Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD)

Also known as: Social anxiety disorder / Social phobia, unspecified / Phobic anxiety / Social phobia / Phobia, Social

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00215CitalopramCitalopram belongs to a class of antidepressant agents known as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In spite of structural differences between compounds in this class, the SSRIs possess similar pharmacological activity. As with other antidepressant agents, several weeks of therapy may be indicated before a clinical effect is noticed. SSRIs are potent inhibitors of serotonin reuptake in the neurons. They have little to no effect on norepinephrine or dopamine reuptake and do not antagonize α- or β-adrenergic, dopamine D2 or histamine H1 receptors. During acute usage, SSRIs inhibit serotonin reuptake and increase serotonin stimulation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. Chronic use leads to desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. The general clinical effect of increased mood and decreased anxiety is thought to be due to adaptive changes in neuronal function that leads to enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission. Side effects include dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, sexual dysfunction, and headache. Side effects generally occur within the first two weeks of therapy and are usually less severe and frequent than those observed with tricyclic antidepressants. Citalopram is approved for treatment of depression. Unlabeled indications include mild dementia-associated agitation in nonpsychotic patients, smoking cessation, ethanol abuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children, and diabetic neuropathy [A325, FDA label].
DB00996GabapentinGabapentin (brand name Neurontin) is a medication originally developed for the treatment of epilepsy. Presently, gabapentin is widely used to relieve pain, especially neuropathic pain. Gabapentin is well tolerated in most patients, has a relatively mild side-effect profile, and passes through the body unmetabolized.
DB00715ParoxetineParoxetine hydrochloride and paroxetine mesylate belong to a class of antidepressant agents known as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Despite distinct structural differences between compounds in this class, SSRIs possess similar pharmacological activity. As with other antidepressant agents, several weeks of therapy may be required before a clinical effect is seen. SSRIs are potent inhibitors of neuronal serotonin reuptake. They have little to no effect on norepinephrine or dopamine reuptake and do not antagonize ⍺- or β-adrenergic, dopamine D2 or histamine H1 receptors. During acute use, SSRIs block serotonin reuptake and increase serotonin stimulation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. Chronic use leads to desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. The overall clinical effect of increased mood and decreased anxiety is thought to be due to adaptive changes in neuronal function that leads to enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission. Side effects include dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, sexual dysfunction and headache (see Toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects). Side effects generally occur during the first two weeks of therapy and are usually less severe and frequent than those observed with tricyclic antidepressants. Paroxetine hydrochloride and mesylate are considered therapeutic alternatives rather than generic equivalents by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA); both agents contain the same active moiety (i.e. paroxetine), but are formulated as different salt forms. Clinical studies establishing the efficacy of paroxetine in various conditions were performed using paroxetine hydrochloride. Since both agents contain the same active moiety, the clinical efficacy of both agents is thought to be similar. Paroxetine may be used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety disorder (social phobia), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Paroxetine has the most evidence supporting its use for anxiety-related disorders of the SSRIs. It has the greatest anticholinergic activity of the agents in this class and compared to other SSRIs, paroxetine may cause greater weight gain, sexual dysfunction, sedation and constipation.
DB01104SertralineSertraline hydrochloride belongs to a class of antidepressant agents known as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Despite distinct structural differences between compounds in this class, SSRIs possess similar pharmacological activity. As with other antidepressant agents, several weeks of therapy may be required before a clinical effect is seen. SSRIs are potent inhibitors of neuronal serotonin reuptake [T28]. They have little to no effect on norepinephrine or dopamine reuptake and do not antagonize α- or β-adrenergic, dopamine D2 or histamine H1 receptors. During acute use, SSRIs block serotonin reuptake and increase serotonin stimulation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. Chronic use leads to desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. The overall clinical effect of increased mood and decreased anxiety is thought to be due to adaptive changes in neuronal function that leads to enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission. Side effects include dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, sexual dysfunction and headache (see Toxicity section below for a more detailed listing of side effects). Compared to other agents in this class, sertraline may cause greater diarrheal and male sexual dysfunction effects [A1844]. Sertraline displays a better safety or tolerability profile than other classes of antidepressants [A1846]. Side effects generally occur within the first two weeks of therapy and are usually less severe and frequent than those observed with tricyclic antidepressants or monoamine oxidase inhibitors [T28]. Sertraline has shown therapeutic effectiveness as a treatment for major depressive disorder [A1836], obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) [A1838], panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) [A1841], premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) [A1842] and social anxiety disorder (social phobia).
DB00285VenlafaxineVenlafaxine (Effexor) is an antidepressant of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class first introduced by Wyeth in 1993. It is prescribed for the treatment of clinical depression and anxiety disorders. Due to the pronounced side effects and suspicions that venlafaxine may significantly increase the risk of suicide it is not recommended as a first line treatment of depression. However, it is often effective for depression not responding to SSRIs. Venlafaxine was the sixth most widely-used antidepressant based on the amount of retail prescriptions in the US (17.1 million) in 2006. [Wikipedia]
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00215CitalopramSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00215CitalopramCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00215CitalopramCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00215CitalopramCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00215CitalopramMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00215CitalopramCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00215CitalopramCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00215CitalopramCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00215CitalopramHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00215CitalopramSodium-dependent dopamine transportertransporter
DB00215CitalopramSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertransporter
DB00215CitalopramSodium-dependent serotonin transportertransporter
DB00215CitalopramAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00215CitalopramMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00215Citalopram5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00996GabapentinAdenosine receptor A1target
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Btarget
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1target
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2target
DB00996GabapentinBranched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolicenzyme
DB00996GabapentinNMDA receptortarget
DB00996GabapentinGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1target
DB00996GabapentinGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 2target
DB00996GabapentinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00715ParoxetineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00715ParoxetineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00715Paroxetine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00715ParoxetineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00715ParoxetineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00715ParoxetineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00715ParoxetineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00715ParoxetineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB00715ParoxetineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB00715ParoxetineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00715ParoxetineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00715ParoxetineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00715ParoxetineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00715ParoxetineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00715ParoxetineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01104SertralineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB01104SertralineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01104SertralineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01104SertralineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01104SertralineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01104SertralineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB01104SertralineCYP2B proteinenzyme
DB01104SertralineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01104SertralineAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Benzyme
DB01104SertralineAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Aenzyme
DB01104SertralineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01104SertralineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01104SertralineSerum albumincarrier
DB01104SertralineSigma receptortarget
DB00285VenlafaxineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00285VenlafaxineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00285VenlafaxineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00285VenlafaxineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00285VenlafaxineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00285VenlafaxineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00285VenlafaxineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB00285VenlafaxineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00285VenlafaxineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00285VenlafaxineATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00260Cycloserine0Active Not Recruiting1
DB01221Ketamine0Active Not Recruiting1
DB01224Quetiapine0Terminated1
DB09153Sodium Chloride0Active Not Recruiting1
DB00404Alprazolam1Completed1
DB06634Casopitant1Completed1
DB12910Emicerfont1Completed1
DB00715Paroxetine1Recruiting1
DB00747Scopolamine1Recruiting1
DB00107Oxytocin1 / 2Completed1
DB00260Cycloserine2Withdrawn1
DB12910Emicerfont2Completed1
DB01175Escitalopram2Completed1
DB00715Paroxetine2Completed4
DB01104Sertraline2Completed1
DB11949Vestipitant2Completed2
DB00246Ziprasidone2Completed1
DB01224Quetiapine2 / 3Completed1
DB00260Cycloserine3Completed1
DB04968PH94B3Completed1
DB00715Paroxetine3Completed1
DB01224Quetiapine3Completed1
DB01224Quetiapine3Terminated1
DB00285Venlafaxine3Completed1
DB01392Yohimbine3Completed1
DB00659Acamprosate4Completed1
DB01238Aripiprazole4Completed1
DB00260Cycloserine4Completed1
DB06700Desvenlafaxine4Completed1
DB01175Escitalopram4Completed1
DB01175Escitalopram4Recruiting1
DB01149Nefazodone4Completed1
DB00715Paroxetine4Completed1
DB00571Propranolol4Active Not Recruiting1
DB01224Quetiapine4Completed1
DB00906Tiagabine4Completed1
DB09068Vortioxetine4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00476DuloxetineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB01175EscitalopramNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB00472FluoxetineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00715ParoxetineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB01224QuetiapineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00285VenlafaxineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB06684VilazodoneNot AvailableUnknown Status1