|
|DB01202||Levetiracetam||Levetiracetam is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy. Levetiracetam may selectively prevent hypersynchronization of epileptiform burst firing and propagation of seizure activity. Levetiracetam binds to the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A, which is thought to be involved in the regulation of vesicle exocytosis. Although the molecular significance of levetiracetam binding to synaptic vesicle protein SV2A is not understood, levetiracetam and related analogs showed a rank order of affinity for SV2A which correlated with the potency of their antiseizure activity in audiogenic seizure-prone mice.|
|DB00186||Lorazepam||Lorazepam is a short-acting and rapidly cleared benzodiazepine used commonly as a sedative and anxiolytic.[A957] It was developed by DJ Richards, presented and marketed initially by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals in the USA in 1977. The first historic FDA label approval is reported in 1985 by the company Mutual Pharm.[L5095]|
|DB00683||Midazolam||Midazolam is a short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant, sedative, hypnotic, and amnesic properties [A173842]. It belongs to a class of drugs called _benzodiazepines_. This drug is unique from others in this class due to its rapid onset of effects and short duration of action [A173842]. Midazolam is available by oral, rectal, intranasal, intramuscular (IM), and intravenous (IV) routes and has been used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as pre-anesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia [F2977].
In late 2018, the intramuscular preparation was approved by the FDA for the treatment of status epilepticus in adults [FDA label]. Midazolam is considered a schedule IV drug in the United States. This category is defined by drugs, substances, or chemicals with a low potential for abuse and low risk of dependence [L5074]. This drug was initially approved by the US FDA in 1985, and has been approved for various indications since [FDA label].|