Advanced Breast Cancer

Also known as: Malignant neoplasm of breast / Malignant breast neoplasm / Breast cancer / Breast tumor malignant / Breast tumour malignant / Breast cancer NOS / Breast cancer stage unspecified / Ca breast

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB12001AbemaciclibAbemaciclib is an antitumor agent and dual inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 (CDK4) and 6 (CDK6) that are involved in the cell cycle and promotion of cancer cell growth in case of unregulated activity. On September 28, 2017, FDA granted approval of abemaciclib treatment under the market name Verzenio for the treatment of HR-positive and HER2-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer that has progressed after unsuccessful endocrine therapy. It is either given alone in patients who has undergone endocrine therapy and chemotherapy after the metastasis of cancer, or in combination with [DB00947]. Following oral treatment in patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, abemaciclib demonstrated increased progression-free survival rates and objective response rates. Abemaciclib has been used in trials studying the treatment of melanoma, lymphoma, neoplasm, solid tumor, and glioblastoma.
DB00014GoserelinGoserelin is a synthetic hormone. In men, it stops the production of the hormone testosterone, which may stimulate the growth of cancer cells. In women, goserelin decreases the production of the hormone estradiol (which may stimulate the growth of cancer cells) to levels similar to a postmenopausal state. When the medication is stopped, hormone levels return to normal.
DB01006LetrozoleLetrozole (INN, trade name Femara®) is an oral non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor that has been introduced for the adjuvant treatment of hormonally-responsive breast cancer Estrogens are produced by the conversion of androgens through the activity of the aromatase enzyme. Letrozole blocks production of estrogens in this way by competitive, reversible binding to the heme of its cytochrome P450 unit. The action is specific, and letrozole does not reduce production of mineralo- or corticosteroids. In contrast, the antiestrogenic action of tamoxifen, the major medical therapy prior to the arrival of aromatase inhibitors, is due to its interfering with the estrogen receptor, rather than inhibiting estrogen production. Letrozole is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of local or metastatic breast cancer that is hormone receptor positive or has an unknown receptor status in postmenopausal women. Side effects include signs and symptoms of hypoestrogenism. There is concern that long term use may lead to osteoporosis, which is why prescriptions of Letrozole are often accompanied by prescriptions of osteoporosis-fighting medication such as Fosamax. Letrozole has shown to reduce estrogen levels by 98 percent while raising testosterone levels. The anti-estrogen action of letrozole is preferred by athletes and bodybuilders for use during a steroid cycle to reduce bloating due to excess water retention and prevent the formation of gynecomastia related breast tissue that is a side effect of some anabolic steroids. Usage above 2.5 mg/day is known to potentially temporarily kill sex drive. Above 5mg/day for extended periods may cause kidney problems. Letrozole has also been shown to delay the fusing of the growth plates in adolescents. This may boost the effectiveness of growth hormone, and thus Letrozole is used to treat adolescents and children with short stature.
DB00351Megestrol acetate17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregna-3,6-diene-3,20-dione. A progestational hormone used most commonly as the acetate ester. As the acetate, it is more potent than progesterone both as a progestagen and as an ovulation inhibitor. It has also been used in the palliative treatment of breast cancer.
DB09073PalbociclibPalbociclib is an oral, reversible, selective, small-molecule inhibitor of CDK4 and CDK6 indicated in combination with letrozole for the treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer as initial endocrine-based therapy for their metastatic disease. CDK4 and CDK6 along with their regulatory partner cyclin D1 play a key role in regulating the G1- to S-phase cell-cycle transition via regulation of phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Inhibition of these proteins leads to reduced phosphorylation of Rb, inhibition of downstream signalling, and increased tumor growth arrest. Palbociclib received an accelerated approval from the Food and Drug Administration on February 3, 2015.
DB11730RibociclibRibociclib is a selective cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, a class of drugs that help slow the progression of cancer by inhibiting two proteins called cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6). These proteins, when over-activated, can enable cancer cells to grow and divide too quickly. Targeting CDK4/6 with enhanced precision may play a role in ensuring that cancer cells do not continue to replicate uncontrollably. Ribociclib was approved by the U.S. FDA in March, 2017 as Kisqali.
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB01262Decitabine1Active Not Recruiting1
DB01248Docetaxel1Active Not Recruiting1
DB00947Fulvestrant1Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01006Letrozole1Active Not Recruiting1
DB09074Olaparib1Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01229Paclitaxel1Active Not Recruiting1
DB09073Palbociclib1Active Not Recruiting1
DB09073Palbociclib1Not Yet Recruiting1
DB09143Sonidegib1Active Not Recruiting1
DB05773Trastuzumab emtansine1Recruiting1
DB08916Afatinib1 / 2Recruiting1
DB01006Letrozole1 / 2Recruiting1
DB11828Neratinib1 / 2Completed2
DB11793Niraparib1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB01229Paclitaxel1 / 2Completed1
DB09037Pembrolizumab1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB12275Seviteronel1 / 2Recruiting1
DB11760Talazoparib1 / 2Recruiting1
DB00072Trastuzumab1 / 2Completed1
DB01101Capecitabine2Unknown Status1
DB00515Cisplatin2Unknown Status1
DB08899Enzalutamide2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00947Fulvestrant2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00072Trastuzumab2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00947Fulvestrant3Active Not Recruiting1
DB00441Gemcitabine3Unknown Status1
DB01229Paclitaxel3Unknown Status1
DB11730Ribociclib3Active Not Recruiting1
DB01217AnastrozoleNot AvailableCompleted1
DB08871EribulinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB09073PalbociclibNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01268SunitinibNot AvailableCompleted1