Calcium Nephrolithiasis

Also known as: Calcium nephrolithiasis / Nephrolithiasis / Kidney calculus / Renal lithiasis / Nephrolithiasis NOS

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00594AmilorideA pyrazine compound inhibiting sodium reabsorption through sodium channels in renal epithelial cells. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with diuretics to spare potassium loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
DB00310ChlorthalidoneChlorthalidone is a thiazide-like diuretic used for the treatment of hypertension and for management of edema caused by conditions such as heart failure or renal impairment. Chlorthalidone improves blood pressure and swelling by preventing water absorption from the kidneys through inhibition of the Na+/Cl− symporter in the distal convoluted tubule cells in the kidney. The exact mechanism of chlorthalidone's anti-hypertensive effect is under debate, however, it is thought that increased diuresis results in decreased plasma and extracellular fluid volume, decreased cardiac output and therefore overall reduction in blood pressure[A176324]. Chlorthalidone is considered first-line therapy for management of uncomplicated hypertension as there is strong evidence from meta-analyses that thiazide diuretics such as chlorthalidone reduce the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiovascular all-cause mortality in patients with hypertension[A173863]. In particular, the ALLHAT trial confirmed the role of thiazide diuretics as first-line therapy and demonstrated that chlorthalidone had a statistically significant lower incidence of stroke and heart failure when compared to [DB00722], [DB00381], or [DB00590] [A173884, A173887]. Further studies have indicated that low-dose thiazides are as good as, and in some secondary endpoints, better than β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, Calcium Channel Blockers or ARBs. Chlorthalidone has been shown to have a number of pleiotropic effects that differentiate it from other diuretics such as [DB00999]. In addition to its antihypertensive effects, chlorthalidone has also been shown to decrease platelet aggregation and vascular permeability, as well as promote angiogenesis in vitro, which is thought to be partly the result of reductions in carbonic anhydrase–dependent pathways. These pathways may play a role in chlorthalidone's cardiovascular risk reduction effects[A176330].
DB00999HydrochlorothiazideA thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It has been used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00153Ergocalciferol2 / 3Withdrawn1
DB00999Hydrochlorothiazide2 / 3Terminated1
DB11094Vitamin D2 / 3Withdrawn1
DB06792Lanthanum carbonate3Recruiting1
DB00415Ampicillin4Active Not Recruiting1
DB01212Ceftriaxone4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00798Gentamicin4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00698Nitrofurantoin4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00820Tadalafil4Enrolling by Invitation1
DB00706Tamsulosin4Enrolling by Invitation1
DB00302Tranexamic acid4Recruiting1
DB00512Vancomycin4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00802AlfentanilNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00415AmpicillinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00687FludrocortisoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00695FurosemideNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00798GentamicinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00698NitrofurantoinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00706TamsulosinNot AvailableCompleted1