|DB01238||Aripiprazole||Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic orally indicated for treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar I, major depressive disorder, irritability associated with autism, and Tourette's[Label]. It is also indicated as an injection for agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar mania[Label]. Aripiprazole exerts its effects through agonism of dopaminic and 5-HT1A receptors and antagonism of alpha adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors[Label,A4393]. Aripiprazole was given FDA approval on November 15, 2002[L6136].|
|DB06216||Asenapine||Developed by Schering-Plough after its merger with Organon International, asenapine is a sublingually administered, atypical antipsychotic for treatment of schizophrenia and acute mania associated with bipolar disorder. Asenapine also belongs to the dibenzo-oxepino pyrrole class. It is also for severe post-traumatic stress disorder nightmares in soldiers as an off-label use. FDA approved on August 13, 2009.|
|DB00564||Carbamazepine||An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of phenytoin; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.|
|DB06016||Cariprazine||Cariprazine is an antipsychotic drug developed by Gedeon Richter and marketed by Actavis under the trade name Vraylar. Cariprazine acts as a D2 and D3 receptor partial agonist, with high selectivity towards the D3 receptor. This mechanism is relatively unique, since many other antipsychotics are D2 and 5-HT2A agonists. Cariprazine was approved by the FDA in September 2015 and is indicated in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Action on the dopaminergic systems makes it also potentially useful as an add-on therapy in major depressive disorder.|
|DB01068||Clonazepam||A benzodiazepine used to treat various seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop [FDA Label] [L5572, F3763, F3787, F3796]. The agent has also been indicated for treating panic disorder [FDA Label] [A175438, L5572, F3763, F3787, F3796]. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor responses [FDA Label] [A175438, A175441, L5572, F3763, F3787, F3796].
Since being first patented in 1960 and then released for sale from Roche in the US in 1975 [T469, T472], clonazepam has experienced a storied history in the treatment of the aforementioned medical conditions. Now available as a generic medication, the agent continues to see exceptionally high use as millions of prescriptions are written for the medication internationally every year. Unfortunately, however, like most benzodiazepines, clonazepam use has also been associated with recreational use and drug abuse [FDA Label] [L5572, F3763, F3787, F3796].|
|DB00334||Olanzapine||Olanzapine is a thienobenzodiazepine classified as an atypical or second-generation antipsychotic agent.[A176996] The second-generation antipsychotics were introduced in the 90s and quickly widespread due to the presumed higher efficacy, less extrapyramidal side effects and fewer drug-drug interactions.[A177011] Olanzapine presents a very close resemblance to [clozapine] and it only differs by two additional methyl groups and the absence of a chloride moiety.[T554] It was obtained by the research of Eli Lilly and approved to be marketed in the US in 1996.[T548]|
|DB01224||Quetiapine||Quetiapine is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia as well as for the treatment of acute manic episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. The antipsychotic effect of quetiapine is thought by some to be mediated through antagonist activity at dopamine and serotonin receptors. Specifically the D1 and D2 dopamine, the alpha 1 adrenoreceptor and alpha 2 adrenoreceptor, and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 serotonin receptor subtypes are antagonized. Quetiapine also has an antagonistic effect on the histamine H1 receptor.|
|DB00734||Risperidone||Schizophrenia and various mood disorders are thought to be caused by an excess of dopaminergic D2 and serotonergic 5-HT2A activity, resulting in overactivity of central mesolimbic pathways and mesocortical pathways, respectively [L1212, L1213].
Risperidone inhibits dopaminergic D2 receptors and serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors in the brain. It is also said to block histamine receptors, and other neural receptors which are currently being studied [L1213, A1115].
Risperidone binds with a very high affinity to 5-HT2A receptors, approximately 10-20 fold greater than the drug's binding affinity to D2 receptors [L1212, L1213, A1115].|
|DB00246||Ziprasidone||Ziprasidone (marketed as Geodon, Zeldox) is an atypical antipsychotic and gained FDA approval in 2001. Ziprasidone is Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for the treatment of schizophrenia. It may also be used to treat Bipolar I disorder as monotherapy for the acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes, or as adjunctive therapy along with lithium or valproate for maintenance. The intramuscular injection of ziprasidone is approved for acute agitation in schizophrenia. [FDA Label]|