Pulmonary Embolism (PE)

Also known as: Pulmonary Embolism / Embolism, Pulmonary / PE / Pulmonary Embolus / Embolus pulmonary / Embolism lung / Acute pulmonary embolism NOS / Embolism pulmonary

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB01418AcenocoumarolAcenocoumarol is a coumarin derivative used as an anticoagulant. Coumarin derivatives inhibit the reduction of vitamin K by vitamin K reductase. This prevents carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors, II, VII, IX and X, and interferes with coagulation. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, international normalized ratio and liver panel should be monitored. Patients on acenocoumarol are prohibited from giving blood.
DB06605ApixabanApixaban is an oral, direct, and highly selective factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor (of both free and prothrombinase-bound FXa independently of antithrombin III) for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases. It is marketed under the name Eliquis. FDA approved on December 28, 2012.
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateDabigatran etexilate is an oral prodrug that is metabolized by a serum esterase to [dabigatran]. It is a synthetic, competitive and reversible direct thrombin inhibitor. Inhibition of thrombin disrupts the coagulation cascade and inhibits the formation of clots. Dabigatran etexilate may be used to decrease the risk of venous thromboembolic events in patients who have undergone total hip or knee replacement surgery, or to prevent stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation, in whom anticoagulation therapy is indicated. In contrast to warfarin, because its anticoagulant effects are predictable, lab monitoring is not necessary. FDA approved on October 19, 2010.
DB09255DextranDextran is a polysaccharide that differs from others in that its glucose units are joined together 1:6 glucoside links. The main chain of glucose has short branches at frequent intervals which are probably joined by 1:3 and 1:4 glucoside links. The chains can be composed of about 200,000 glucose units.[A32011] Many bacteria, like _Leuconostoc_, can synthesize dextran from sucrose, and this activity is used commercially to obtain dextran.[T121] Dextran 40 is a sterile, nonpyrogenic preparation of low molecular weight dextran (average mol. wt. 40,000) in 5% Dextrose Injection or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection. It is administered by intravenous infusion. Dextran 75 is a complex branched glucan with an average molecular weight 75000 Daltons. It is produced from certain bacteria that with α-1,6 glycosidic linkages between glucose molecules and α-1,3 linkages between branches. When labelled with technetium Tc99m, dextran 75 is intravenously administered as an imaging agent to detect and diagnose conditions in the vascular compartment such as pericardial effusion or ventricular aneurysm.
DB00320DihydroergotamineA 9,10alpha-dihydro derivative of ergotamine. It is used as a vasoconstrictor, specifically for the therapy of migraine disorders.
DB09075EdoxabanEdoxaban is a member of the Novel Oral Anti-Coagulants (NOACs) class of drugs, and is a rapidly acting, oral, selective factor Xa inhibitor. By inhibiting factor Xa, a key protein in the coagulation cascade, edoxaban prevents the stepwise amplification of protein factors needed to form blood clots. It is indicated to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism (SE) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) following 5-10 days of initial therapy with a parenteral anticoagulant. Traditionally, warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, was used for stroke prevention in these individuals but effective use of this drug is limited by it's delayed onset, narrow therapeutic window, need for regular monitoring and INR testing, and numerous drug-drug and drug-food interactions. This has prompted enthusiasm for newer agents such as dabigatran, apixaban, and rivaroxaban for effective clot prevention. In addition to once daily dosing, the benefits over warfarin also include significant reductions in hemorrhagic stroke and GI bleeding, and improved compliance, which is beneficial as many patients will be on lifelong therapy.
DB01109HeparinUnfractionated heparin (UH) is a heterogenous preparation of anionic, sulfated glycosaminoglycan polymers with weights ranging from 3000 to 30,000 Da. It is a naturally occurring anticoagulant released from mast cells. It binds reversibly to antithrombin III (ATIII) and greatly accelerates the rate at which ATIII inactivates coagulation enzymes thrombin (factor IIa) and factor Xa. UH is different from low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in the following ways: the average molecular weight of LMWH is about 4.5 kDa whereas it is 15 kDa for UH; UH requires continuous infusions; activated partial prothrombin time (aPTT) monitoring is required when using UH; and UH has a higher risk of bleeding and higher risk of osteoporosis in long term use. Unfractionated heparin is more specific than LMWH for thrombin. Furthermore, the effects of UH can typically be reversed by using protamine sulfate.
DB08813NadroparinNadroparin is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) which, when bound to antithrombin III (ATIII), accelerates the inactivation of factor II and factor Xa. Nadroparin halts the coagulation pathway by inhibiting the activation of thrombin (factor IIa) by factor Xa. The amplification of the fibrin clotting cascade is stopped once factors Xa and IIa are inactivated. It is derived from porcine sources and has a mean molecular size of 5000 daltons. Low molecular weight heparins are less effective at inactivating factor IIa due to their shorter length compared to unfractionated heparin.
DB06228RivaroxabanRivaroxaban is an anticoagulant and the first orally active direct factor Xa inhibitor. Unlike warfarin, routine lab monitoring of INR is not necessary. However there is no antidote available in the event of a major bleed. Only the 10 mg tablet can be taken without regard to food. The 15 mg and 20 mg tablet should be taken with food. FDA approved on July 1, 2011.
DB00682WarfarinWarfarin is an anticoagulant drug normally used to prevent blood clot formation as well as migration. Although originally marketed as a pesticide (d-Con, Rodex, among others), Warfarin has since become the most frequently prescribed oral anticoagulant in North America. Warfarin has several properties that should be noted when used medicinally, including its ability to cross the placental barrier during pregnancy which can result in fetal bleeding, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Additional adverse effects such as necrosis, purple toe syndrome, osteoporosis, valve and artery calcification, and drug interactions have also been documented with warfarin use. Warfarin does not actually affect blood viscosity, rather, it inhibits vitamin-k dependent synthesis of biologically active forms of various clotting factors in addition to several regulatory factors.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB01418AcenocoumarolVitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1target
DB01418AcenocoumarolCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01418AcenocoumarolCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01418AcenocoumarolSerum albumincarrier
DB01418AcenocoumarolAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB01418AcenocoumarolCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01418AcenocoumarolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB06605ApixabanCoagulation factor Xtarget
DB06605ApixabanCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB06605ApixabanCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB06605ApixabanCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB06605ApixabanCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB06605ApixabanCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB06605ApixabanCytochrome P450 2J2enzyme
DB06605ApixabanMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB06605ApixabanATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB06605ApixabanCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateProthrombintarget
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateLiver carboxylesterase 1enzyme
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateCocaine esteraseenzyme
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15enzyme
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateRibosyldihydronicotinamide dehydrogenase [quinone]enzyme
DB00320Dihydroergotamine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Dtarget
DB00320Dihydroergotamine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Btarget
DB00320DihydroergotamineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00320DihydroergotamineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00320Dihydroergotamine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Btarget
DB00320DihydroergotamineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB09075EdoxabanCoagulation factor Xtarget
DB09075EdoxabanMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01109HeparinCoagulation factor Xtarget
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor receptor 4target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor 4target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor 19target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor receptor 1target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor 1target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor receptor 2target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor 2target
DB01109HeparinPlatelet factor 4target
DB01109HeparinHepatocyte growth factortarget
DB01109HeparinThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB08813NadroparinProto-oncogene c-Fostarget
DB08813NadroparinMyc proto-oncogene proteintarget
DB06228RivaroxabanCoagulation factor Xtarget
DB06228RivaroxabanCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB06228RivaroxabanCytochrome P450 2J2enzyme
DB06228RivaroxabanMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB06228RivaroxabanCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB06228RivaroxabanATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00682WarfarinVitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1target
DB00682WarfarinCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00682WarfarinCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00682WarfarinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00682WarfarinAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00682WarfarinSerum albumincarrier
DB00682WarfarinCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00682WarfarinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00682WarfarinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00682WarfarinCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00682WarfarinNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00556Perflutren0Not Yet Recruiting1
DB11104Sulfur hexafluoride0Not Yet Recruiting1
DB06215Ferumoxytol1Enrolling by Invitation1
DB00435Nitric Oxide1Completed1
DB06779Dalteparin1 / 2Completed1
DB00009Alteplase2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01109Heparin2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00435Nitric Oxide2Completed1
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acid2 / 3Unknown Status1
DB06605Apixaban2 / 3Completed1
DB00586Diclofenac2 / 3Terminated1
DB01225Enoxaparin2 / 3Completed1
DB00569Fondaparinux2 / 3Unknown Status1
DB11728Fondaparinux2 / 3Unknown Status1
DB01109Heparin2 / 3Unknown Status1
DB08813Nadroparin2 / 3Unknown Status1
DB00682Warfarin2 / 3Completed1
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acid3Completed2
DB00009Alteplase3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB06605Apixaban3Active Not Recruiting1
DB06695Dabigatran etexilate3Recruiting1
DB06779Dalteparin3Active Not Recruiting1
DB00031Tenecteplase3Active Not Recruiting1
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acid4Recruiting1
DB00009Alteplase4Unknown Status1
DB11121Chloroxylenol4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB06695Dabigatran etexilate4Recruiting3
DB01225Enoxaparin4Unknown Status1
DB12091Gadolinium4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB09132Gadoteric acid4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB08813Nadroparin4Unknown Status1
DB01390Sodium bicarbonate4Completed2
DB00302Tranexamic acid4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB06605ApixabanNot AvailableCompleted1
DB06605ApixabanNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB09258BemiparinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00115CyanocobalaminNot AvailableCompleted1
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB06779DalteparinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB09075EdoxabanNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01225EnoxaparinNot AvailableCompleted2
DB01225EnoxaparinNot AvailableRecruiting2
DB11728FondaparinuxNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00569FondaparinuxNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB11728FondaparinuxNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00569FondaparinuxNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00569FondaparinuxNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB11728FondaparinuxNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB06705Gadofosveset trisodiumNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01109HeparinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01109HeparinNot AvailableTerminated1
DB08813NadroparinNot AvailableCompleted2
DB06815PyrithioneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB06228RivaroxabanNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB06228RivaroxabanNot AvailableRecruiting5
DB01098RosuvastatinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00086StreptokinaseNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB06822TinzaparinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB06822TinzaparinNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00682WarfarinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00682WarfarinNot AvailableRecruiting3
DB00682WarfarinNot AvailableUnknown Status2