Respiratory Depression

Also known as: Lung function decreased / Lung function decreased (NOS) / Function pulmonary decreased / Respiration depressed / Depression respiratory / Decreased respiration

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB01010EdrophoniumA rapid-onset, short-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used in cardiac arrhythmias and in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It has also been used as an antidote to curare principles.
DB01183NaloxoneNaloxone is an opioid antagonist medication used to block or reverse the effects of opioid drugs, particularly within the setting of drug overdoses which are rapidly becoming a leading cause of death worldwide. More specifically, naloxone has a high affinity for μ-opioid receptors, where it acts as an inverse agonist, causing the rapid removal of any other drugs bound to these receptors. When taken in large quantities, opioid medications such as morphine, hydromorphone, methadone, heroin, or fentanyl are capable of causing life-threatening symptoms such as respiratory depression, reduced heart rate, slurred speech, drowsiness, and constricted pupils. If untreated, this can progress to vomiting, absent pulse and breathing, loss of consciousness, and even death. Naloxone is indicated for the rapid reversal of these symptoms of central nervous system depression in opioid overdose. It's important to note that naloxone only works on opioid receptors within the body, and is therefore not capable of reversing the effects of non-opioid medications such as stimulants like methamphetamine or cocaine, or benzodiazepines like lorazepam or diazepam. Also known as the brand name product Narcan, naloxone is currently available by intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous (SubQ) injection, nasal spray, or intravenous (IV) infusion. Naloxone IM injections are commonly available in the form of "kits", which is ideal for making overdose treatment accessible and readily available for administration by minimally trained individuals within the community. Kits commonly include the supplies necessary to treat an overdose in a non-medical setting such as alcohol swabs, syringes, a rescue breathing mask, and instructions for use. Frequently also carried by medical and emergency personnel and at events known to be associated with heavy drug use like music festivals, naloxone kits are considered a key component of harm reduction strategies. When injected intramuscularly (IM), naloxone acts within 3-5 minutes and can last from 30-60 minutes before its effects wear off. Administration of naloxone is associated with very few side effects. Notably, if injected into a person not currently using opioid medications, there would be no noticeable effects at all. However, for individuals using opioid medications or experiencing an overdose, IM injection of naloxone rapidly reverses opioid effects and can cause the injected individual to immediately experience withdrawal symptoms. Common symptoms of opioid withdrawal include nausea, vomiting, sweating, runny nose, aches, and diarrhea. Although certainly physically uncomfortable, opioid withdrawal symptoms are not life-threatening like they are for alcohol withdrawals. Administration of naloxone is therefore appropriate for any person appearing to have any symptoms of an opioid overdose. Due to its short duration of action, person's injected with naloxone should be monitored for responsiveness and potentially injected a second time or taken to the hospital. Naloxone is also available within the combination product Suboxone with the opioid medication buprenorphine. Suboxone is used for the maintentance treatment of opioid dependence and addiction. When taken orally, naloxone has no pharmacological effect and does not reduce the effectiveness of the opioid effect of buprenorphine. The primary purpose of including naloxone within Suboxone is to act as a deterrent to injection, as injected naloxone would rapidly reverse the effects of buprenorphine.
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB09157Carbon dioxide1Recruiting1
DB09140Oxygen1Recruiting1
DB00899Remifentanil1Recruiting1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine1 / 2Completed1
DB00295Morphine2Completed1
DB00316Acetaminophen3Recruiting1
DB01234Dexamethasone3Recruiting1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine3Recruiting1
DB00813Fentanyl3Recruiting1
DB00996Gabapentin3Recruiting1
DB01221Ketamine3Recruiting1
DB00281Lidocaine3Recruiting1
DB00904Ondansetron3Recruiting1
DB01236Sevoflurane3Recruiting1
DB01183Naloxone4Completed1
DB00296Ropivacaine4Completed1
DB09153Sodium chloride4Completed1
DB00813FentanylNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB00327HydromorphoneNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00295MorphineNot AvailableTerminated1