One to five years postmenopausal

Also known as: Post-Menopausal / Postmenopause / Postmenopausal

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB05084AbaloparatideAbaloparatide is an analog of PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-related protein). It was approved in April 28, 2017 by the FDA (as Tymlos) for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis at high risk for fracture. Abaloparatide is a synthetic peptide that is related to hPTHrP and has demonstrated in preclinical testing the potential to widen the anabolic window for bone therapeutics, stimulating bone formation with a limited effect on bone resorption and mineral mobilization. This could enable improved convenience over currently available anabolic therapies, resulting in greater compliance and, ultimately, greater benefit to patients.
DB00630Alendronic acidAlendronic acid is a bisphosphonate that is used for the treatment of some forms of osteoperosis and Paget's disease[FDA Label][A959]. It functions by preventing resorption of bone[FDA Label][A959].
DB01217AnastrozoleAnastrozole is a drug indicated in the treatment of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. It is used both in adjuvant therapy (i.e. following surgery) and in metastatic breast cancer. It decreases the amount of estrogens that the body makes. Anastrozole belongs in the class of drugs known as aromatase inhibitors. It inhibits the enzyme aromatase, which is responsible for converting androgens (produced by women in the adrenal glands) to estrogens.
DB00286Conjugated estrogensThe conjugated estrogens are noncrystalline mixtures of purified female sex hormones obtained either by its isolation from the urine of pregnant mares or by synthetic generation from vegetal material. Both of these products are later conjugated to natrium sulfate by ester bonds in order to make them more water soluble.[L5605, T475] The conjugated estrogen product contains a mix of estrogen from which about 50% is represented by estrone sulfate followed by 25% of equilin sulfate, 15% of 17-alpha-dehydroequilenin sulfate, 3% of equilenin sulfate, 5% of 17-alpha and 17-beta-dihydroequilenin sulfate, 2% of 17-alpha-estradiolsulfate and 3% of 17-beta-estradiolsulfate. It also presents a large number of unidentified molecules with weak estrogenic activity as well as non-human molecules when it is obtained from pregnant mares urine.[T475] The conjugated estrogen mixture was approved for marketing in US in 1942 based on the efficacy against certain conditions. However, until 1986 official clinical trials were performed and this product was determined to be effective for the treatment of osteoporosis.[T484] The currently approved product of conjugated estrogens was developed by Wyeth Ayerst and FDA approved in 2003.[L5608]
DB06643DenosumabDenosumab is a novel, fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody specific to receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), suppresses bone resorption markers in patients with a variety of metastatic tumors and is being investigated in multiple clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of bone metastases. Chemically, it consists of 2 heavy and 2 light chains. Each light chain consists of 215 amino acids. Each heavy chain consists of 448 amino acids with 4 intramolecular disulfides. FDA approved on June 1, 2010.
DB00990ExemestaneExemestane is an oral steroidal aromatase inhibitor used in the adjuvant treatment of hormonally-responsive (also called hormone-receptor-positive, estrogen-responsive) breast cancer in postmenopausal women. It irreversibly binds to the active site of the enzyme resulting in permanent inhibition.
DB00947FulvestrantFulvestrant is a drug treatment of hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer in post-menopausal women with disease progression following anti-estrogen therapy. It is an estrogen receptor antagonist with no agonist effects, which works both by down-regulating and by degrading the estrogen receptor.
DB01259LapatinibLapatinib is an anti-cancer drug developed by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) as a treatment for solid tumours such as breast and lung cancer. It was approved by the FDA on March 13, 2007, for use in patients with advanced metastatic breast cancer in conjunction with the chemotherapy drug Capecitabine. Lapatinib is human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2/ERBB2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (HER1/EGFR/ERBB1) tyrosine kinases inhibitor. It binds to the intracellular phosphorylation domain to prevent receptor autophosphorylation upon ligand binding.
DB01006LetrozoleLetrozole (INN, trade name Femara®) is an oral non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor that has been introduced for the adjuvant treatment of hormonally-responsive breast cancer Estrogens are produced by the conversion of androgens through the activity of the aromatase enzyme. Letrozole blocks the production of estrogens in this way by competitive, reversible binding to the heme of its cytochrome P450 unit. It is important to note that letrozole does not decrease the production of mineralocorticoids or corticosteroids. In contrast, the antiestrogenic action of tamoxifen, the major medical therapy prior to the arrival of aromatase inhibitors, is due to its interfering with the estrogen receptor, rather than inhibiting estrogen production. Side effects include signs and symptoms of hypoestrogenism. There is concern that long term use may lead to osteoporosis, which is why prescriptions of Letrozole are often accompanied by prescriptions of osteoporosis-fighting medication such as Fosamax. Letrozole has shown to reduce estrogen levels by 98 percent while raising testosterone levels. The anti-estrogen action of letrozole is preferred by athletes and bodybuilders for use during a steroid cycle to reduce bloating due to excess water retention and prevent the formation of gynecomastia related breast tissue that is a side effect of some anabolic steroids. Usage above 2.5 mg/day is known to potentially temporarily kill sex drive. Above 5mg/day for extended periods may cause kidney problems. Letrozole has also been shown to delay the fusing of the growth plates in adolescents. This may boost the effectiveness of growth hormone, and thus Letrozole is used to treat adolescents and children with short stature.
DB09073PalbociclibPalbociclib is a piperazine pyridopyrimidine[A176792] that acts in the cell cycle machinery. It is a second generation cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor[A176798] selected from a group of pyridopyrimidine compounds due to its favorable physical and pharmaceutical properties.[A176810] Palbociclib was developed by Pfizer Inc after the discovery that identified the cyclin-dependent kinases as key regulators of cell growth.[L5867] It was originally FDA approved on March 2015 and its indications were updated on April 2019.[L4894]
DB00396ProgesteroneProgesterone is a hormone that occurs naturally in females, and is essential for endometrial receptivity, embryo implantation, and the successful establishment of pregnancy. A low progesterone concentration or an insufficient response to progesterone can cause infertility and pregnancy loss [A175609]. Progesterone is used in various contraceptive preparations to prevent ovulation and fertilization [T481], [A175612] as well as in other formulations to promote and support pregnancy. Please see [Medroxyprogesterone acetate], [Megestrol acetate], [Dydrogesterone] and [Hydroxyprogesterone] entries for information on various other forms of progesterone. Pharmaceutical progesterone is made from a plant source as a starting material and is chemically identical to progesterone of human ovarian origin [FDA label]. Progesterone is available in gelatinized capsule form, vaginal gel form, tablet form, vaginal insert form, and injection form, all used for various purposes [Label,F3898,F3904,F3901,F3907].
DB11730RibociclibRibociclib is a selective cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, a class of drugs that help slow the progression of cancer by inhibiting two proteins called cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6). These proteins, when over-activated, can enable cancer cells to grow and divide too quickly. Targeting CDK4/6 with enhanced precision may play a role in ensuring that cancer cells do not continue to replicate uncontrollably. Ribociclib was approved by the U.S. FDA in March, 2017 as Kisqali.
DB00884Risedronic acidAlendronic acid is a bisphosphonate that is used for the treatment of some forms of osteoperosis and Paget's disease[FDA Label][A959]. It functions by preventing resorption of bone[FDA Label][A959].
DB00017Salmon CalcitoninSynthetic peptide, 32 residues long formulated as a nasal spray.
DB00539ToremifeneA first generation nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that is structurally related to tamoxifen. Like tamoxifen, it is an estrogen agonist for bone tissue and cholesterol metabolism but is antagonistic on mammary and uterine tissue.
DB00285VenlafaxineVenlafaxine (Effexor) is an antidepressant within the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class of medications. It exerts its effects primarily by blocking the transporters involved in the reuptake of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine, therefore leaving more active neurotransmitter in the synapse. Venlafaxine is officially approved for use in the management of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder, and panic disorder. As of 2014, Canadian clinical practice guidelines recommend venlafaxine as a first-line option for treatment of generalized anxiety, social anxiety, panic disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD), and consider it a second-line option for management of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) [A177226, A177235]. Venlafaxine is also used off-label for prophylaxis of migraine headaches [A177229], for reduction of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause [A177238], and for management of neuropathic pain (although there is only minimal evidence of efficacy for this condition) [A177232].
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB05084AbaloparatideParathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptortarget
DB00630Alendronic acidFarnesyl pyrophosphate synthasetarget
DB00630Alendronic acidTyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 4target
DB00630Alendronic acidReceptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase Starget
DB00630Alendronic acidReceptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase epsilontarget
DB00630Alendronic acidV-type proton ATPase catalytic subunit Atarget
DB00630Alendronic acidHydroxylapatitetarget
DB01217AnastrozoleCytochrome P450 19A1target
DB01217AnastrozoleCytochrome P450 19A1enzyme
DB01217AnastrozoleCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01217AnastrozoleCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01217AnastrozoleCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00286Conjugated estrogensEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB00286Conjugated estrogensCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00286Conjugated estrogensCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00286Conjugated estrogensCatechol O-methyltransferaseenzyme
DB00286Conjugated estrogensCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSodium/bile acid cotransportertransporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier family 22 member 10transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensOrganic solute transporter subunit alphatransporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensOrganic solute transporter subunit betatransporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 11transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 3A1transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00286Conjugated estrogensThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSex hormone-binding globulincarrier
DB00286Conjugated estrogensSerum albumincarrier
DB00286Conjugated estrogensEstrogen receptor betatarget
DB06643DenosumabTumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11target
DB00990ExemestaneCytochrome P450 19A1target
DB00990ExemestaneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00990ExemestaneCytochrome P450 19A1enzyme
DB00947FulvestrantEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB00947FulvestrantCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00947FulvestrantUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB01259LapatinibEpidermal growth factor receptortarget
DB01259LapatinibReceptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2target
DB01259LapatinibCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01259LapatinibCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01259LapatinibMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01259LapatinibAntigen peptide transporter 1transporter
DB01259LapatinibCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB01259LapatinibCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01006LetrozoleCytochrome P450 19A1target
DB01006LetrozoleCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01006LetrozoleCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01006LetrozoleCytochrome P450 19A1enzyme
DB09073PalbociclibCyclin-dependent kinase 4target
DB09073PalbociclibCyclin-dependent kinase 6target
DB09073PalbociclibCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB09073PalbociclibSulfotransferase 2A1enzyme
DB09073PalbociclibMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB09073PalbociclibATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB09073PalbociclibSerum albumincarrier
DB09073PalbociclibSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB00396ProgesteroneProgesterone receptortarget
DB00396ProgesteroneEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB00396ProgesteroneSteroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyasetarget
DB00396ProgesteroneCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00396ProgesteroneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00396ProgesteroneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00396ProgesteroneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00396ProgesteroneCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00396ProgesteroneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00396ProgesteroneSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB00396ProgesteroneSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB00396ProgesteroneSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB00396ProgesteroneBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00396ProgesteroneMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB00396ProgesteroneSodium/bile acid cotransportertransporter
DB00396ProgesteroneSteroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyaseenzyme
DB00396ProgesteroneCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00396ProgesteroneCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
DB00396ProgesteroneCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB00396ProgesteroneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00396ProgesteroneMineralocorticoid receptortarget
DB00396ProgesteroneKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00396ProgesteroneAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1target
DB00396ProgesteroneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00396ProgesteroneAndrogen receptortarget
DB00396ProgesteroneSex hormone-binding globulintarget
DB00396ProgesteroneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00396ProgesteroneATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00396ProgesteroneEstrogen receptor betatarget
DB00396ProgesteroneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB11730RibociclibCyclin-dependent kinase 4target
DB11730RibociclibCyclin-dependent kinase 6target
DB11730RibociclibCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00884Risedronic acidFarnesyl pyrophosphate synthasetarget
DB00884Risedronic acidHydroxylapatitetarget
DB00884Risedronic acidProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
DB00017Salmon CalcitoninCalcitonin receptortarget
DB00539ToremifeneEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB00539ToremifeneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00539ToremifeneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00539ToremifeneCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00539ToremifeneSex hormone-binding globulintarget
DB00285VenlafaxineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00285VenlafaxineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00285VenlafaxineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00285VenlafaxineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00285VenlafaxineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB00285VenlafaxineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00285VenlafaxineATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00286Conjugated estrogens1Completed5
DB00603Medroxyprogesterone acetate1Completed2
DB00884Risedronic acid1Completed1
DB12483Copanlisib1 / 2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB12483Copanlisib1 / 2Recruiting1
DB00783Estradiol1 / 2Completed1
DB00947Fulvestrant1 / 2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01611Hydroxychloroquine1 / 2Recruiting1
DB01006Letrozole1 / 2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01006Letrozole1 / 2Recruiting2
DB09073Palbociclib1 / 2Recruiting2
DB00396Progesterone1 / 2Completed1
DB11730Ribociclib1 / 2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00072Trastuzumab1 / 2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB13975Cimicifuga racemosa2Completed1
DB00286Conjugated estrogens2Completed4
DB01006Letrozole2Active Not Recruiting1
DB01006Letrozole2Unknown Status1
DB00603Medroxyprogesterone acetate2Completed1
DB11730Ribociclib2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00884Risedronic acid2Completed1
DB00020Sargramostim2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00126Ascorbic acid3Completed1
DB00112Bevacizumab3Active Not Recruiting1
DB00286Conjugated estrogens3Completed2
DB01006Letrozole3Active Not Recruiting1
DB00603Medroxyprogesterone acetate3Completed3
DB01708Prasterone3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00017Salmon Calcitonin3Completed1
DB00675Tamoxifen3Active Not Recruiting1
DB11094Vitamin D3Completed1
DB00163Vitamin E3Completed1
DB00399Zoledronic acid3Completed1
DB00286Conjugated estrogens4Completed1
DB01395DrospirenoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00783EstradiolNot AvailableCompleted4
DB00783EstradiolNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00396ProgesteroneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00396ProgesteroneNot AvailableTerminated1