Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

Also known as: Atrial Fibrillation / Nonvalvular atrial fibrtillation / Afib / NonValvular Atrial Fibrillation / Atrial Fibrillations / Atrial Fibrillation (AF) / Fibrillation, Atrial / Fibrillations, Atrial / Auricular fibrillation / Fibrillation atrial / AF

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB01418AcenocoumarolAcenocoumarol is a coumarin derivative used as an anticoagulant. Coumarin derivatives inhibit the reduction of vitamin K by vitamin K reductase. This prevents carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors, II, VII, XI and X, and interferes with coagulation. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, international normalized ratio and liver panel should be monitored. Patients on acenocoumarol are prohibited from giving blood.
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidThe prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Acetylsalicylic acid also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
DB01118AmiodaroneAn antianginal and antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting Na,K-activated myocardial adenosine triphosphatase. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.
DB06605ApixabanApixaban is an oral, direct, and highly selective factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor (of both free and prothrombinase-bound FXa independently of antithrombin III) for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases. It is marketed under the name Eliquis. FDA approved on December 28, 2012.
DB00612BisoprololBisoprolol is a cardioselective β1-adrenergic blocking agent used for secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, angina pectoris and mild to moderate hypertension. Bisoprolol is structurally similar to metoprolol, acebutolol and atenolol in that it has two substituents in the para position of the benzene ring. The β1-selectivity of these agents is thought to be due in part to the large substituents in the para position. At lower doses (less than 20 mg daily), bisoprolol selectively blocks cardiac β1-adrenergic receptors with little activity against β2-adrenergic receptors of the lungs and vascular smooth muscle. Receptor selectivity decreases with daily doses of 20 mg or greater. Unlike propranolol and pindolol, bisoprolol does not exhibit membrane-stabilizing or sympathomimetic activity. Bisoprolol possesses a single chiral centre and is administered as a racemic mixture. Only l-bisoprolol exhibits significant β-blocking activity.
DB01136CarvedilolCarvedilol is a non-selective beta blocker indicated in the treatment of mild to moderate congestive heart failure (CHF). It blocks beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors as well as the alpha-1 adrenergic receptors.
DB00758ClopidogrelClopidogrel, an antiplatelet agent structurally and pharmacologically similar to ticlopidine, is used to inhibit blood clots in a variety of conditions such as peripheral vascular disease, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Clopidogrel is sold under the name Plavix by Sanofi and Bristol-Myers Squibb. The drug is an irreversible inhibitor of the P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor found on the membranes of platelet cells. Clopidogrel use is associated with several serious adverse drug reactions such as severe neutropenia, various forms of hemorrhage, and cardiovascular edema.
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateDabigatran etexilate is an oral prodrug that is metabolized by a serum esterase to dabigatran. It is a synthetic, competitive and reversible direct thrombin inhibitor. Inhibition of thrombin disrupts the coagulation cascade and inhibits the formation of clots. Dabigatran etexilate may be used to decrease the risk of venous thromboembolic events in patients who have undergone total hip or knee replacement surgery, or to prevent stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation, in whom anticoagulation therapy is indicated. In contrast to warfarin, because its anticoagulant effects are predictable, lab monitoring is not necessary. FDA approved on October 19, 2010.
DB00343DiltiazemA benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of the calcium ion in membrane functions. It is also teratogenic.
DB04855DronedaroneDronedarone is a sinus rhythm controller for management of paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation. Classified as a Class III antiarrhythmic but displays properties of all four Vaughan-Williams classes, dronedarone blocks a multitude of channels (sodium, potassium, calcium), and demonstrates antiadrenergic properties. Chemically, it is a benzofuran derivative. FDA approved on July 1, 2009.
DB09075EdoxabanEdoxaban is a member of the Novel Oral Anti-Coagulants (NOACs) class of drugs, and is a rapidly acting, oral, selective factor Xa inhibitor. By inhibiting factor Xa, a key protein in the coagulation cascade, edoxaban prevents the stepwise amplification of protein factors needed to form blood clots. It is indicated to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism (SE) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) following 5-10 days of initial therapy with a parenteral anticoagulant. Traditionally, warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, was used for stroke prevention in these individuals but effective use of this drug is limited by it's delayed onset, narrow therapeutic window, need for regular monitoring and INR testing, and numerous drug-drug and drug-food interactions. This has prompted enthusiasm for newer agents such as dabigatran, apixaban, and rivaroxaban for effective clot prevention. In addition to once daily dosing, the benefits over warfarin also include significant reductions in hemorrhagic stroke and GI bleeding, and improved compliance, which is beneficial as many patients will be on lifelong therapy.
DB00187EsmololEsmolol (trade name Brevibloc) is a cardioselective beta1 receptor blocker with rapid onset, a very short duration of action, and no significant intrinsic sympathomimetic or membrane stabilizing activity at therapeutic dosages. Esmolol decreases the force and rate of heart contractions by blocking beta-adrenergic receptors of the sympathetic nervous system, which are found in the heart and other organs of the body. Esmolol prevents the action of two naturally occurring substances: epinephrine and norepinephrine.
DB01195FlecainideA potent anti-arrhythmia agent, effective in a wide range of ventricular and atrial arrhythmias and tachycardias. Paradoxically, however, in myocardial infarct patients with either symptomatic or asymptomatic arrhythmia, flecainide exacerbates the arrhythmia and is not recommended for use in these patients.
DB01109HeparinUnfractionated heparin (UH) is a heterogenous preparation of anionic, sulfated glycosaminoglycan polymers with weights ranging from 3000 to 30,000 Da. It is a naturally occurring anticoagulant released from mast cells. It binds reversibly to antithrombin III (ATIII) and greatly accelerates the rate at which ATIII inactivates coagulation enzymes thrombin (factor IIa) and factor Xa. UH is different from low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in the following ways: the average molecular weight of LMWH is about 4.5 kDa whereas it is 15 kDa for UH; UH requires continuous infusions; activated partial prothrombin time (aPTT) monitoring is required when using UH; and UH has a higher risk of bleeding and higher risk of osteoporosis in long term use. Unfractionated heparin is more specific than LMWH for thrombin. Furthermore, the effects of UH can typically be reversed by using protamine sulfate.
DB00308IbutilideIbutilide is a Class III antiarrhythmic agent that is indicated for acute cardioconversion of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter of a recent onset to sinus rhythm.
DB00264MetoprololMetoprolol is a cardioselective β1-adrenergic blocking agent used for acute myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, angina pectoris and mild to moderate hypertension. It may also be used for supraventricular and tachyarrhythmias and prophylaxis for migraine headaches. Metoprolol is structurally similar to bisoprolol, acebutolol and atenolol in that it has two substituents in the para position of the benzene ring. The β1-selectivity of these agents is thought to be due in part to the large substituents in the para position. At low doses, metoprolol selectively blocks cardiac β1-adrenergic receptors with little activity against β2-adrenergic receptors of the lungs and vascular smooth muscle. Receptor selectivity decreases with higher doses. Unlike propranolol and pindolol, metoprolol does not exhibit membrane-stabilizing or intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Membrane-stabilizing effects are only observed at doses much higher than those needed for β-adrenergic blocking activity. Metoprolol possesses a single chiral centre and is administered as a racemic mixture.
DB01203NadololA non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with a long half-life, used in cardiovascular disease to treat arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertension. Nadolol is also used for migraine disorders and for tremor. [PubChem]
DB00960PindololA moderately lipophilic beta blocker (adrenergic beta-antagonists). It is non-cardioselective and has intrinsic sympathomimetic actions, but little membrane-stabilizing activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p638)
DB01182PropafenoneAn antiarrhythmia agent that is particularly effective in ventricular arrhythmias. It also has weak beta-blocking activity. The drug is generally well tolerated. [PubChem]
DB00571PropranololA widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol is used in the treatment or prevention of many disorders including acute myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, angina pectoris, hypertension, hypertensive emergencies, hyperthyroidism, migraine, pheochromocytoma, menopause, and anxiety. [PubChem]
DB06228RivaroxabanRivaroxaban is an anticoagulant and the first orally active direct factor Xa inhibitor. Unlike warfarin, routine lab monitoring of INR is not necessary. However there is no antidote available in the event of a major bleed. Only the 10 mg tablet can be taken without regard to food. The 15 mg and 20 mg tablet should be taken with food. FDA approved on July 1, 2011.
DB00489SotalolAn adrenergic beta-antagonist that is used in the treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias. [PubChem]
DB00661VerapamilA calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
DB06217VernakalantVernakalant was developed by Cardiome Pharma as as an antiarrhythmic drug intended for rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. It acts as an atypical class III antiarrhythmic drug that potentiates its effect in higher heart rates. Intravenous formulation was approved in Europe in September 2010 as Brinavess and in Canada in April 2017. It is an investigational drug under regulatory review by FDA.
DB00682WarfarinWarfarin is an anticoagulant drug normally used to prevent blood clot formation as well as migration. Although originally marketed as a pesticide (d-Con, Rodex, among others), Warfarin has since become the most frequently prescribed oral anticoagulant in North America. Warfarin has several properties that should be noted when used medicinally, including its ability to cross the placental barrier during pregnancy which can result in fetal bleeding, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Additional adverse effects such as necrosis, purple toe syndrome, osteoporosis, valve and artery calcification, and drug interactions have also been documented with warfarin use. Warfarin does not actually affect blood viscosity, rather, it inhibits vitamin-k dependent synthesis of biologically active forms of various clotting factors in addition to several regulatory factors.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB01418AcenocoumarolVitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1target
DB01418AcenocoumarolCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01418AcenocoumarolCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01418AcenocoumarolSerum albumincarrier
DB01418AcenocoumarolAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB01418AcenocoumarolCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01418AcenocoumarolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidSerum albumincarrier
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidAldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1target
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidSolute carrier family 22 member 7transporter
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acid5'-AMP-activated protein kinasetarget
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidEndothelin-1 receptortarget
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidInhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit betatarget
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidCellular tumor antigen p53target
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acid78 kDa glucose-regulated proteintarget
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidRibosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-3target
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidNF-kappa-B inhibitor alphatarget
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidNuclear factor NF-kappa-Btarget
DB01118AmiodaroneBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01118AmiodaronePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
DB01118AmiodaroneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01118AmiodaroneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01118AmiodaroneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01118AmiodaroneVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Htarget
DB01118AmiodaroneVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2target
DB01118AmiodaroneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01118AmiodaroneCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01118AmiodaroneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB01118AmiodaroneCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB01118AmiodaroneCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB01118AmiodaroneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01118AmiodaroneCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01118AmiodaroneCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01118AmiodaroneThyroid hormone receptor alphatarget
DB01118AmiodaroneThyroid hormone receptor betatarget
DB01118AmiodaronePeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB01118AmiodaroneBile salt export pumptransporter
DB06605ApixabanCoagulation factor Xtarget
DB06605ApixabanCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB06605ApixabanCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB06605ApixabanCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB06605ApixabanCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB06605ApixabanCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB06605ApixabanCytochrome P450 2J2enzyme
DB06605ApixabanMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB06605ApixabanATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB06605ApixabanCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00612BisoprololBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00612BisoprololBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00612BisoprololCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00612BisoprololCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01136CarvedilolAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01136CarvedilolBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01136CarvedilolNADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 subunit C2target
DB01136CarvedilolBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01136CarvedilolVascular endothelial growth factor Atarget
DB01136CarvedilolNatriuretic peptides Btarget
DB01136CarvedilolGap junction alpha-1 proteintarget
DB01136CarvedilolPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
DB01136CarvedilolVascular cell adhesion protein 1target
DB01136CarvedilolCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01136CarvedilolCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01136CarvedilolXanthine dehydrogenase/oxidaseenzyme
DB01136CarvedilolMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01136CarvedilolCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01136CarvedilolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01136CarvedilolCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB01136CarvedilolCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01136CarvedilolProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB01136CarvedilolAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB01136CarvedilolAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB01136CarvedilolAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB01136CarvedilolAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB01136CarvedilolAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01136CarvedilolE-selectintarget
DB01136CarvedilolHypoxia-inducible factor 1-alphatarget
DB01136CarvedilolInward rectifier potassium channel 4target
DB01136CarvedilolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00758ClopidogrelP2Y purinoceptor 12target
DB00758ClopidogrelCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00758ClopidogrelCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00758ClopidogrelCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00758ClopidogrelCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00758ClopidogrelCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00758ClopidogrelCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00758ClopidogrelCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00758ClopidogrelLiver carboxylesterase 1enzyme
DB00758ClopidogrelMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateProthrombintarget
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateLiver carboxylesterase 1enzyme
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateCocaine esteraseenzyme
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15enzyme
DB06695Dabigatran etexilateRibosyldihydronicotinamide dehydrogenase [quinone]enzyme
DB00343DiltiazemVoltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-1 subunittarget
DB00343DiltiazemCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00343DiltiazemCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00343DiltiazemCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00343DiltiazemCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00343DiltiazemCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00343DiltiazemMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00343DiltiazemCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00343DiltiazemCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB04855DronedaroneAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB04855DronedaroneBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB04855DronedaroneAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB04855DronedaroneAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB04855DronedaroneAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB04855DronedaroneAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB04855DronedaroneAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB04855DronedaronePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
DB04855DronedaroneVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Ctarget
DB04855DronedaroneVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Dtarget
DB04855DronedaroneVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Ftarget
DB04855DronedaroneVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Starget
DB04855DronedaroneVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1target
DB04855DronedaroneVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2target
DB04855DronedaroneVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-3target
DB04855DronedaroneVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-4target
DB04855DronedaroneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB04855DronedaroneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB04855DronedaroneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB04855DronedaroneSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
DB04855DronedaronePotassium channel subfamily K member 2target
DB04855DronedaroneSerum albumincarrier
DB09075EdoxabanCoagulation factor Xtarget
DB09075EdoxabanMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00187EsmololBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00187EsmololCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01195FlecainideSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB01195FlecainideCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01195FlecainideSodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphatarget
DB01195FlecainideCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01195FlecainidePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
DB01109HeparinAntithrombin-IIItarget
DB01109HeparinCoagulation factor Xtarget
DB01109HeparinP-selectintarget
DB01109HeparinHeparanaseenzyme
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor receptor 4target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor 4target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor 19target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor receptor 1target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor 1target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor receptor 2target
DB01109HeparinFibroblast growth factor 2target
DB01109HeparinPlatelet factor 4target
DB01109HeparinHepatocyte growth factortarget
DB00308IbutilidePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 6target
DB00308IbutilideVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1target
DB00308IbutilideVoltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-1 subunittarget
DB00308IbutilideVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1target
DB00308IbutilidePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
DB00308IbutilideVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Ctarget
DB00308IbutilidePotassium channel subfamily K member 1target
DB00308IbutilidePotassium channel subfamily K member 6target
DB00308IbutilideATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 11target
DB00308IbutilidePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 7target
DB00264MetoprololBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00264MetoprololCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00264MetoprololBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00264MetoprololSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB00264MetoprololMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00264MetoprololCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01203NadololBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01203NadololBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01203NadololMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01203NadololCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00960PindololBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00960PindololBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00960Pindolol5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00960Pindolol5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Btarget
DB00960PindololCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00960PindololBeta-3 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01182PropafenoneSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB01182PropafenonePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
DB01182PropafenoneCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01182PropafenoneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01182PropafenoneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01182PropafenoneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01182PropafenoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01182PropafenoneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01182PropafenoneBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01182PropafenoneBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00571PropranololBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00571PropranololBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00571PropranololBeta-3 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00571Propranolol5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00571Propranolol5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Btarget
DB00571PropranololCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00571PropranololCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00571PropranololAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00571PropranololCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00571PropranololCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00571PropranololCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00571PropranololCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00571PropranololSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB00571PropranololMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00571PropranololCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB06228RivaroxabanCoagulation factor Xtarget
DB06228RivaroxabanCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB06228RivaroxabanCytochrome P450 2J2enzyme
DB06228RivaroxabanMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB06228RivaroxabanCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00489SotalolPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
DB00489SotalolBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00489SotalolBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00489SotalolCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00661VerapamilSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB00661VerapamilATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 11target
DB00661VerapamilVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-4target
DB00661VerapamilVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Gtarget
DB00661VerapamilVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Ftarget
DB00661VerapamilVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-3target
DB00661VerapamilVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Dtarget
DB00661VerapamilVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1target
DB00661VerapamilVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2target
DB00661VerapamilPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
DB00661VerapamilVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Starget
DB00661VerapamilVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Ctarget
DB00661VerapamilVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Itarget
DB00661VerapamilCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00661VerapamilCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00661VerapamilVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Btarget
DB00661VerapamilVoltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Atarget
DB00661VerapamilSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00661VerapamilCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00661VerapamilCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00661VerapamilMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00661VerapamilSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB00661VerapamilCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2transporter
DB00661VerapamilMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB00661VerapamilSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00661VerapamilMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB00661VerapamilSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00661VerapamilMultidrug resistance-associated protein 7transporter
DB00661VerapamilCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00661VerapamilSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB00661VerapamilATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00661VerapamilSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00661VerapamilCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00661VerapamilCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00661VerapamilCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00661VerapamilCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00661VerapamilCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00661VerapamilCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00661VerapamilAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00661VerapamilAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00661VerapamilAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB00661VerapamilBile salt export pumptransporter
DB06217VernakalantCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB06217VernakalantSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB06217VernakalantPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 5target
DB06217VernakalantPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 3target
DB06217VernakalantPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
DB00682WarfarinVitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1target
DB00682WarfarinCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00682WarfarinCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00682WarfarinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00682WarfarinAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00682WarfarinSerum albumincarrier
DB00682WarfarinCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00682WarfarinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00682WarfarinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00682WarfarinCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00682WarfarinNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB11766AZD-13051Completed1
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acid1Completed1
DB06605Apixaban1Completed1
DB00126Ascorbic acid1Terminated1
DB00390Digoxin1Completed1
DB00343Diltiazem1Completed1
DB00279Liothyronine1Completed1
DB00264Metoprolol1Completed1
DB06609Odiparcil1Terminated1
DB00489Sotalol1Terminated1
DB08816Ticagrelor1Completed1
DB00083Botulinum Toxin Type A1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00818Propofol1 / 2Completed1
DB01236Sevoflurane1 / 2Completed1
DB11766AZD-13052Completed2
DB01418Acenocoumarol2Completed1
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acid2Recruiting2
DB00640Adenosine2Completed1
DB06605Apixaban2Completed1
DB06605Apixaban2Recruiting1
DB06605Apixaban2Withdrawn2
DB12507Atecegatran metoxil2Completed1
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