Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome

Also known as: Tourette Syndrome / Tourette's syndrome / Tourettes Syndrome / Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome / Syndrome, Tourette / Gilles de la Tourette / Gilles de la Tourette's / Brissaud's II / Guinon's myospasia impulsiva / (Psychogenic tics) or (Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome) / Syndrome Gilles de la Tourette / Tourette's disorder / Gilles de la Tourette's disorder / Combined vocal and multiple motor tic disorder [de la Tourette] / Syndrome Tourette

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB01068ClonazepamA benzodiazepine used to treat various seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop [FDA Label] [L5572, F3763, F3787, F3796]. The agent has also been indicated for treating panic disorder [FDA Label] [A175438, L5572, F3763, F3787, F3796]. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor responses [FDA Label] [A175438, A175441, L5572, F3763, F3787, F3796]. Since being first patented in 1960 and then released for sale from Roche in the US in 1975 [T469, T472], clonazepam has experienced a storied history in the treatment of the aforementioned medical conditions. Now available as a generic medication, the agent continues to see exceptionally high use as millions of prescriptions are written for the medication internationally every year. Unfortunately, however, like most benzodiazepines, clonazepam use has also been associated with recreational use and drug abuse [FDA Label] [L5572, F3763, F3787, F3796].
DB00575ClonidineClonidine, an imidazoline-derivative hypotensive agent is a centrally-acting α2-adrenergic agonist. It crosses the blood-brain barrier and acts in the hypothalamus to induce a decrease in blood pressure. It may also be administered as an epidural infusion as an adjunct treatment in the management of severe cancer pain that is not relieved by opiate analgesics alone. Clonidine may be used for differential diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in hypertensive patients. Other uses for clonidine include prophylaxis of vascular migraine headaches, treatment of severe dysmenorrhea, management of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause, rapid detoxification in the management of opiate withdrawal, treatment of alcohol withdrawal used in conjunction with benzodiazepines, management of nicotine dependence, topical use to reduce intraocular pressure in the treatment of open-angle and secondary glaucoma and hemorrhagic glaucoma associated with hypertension, and in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clonidine also exhibits some peripheral activity.
DB00623FluphenazineA phenothiazine used in the treatment of psychoses. Its properties and uses are generally similar to those of chlorpromazine.
DB01018GuanfacineA centrally acting antihypertensive agent. The drug lowers both systolic and diastolic blood pressure by activating the central nervous system alpha-2 adrenoreceptors, which results in reduced sympathetic outflow leading to reduced vascular tone. Its adverse reactions include dry mouth, sedation, and constipation.
DB00502HaloperidolA phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone, traditional antipsychotic drug that is used primarily to treat schizophrenia and other psychoses. It is also used for the management of schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorders, ballism, and Tourette syndrome (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in mental retardation and the chorea associated with Huntington's disease. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable hiccups [L1994], [L1996]. The efficacy of haloperidol was first established in controlled trials in the 1960s [L2014]. Interestingly, in vivo pharmacogenetic studies have demonstrated that the metabolism of haloperidol may be modulated by genetically determined polymorphic _CYP2D6_ activity. However, these findings contradict the findings from studies in vitro with human liver microsomes and from drug interaction studies in vivo. Inter-ethnic and pharmacogenetic differences in haloperidol metabolism may possibly explain these observations [A32346].
DB00334OlanzapineOlanzapine is a thienobenzodiazepine classified as an atypical or second-generation antipsychotic agent.[A176996] The second-generation antipsychotics were introduced in the 90s and quickly widespread due to the presumed higher efficacy, less extrapyramidal side effects and fewer drug-drug interactions.[A177011] Olanzapine presents a very close resemblance to [clozapine] and it only differs by two additional methyl groups and the absence of a chloride moiety.[T554] It was obtained by the research of Eli Lilly and approved to be marketed in the US in 1996.[T548]
DB00734RisperidoneSchizophrenia and various mood disorders are thought to be caused by an excess of dopaminergic D2 and serotonergic 5-HT2A activity, resulting in overactivity of central mesolimbic pathways and mesocortical pathways, respectively [L1212, L1213]. Risperidone inhibits dopaminergic D2 receptors and serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors in the brain. It is also said to block histamine receptors, and other neural receptors which are currently being studied [L1213, A1115]. Risperidone binds with a very high affinity to 5-HT2A receptors, approximately 10-20 fold greater than the drug's binding affinity to D2 receptors [L1212, L1213, A1115].
DB04844TetrabenazineA drug formerly used as an antipsychotic but now used primarily in the symptomatic treatment of various hyperkinetic disorders. It is a monoamine depletor and used as symptomatic treatment of chorea associated with Huntington's disease. FDA approved on August 15, 2008.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB01068ClonazepamTranslocator proteintarget
DB01068ClonazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01068ClonazepamSerum albumincarrier
DB01068ClonazepamCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01068ClonazepamArylamine N-acetyltransferase 2enzyme
DB01068ClonazepamGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB01068ClonazepamNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB00575ClonidineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00575ClonidineSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB00575ClonidineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00575ClonidineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00575ClonidineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB00623FluphenazineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00623FluphenazineD(1A) dopamine receptortarget
DB00623FluphenazineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00623FluphenazineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00623FluphenazineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00623FluphenazineAndrogen receptortarget
DB00623Fluphenazine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00623Fluphenazine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB01018GuanfacineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01018GuanfacineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01018GuanfacineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01018GuanfacineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00502HaloperidolD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00502HaloperidolGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Btarget
DB00502HaloperidolD(1A) dopamine receptortarget
DB00502HaloperidolCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00502HaloperidolCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00502Haloperidol5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00502HaloperidolD(3) dopamine receptortarget
DB00502HaloperidolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00502HaloperidolCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00502HaloperidolCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00502HaloperidolMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00502HaloperidolCarbonyl reductase [NADPH] 1enzyme
DB00502HaloperidolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00502HaloperidolCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00502HaloperidolCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00502HaloperidolCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00502HaloperidolMelanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1target
DB00502HaloperidolSynaptic vesicular amine transportertarget
DB00334OlanzapineD(1A) dopamine receptortarget
DB00334OlanzapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00334OlanzapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00334Olanzapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00334OlanzapineD(4) dopamine receptortarget
DB00334OlanzapineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00334OlanzapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB00334OlanzapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00334OlanzapineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00334Olanzapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00334OlanzapineD(3) dopamine receptortarget
DB00334OlanzapineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00334OlanzapineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00334Olanzapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB00334Olanzapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6target
DB00334OlanzapineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00334OlanzapineD(1B) dopamine receptortarget
DB00334OlanzapineSerum albumincarrier
DB00334OlanzapineAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00334OlanzapineDimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 3enzyme
DB00334OlanzapineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00334OlanzapineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00334OlanzapineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00334OlanzapineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00334OlanzapineD(1) dopamine receptortarget
DB00334OlanzapineBeta adrenergic receptortarget
DB00334Olanzapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1target
DB00334OlanzapineGABA-A receptor (benzodiazepine site)target
DB00334OlanzapineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00334OlanzapineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4enzyme
DB00734RisperidoneHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00734RisperidoneD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00734RisperidoneAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00734Risperidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00734RisperidoneAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00734RisperidoneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00734RisperidoneD(1A) dopamine receptortarget
DB00734RisperidoneAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00734RisperidoneAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00734RisperidoneAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB00734Risperidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00734Risperidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Dtarget
DB00734Risperidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00734RisperidoneD(3) dopamine receptortarget
DB00734RisperidoneD(4) dopamine receptortarget
DB00734RisperidoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00734RisperidoneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00734RisperidoneCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00734Risperidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7target
DB00734RisperidoneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB04844TetrabenazineSynaptic vesicular amine transportertarget
DB04844TetrabenazineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB04844TetrabenazineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB04844TetrabenazineCarbonyl reductase [NADPH] 1enzyme
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB12273Ecopipam1 / 2Completed1
DB00470Dronabinol2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB12273Ecopipam2Active Not Recruiting1
DB14009Medical Cannabis2Recruiting1
DB14043Palmidrol2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB11915Valbenazine2Enrolling by Invitation1
DB12161Deutetrabenazine2 / 3Recruiting1
DB00575Clonidine4Unknown Status1
DB01238AripiprazoleNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00083Botulinum toxin type ANot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00422MethylphenidateNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01186PergolideNot AvailableCompleted1