Headaches

Also known as: Headache / Cephalgia / Cephalalgia / Head Pain / [D]Headache / Headache NOS / Pain head / Facial pain NOS

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidThe prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Acetylsalicylic acid also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine salicylate is an anti-inflammatory pain reliever agent that is related to aspirin. It is used to decrease swelling and to treat mild-moderate pain. It is used to treat arthritis in both children and adults. This medicine can also be used for fever [L2129]. Choline Salicylate is the choline salt of salicylic acid, used as an analgesic, antipyretic and antirheumatic. It relieves mild to moderate pain and reduce fever and inflammation or swelling. Choline salicylate is effective in the treatment of gout, rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis and muscle injuries [L2136]. This drug is also a main ingredient in teething gels to relieve pains associated with tooth growth in the infant population [L2134]. The UK government has regulated its use, due to toxicity in those under 16 years of age. Topical oral salicylate gels are no longer indicated for people younger than 16 years for pain associated with infant teething, orthodontic devices, cold sores, or mouth ulcers [L2134].
DB04272Citric AcidA key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
DB11278DL-MethylephedrineMethylephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine that appears in various over-the-counter cough and cold medications throughout the world [L2838], [L2839], [L2840]. The abuse of methylephedrine-containing medications has been reported in Japan. Methylephedrine is not legally available in the United States, but has been identified in cases of drug abuse [L2836].
DB01050IbuprofenIbuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) derived from propionic acid and it is considered the first of the propionics.[A39074] The formula of ibuprofen is 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid and its initial development was in 1960 while researching for a safer alternative for aspirin.[A39075] Ibuprofen was finally patented in 1961 and this drug was first launched against rheumatoid arthritis in the UK in 1969 and USA in 1974. It was the first available over-the-counter NSAID.[A39076] On the available products, ibuprofen is administered as a racemic mixture. Once administered, the R-enantiomer undergoes extensive interconversion to the S-enantiomer _in vivo_ by the activity of the alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase. The S-enantiomer is believed to be the more pharmacologically active enantiomer.[A39194]
DB00788NaproxenAn anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidSerum albumincarrier
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidAldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1target
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidSolute carrier family 22 member 7transporter
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acid5'-AMP-activated protein kinasetarget
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidEndothelin-1 receptortarget
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidInhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit betatarget
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidCellular tumor antigen p53target
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acid78 kDa glucose-regulated proteintarget
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidRibosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-3target
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidNF-kappa-B inhibitor alphatarget
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidNuclear factor NF-kappa-Btarget
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase Btarget
DB14006Choline salicylateAcetylcholinesterasetarget
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase Atarget
DB14006Choline salicylatePhospholipase D2target
DB14006Choline salicylateCholinesterasetarget
DB14006Choline salicylatePhospholipase D1target
DB14006Choline salicylatePhosphoethanolamine/phosphocholine phosphatasetarget
DB14006Choline salicylateSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine/ethanolaminephosphotransferase 1enzyme
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine transporter-like protein 1transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine transporter-like protein 4transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine transporter-like protein 2transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine transporter-like protein 3transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine/ethanolamine kinaseenzyme
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine O-acetyltransferaseenzyme
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine kinase alphaenzyme
DB14006Choline salicylateCholine dehydrogenase, mitochondrialenzyme
DB14006Choline salicylateHigh affinity choline transporter 1transporter
DB14006Choline salicylateNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
DB04272Citric AcidCell division protein FtsZtarget
DB04272Citric AcidAngiogenintarget
DB04272Citric AcidBeta-lactamase 2target
DB04272Citric AcidUridine-cytidine kinase 2target
DB04272Citric AcidTumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 13Btarget
DB04272Citric AcidBetaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1target
DB04272Citric AcidTryptophan--tRNA ligasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidAldose reductasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidCitrate synthase, mitochondrialtarget
DB04272Citric AcidHeparan sulfate glucosamine 3-O-sulfotransferase 3A1target
DB04272Citric AcidcGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidProto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Srctarget
DB04272Citric AcidRibonuclease pancreatictarget
DB04272Citric AcidIsocitrate dehydrogenase [NADP]target
DB04272Citric AcidGlycine N-methyltransferasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidEosinophil cationic proteintarget
DB04272Citric AcidBeta-lactamasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidMolybdenum cofactor guanylyltransferasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidFumarate hydratase class IItarget
DB04272Citric Acid6-phosphogluconolactonasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidOxygen-insensitive NAD(P)H nitroreductasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidGag-Pro-Pol polyproteintarget
DB04272Citric AcidL-amino-acid oxidasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidMacrophage migration inhibitory factortarget
DB04272Citric AcidCarboxy-terminal domain RNA polymerase II polypeptide A small phosphatase 1target
DB04272Citric Acid1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidTryptophan synthase alpha chaintarget
DB04272Citric AcidSialidasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidKHG/KDPG aldolasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidCytochrome c peroxidasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidHepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substratetarget
DB04272Citric AcidInvasintarget
DB04272Citric AcidIntron-associated endonuclease 1target
DB04272Citric AcidShort tail fiber proteintarget
DB04272Citric AcidMalate dehydrogenase, mitochondrialtarget
DB04272Citric AcidN5-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide mutasetarget
DB04272Citric Acid50S ribosomal protein L4target
DB04272Citric AcidCarboxypeptidase Btarget
DB04272Citric AcidHexon proteintarget
DB04272Citric AcidRiboflavin biosynthesis protein RibFtarget
DB04272Citric AcidBeta-fructosidasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidPutative stringent starvation protein Atarget
DB04272Citric AcidCitrate synthasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidRNA 3'-terminal phosphate cyclasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidU6 snRNA-associated Sm-like protein LSm6target
DB04272Citric AcidPleckstrin homology domain-containing family A member 1target
DB04272Citric AcidFe(3+)-binding periplasmic proteintarget
DB04272Citric AcidSignal recognition particle receptor FtsYtarget
DB04272Citric AcidNicotinate-nucleotide adenylyltransferasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidN utilization substance protein B homologtarget
DB04272Citric AcidComplement component C8 gamma chaintarget
DB04272Citric AcidRibonucleoside-diphosphate reductase subunit betatarget
DB04272Citric AcidGlutamine synthetase 1target
DB04272Citric AcidCitrate synthasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidProstaglandin F synthasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidAdenine phosphoribosyltransferasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidGlucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidGlyoxalase family proteintarget
DB04272Citric AcidLaccase domain protein YfiHtarget
DB04272Citric AcidRibose-5-phosphate isomerase Atarget
DB04272Citric AcidGMP synthase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]target
DB04272Citric AcidInosine triphosphate pyrophosphatasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidLysozymetarget
DB04272Citric AcidGlycerol uptake operon antiterminator regulatory proteintarget
DB04272Citric Acid3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidPyruvate decarboxylasetarget
DB04272Citric AcidSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB11278DL-MethylephedrineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB11278DL-MethylephedrineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB11278DL-MethylephedrineAlpha adrenergic receptortarget
DB11278DL-MethylephedrineBeta adrenergic receptortarget
DB01050IbuprofenProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB01050IbuprofenProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB01050IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenSerum albumincarrier
DB01050IbuprofenMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB01050IbuprofenMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB01050IbuprofenMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenApoptosis regulator Bcl-2target
DB01050IbuprofenThrombomodulintarget
DB01050IbuprofenFatty acid-binding protein, intestinaltarget
DB01050IbuprofenPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB01050IbuprofenCystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatortarget
DB01050IbuprofenPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
DB01050IbuprofenPlatelet glycoprotein Ib alpha chaintarget
DB01050IbuprofenProtein S100-A7target
DB01050IbuprofenAlpha-methylacyl-CoA racemaseenzyme
DB00788NaproxenProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB00788NaproxenProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00788NaproxenSerum albumincarrier
DB00788NaproxenCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00788NaproxenCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00788NaproxenSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00788NaproxenSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00788NaproxenCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00788NaproxenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00788NaproxenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00788NaproxenPeptostreptococcal albumin-binding proteintarget
DB00788NaproxenBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00788NaproxenMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB01240Epoprostenol1Terminated1
DB14007Pentetic acid1 / 2Terminated1
DB00457Prazosin1 / 2Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium Chloride1 / 2Completed1
DB09145Water1 / 2Completed1
DB00321Amitriptyline2Recruiting1
DB00297Bupivacaine2Completed1
DB09157Carbon dioxide2Completed1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine2Completed1
DB12158Filorexant2Completed1
DB00273Topiramate2Completed1
DB00273Topiramate2Terminated1
DB00653Magnesium sulfate2 / 3Withdrawn1
DB01233Metoclopramide2 / 3Withdrawn1
DB00316Acetaminophen3Terminated1
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acid3Terminated1
DB00321Amitriptyline3Terminated1
DB00321Amitriptyline3Unknown Status1
DB00083Botulinum toxin type A3Completed1
DB00297Bupivacaine3Completed1
DB00201Caffeine3Unknown Status1
DB01234Dexamethasone3Completed1
DB01234Dexamethasone3Terminated1
DB01075Diphenhydramine3Completed1
DB01050Ibuprofen3Unknown Status1
DB01221Ketamine3Completed1
DB01221Ketamine3Terminated1
DB00465Ketorolac3Completed1
DB01233Metoclopramide3Completed1
DB00788Naproxen3Withdrawn2
DB00952Naratriptan3Withdrawn2
DB06614Peramivir3Completed1
DB06614Peramivir3Terminated1
DB00860Prednisolone3Completed1
DB00433Prochlorperazine3Terminated1
DB00571Propranolol3Completed1
DB00669Sumatriptan3Completed1
DB00273Topiramate3Completed4
DB00273Topiramate3Terminated1
DB00316Acetaminophen4Completed1
DB00316Acetaminophen4Enrolling by Invitation1
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acid4Completed1
DB00321Amitriptyline4Terminated1
DB00297Bupivacaine4Recruiting1
DB01234Dexamethasone4Recruiting1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine4Recruiting1
DB01075Diphenhydramine4Completed1
DB01075Diphenhydramine4Recruiting1
DB01628Etoricoxib4Completed1
DB01628Etoricoxib4Unknown Status1
DB00813Fentanyl4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00502Haloperidol4Completed1
DB01050Ibuprofen4Completed1
DB01221Ketamine4Completed1
DB00465Ketorolac4Completed1
DB00465Ketorolac4Enrolling by Invitation1
DB01233Metoclopramide4Completed1
DB00334Olanzapine4Completed1
DB00904Ondansetron4Completed1
DB00230Pregabalin4Withdrawn1
DB00433Prochlorperazine4Completed1
DB00433Prochlorperazine4Recruiting1
DB00818Propofol4Recruiting1
DB00571Propranolol4Terminated1
DB00852Pseudoephedrine4Completed1
DB09153Sodium Chloride4Completed1
DB09153Sodium Chloride4Recruiting1
DB08816Ticagrelor4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00273Topiramate4Completed1
DB00273Topiramate4Terminated1
DB00620Triamcinolone4Recruiting1
DB00316AcetaminophenNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00316AcetaminophenNot AvailableEnrolling by Invitation1
DB00819AcetazolamideNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00802AlfentanilNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01238AripiprazoleNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00181BaclofenNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00083Botulinum toxin type ANot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00083Botulinum toxin type ANot AvailableCompleted1
DB00297BupivacaineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB06774CapsaicinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00411CarbamoylcholineNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00438CeftazidimeNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00369CidofovirNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00537CiprofloxacinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00363ClozapineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00318CodeineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00924CyclobenzaprineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01234DexamethasoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00829DiazepamNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00586DiclofenacNot AvailableCompleted1
DB12789DinoprostNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00917DinoprostoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01075DiphenhydramineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00668EpinephrineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01240EpoprostenolNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00977EthinylestradiolNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00712FlurbiprofenNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01320FosphenytoinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00996GabapentinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00502HaloperidolNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01109HeparinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00327HydromorphoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01050IbuprofenNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01050IbuprofenNot AvailableEnrolling by Invitation1
DB01592IronNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01221KetamineNot AvailableCompleted2
DB01202LevetiracetamNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00825LevomentholNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00281LidocaineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB08815LurasidoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB09337Medical airNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00814MeloxicamNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00760MeropenemNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00959MethylprednisoloneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01233MetoclopramideNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00683MidazolamNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01618MolindoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00295MorphineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00622NicardipineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00717NorethisteroneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00334OlanzapineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00198OseltamivirNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB09140OxygenNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00652PentazocineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00312PentobarbitalNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00750PrilocaineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00818PropofolNot AvailableRecruiting2
DB01224QuetiapineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00734RisperidoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00533RofecoxibNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00296RopivacaineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01236SevofluraneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB09153Sodium ChlorideNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00669SumatriptanNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00373TimololNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00697TizanidineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00684TobramycinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00273TopiramateNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00273TopiramateNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00273TopiramateNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB00313Valproic AcidNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00682WarfarinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01593ZincNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00246ZiprasidoneNot AvailableRecruiting1