Cancer, Advanced

Also known as: Advanced Cancer / Cancer / Neoplasm malignant / Malignant neoplasm NOS / Cancer NOS / Malignant tumor / Malignant tumour / Cancer (NOS) / Malignant neoplasm without specification of site

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB09061CannabidiolCannabidiol, or CBD, is one of at least 85 active cannabinoids identified within the Cannabis plant. It is a major phytocannabinoid, accounting for up to 40% of the Cannabis plant's extract, that binds to a wide variety of physiological targets of the endocannabinoid system within the body. Although the exact medical implications are currently being investigated, CBD has shown promise as a therapeutic and pharmaceutical drug target. In particular, CBD has shown promise as an analgesic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, anxiolytic, antipsychotic and has shown neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity, among other currently investigated uses [A32477, A32469]. CBD's exact place within medical practice is still currently hotly debated, however as the body of evidence grows and legislation changes to reflect its wide-spread use, public and medical opinion have changed significantly with regards to its usefulness in a number of medical conditions ranging from anxiety to epilepsy. From a pharmacological perspective, Cannabis' (and CBD's) diverse receptor profile explains its potential application for such a wide variety of medical conditions. Cannabis contains more than 400 different chemical compounds, of which 61 are considered cannabinoids, a class of compounds that act upon endogenous cannabinoid receptors of the body [A32584]. Cannabinoid receptors are utilized endogenously by the body through the endocannabinoid system, which includes a group of lipid proteins, enzymes, and receptors that are involved in many physiological processes. Through its modulation of neurotransmitter release, the endocannabinoid system regulates cognition, pain sensation, appetite, memory, sleep, immune function, and mood among many other bodily systems. These effects are largely mediated through two members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2)[A32585,A32824]. CB1 receptors are found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, with the majority of receptors localized to the hippocampus and amygdala of the brain. Physiological effects of using cannabis make sense in the context of its receptor activity as the hippocampus and amygdala are primarily involved with regulation of memory, fear, and emotion. In contrast, CB2 receptors are mainly found peripherally in immune cells, lymphoid tissue, and peripheral nerve terminals [A32676]. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are two types of cannabinoids found naturally in the resin of the marijuana plant, both of which interact with the cannabinoid receptors that are found throughout the body. Although THC and CBD have been the most studied cannabinoids, there are many others identified to date including cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG), [DB14050] (CBDV), and [DB11755] (THCV) that can be found within the medical cannabis [A32830]. While both CBD and THC are used for medicinal purposes, they have different receptor activity, function, and physiological effects. If not provided in their activated form (such as through synthetic forms of THC like [DB00470] or [DB00486]), THC and CBD are obtained through conversion from their precursors, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (THCA-A) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), through decarboxylation reactions. This can be achieved through heating, smoking, vaporization, or baking of dried unfertilized female cannabis flowers. The primary psychoactive component of Cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), demonstrates its effects through weak partial agonist activity at Cannabinoid-1 (CB1R) and Cannabinoid-2 (CB2R) receptors. This activity results in the well-known effects of smoking cannabis such as increased appetite, reduced pain, and changes in emotional and cognitive processes. In contrast to THC's weak agonist activity, CBD has been shown to act as a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, the most abundant G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) in the body [A32469]. Allosteric regulation is achieved through the modulation of receptor activity on a functionally distinct site from the agonist or antagonist binding site which is clinically significant as direct agonists (such as THC) are limited by their psychomimetic effects such as changes to mood, memory, and anxiety[A32469]. In addition to the well-known activity on CB1 and CB2 receptors, there is further evidence that CBD also activates 5-HT1A/2A/3A serotonergic and TRPV1–2 vanilloid receptors, antagonizes alpha-1 adrenergic and µ-opioid receptors, inhibits synaptosomal uptake of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and cellular uptake of anandamide, acts on mitochondria Ca2+ stores, blocks low-voltage-activated (T-type) Ca2+ channels, stimulates activity of the inhibitory glycine-receptor, and inhibits activity of fatty amide hydrolase (FAAH) [A31555, A31574]. CBD is currently available in Canada within a 1:1 formulation with tetrahydrocannbinol (THC) (as the formulation known as "nabiximols") as the brand name product Sativex. It is approved for use as adjunctive treatment for symptomatic relief of spasticity in adult patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Sativex was also given a conditional Notice of Compliance (NOC/c) for use as adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in adult patients with multiple sclerosis and as adjunctive analgesic treatment for moderate to severe pain in adult patients with advanced cancer [L886]. In April 2018, a Food and Drug Administration advisory panel unanimously recommended approval of Epidiolex (cannabidiol oral solution) for the treatment of two rare forms of epilepsy - Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome, which are among the two most difficult types of epilepsy to treat [L2721, L2719]. Epidiolex was granted Orphan Drug designation as well as Fast Track Approval from the FDA for further study in these hard to treat conditions. Notably, phase 3 clinical trials of Epidiolex have demonstrated clinically significant improvement in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome [L2720]. On June 25th, 2018, Epidiolex was approved by the FDA to be the first CBD-based product available on the US market.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB09061CannabidiolCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolCannabinoid receptor 1target
DB09061CannabidiolCannabinoid receptor 2target
DB09061CannabidiolG-protein coupled receptor 12target
DB09061CannabidiolGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB09061CannabidiolGlycine receptor (alpha-1/beta)target
DB09061CannabidiolGlycine receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB09061CannabidiolN-arachidonyl glycine receptortarget
DB09061CannabidiolG-protein coupled receptor 55target
DB09061Cannabidiol5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB09061Cannabidiol5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB09061CannabidiolNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
DB09061CannabidiolDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB09061CannabidiolMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB09061CannabidiolPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB09061CannabidiolCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolAcetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, mitochondrialenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolArylalkylamine N-acetyltransferaseenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolCatalaseenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolSn1-specific diacylglycerol lipase alphaenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolFatty-acid amide hydrolase 1enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolGlutathione reductase, mitochondrialenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolGlutathione peroxidase 1enzyme
DB09061Cannabidiol3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductaseenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolIndoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolArachidonate 5-lipoxygenaseenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolArachidonate 15-lipoxygenaseenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolN-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidaseenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolQuinone oxidoreductaseenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolN-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase Denzyme
DB09061CannabidiolPhospholipase A2enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolSteroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyaseenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolSuperoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolSphingomyelin phosphodiesteraseenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB09061CannabidiolATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB09061CannabidiolEquilibrative nucleoside transporter 1transporter
DB09061CannabidiolTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1target
DB09061CannabidiolVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Gtarget
DB09061CannabidiolVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Htarget
DB09061CannabidiolVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Itarget
DB09061CannabidiolTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A member 1target
DB09061CannabidiolTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8target
DB09061CannabidiolTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2target
DB09061CannabidiolTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 3target
DB09061CannabidiolTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4target
DB09061CannabidiolVoltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1target
DB09061Cannabidiol5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB09061CannabidiolAdenosine receptor A1target
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB06287Temsirolimus0Completed1
DB06184AEG351561Terminated1
DB06021AV-4121Completed1
DB12218AZD-53631Unknown Status1
DB12001Abemaciclib1Active Not Recruiting3
DB12001Abemaciclib1Recruiting1
DB01217Anastrozole1Active Not Recruiting1
DB11885Anlotinib1Completed1
DB11885Anlotinib1Recruiting1
DB05513Atiprimod1Terminated1
DB05015Belinostat1Completed1
DB06769Bendamustine1Completed1
DB00112Bevacizumab1Active Not Recruiting5
DB00112Bevacizumab1Completed6
DB00112Bevacizumab1Recruiting1
DB00188Bortezomib1Completed2
DB11865Brivanib alaninate1Completed1
DB12109CPI-6131Completed1
DB09061Cannabidiol1Withdrawn1
DB01101Capecitabine1Completed2
DB01101Capecitabine1Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00958Carboplatin1Active Not Recruiting2
DB00958Carboplatin1Completed1
DB00958Carboplatin1Recruiting2
DB00958Carboplatin1Terminated1
DB04849Cediranib1Completed1
DB12033Cediranib1Completed1
DB00002Cetuximab1Active Not Recruiting1
DB00002Cetuximab1Completed2
DB12029Chlorogenic Acid1Recruiting1
DB12029Chlorogenic Acid1Terminated1
DB00515Cisplatin1Active Not Recruiting1
DB00515Cisplatin1Completed2
DB00515Cisplatin1Recruiting1
DB08865Crizotinib1Completed1
DB00531Cyclophosphamide1Active Not Recruiting1
DB06179Darinaparsin1Unknown Status1
DB01254Dasatinib1Active Not Recruiting1
DB01254Dasatinib1Completed2
DB01234Dexamethasone1Completed1
DB01248Docetaxel1Active Not Recruiting1
DB01248Docetaxel1Completed3
DB01248Docetaxel1Unknown Status1
DB00997Doxorubicin1Completed4
DB00470Dronabinol1Withdrawn1
DB05189EPC24071Completed1
DB06243Eflornithine1Recruiting1
DB11849Emibetuzumab1Completed1
DB00530Erlotinib1Active Not Recruiting2
DB00530Erlotinib1Completed3
DB00773Etoposide1Completed1
DB01590Everolimus1Active Not Recruiting3
DB11685Figitumumab1Terminated1
DB00544Fluorouracil1Recruiting1
DB00472Fluoxetine1Completed1
DB00947Fulvestrant1Active Not Recruiting1
DB00947Fulvestrant1Recruiting1
DB11896Gedatolisib1Terminated1
DB00441Gemcitabine1Active Not Recruiting2
DB00441Gemcitabine1Completed2
DB00441Gemcitabine1Recruiting1
DB00441Gemcitabine1Terminated1
DB06302Glesatinib1Active Not Recruiting1
DB01181Ifosfamide1Recruiting1
DB06169Indibulin1Completed1
DB00105Interferon Alfa-2b, Recombinant1Completed1
DB06186Ipilimumab1Active Not Recruiting1
DB06186Ipilimumab1Recruiting2
DB00762Irinotecan1Completed2
DB00762Irinotecan1Recruiting2
DB00762Irinotecan1Terminated1
DB04845Ixabepilone1Completed1
DB01026Ketoconazole1Completed1
DB11913LY-20903141Completed1
DB12690LY-25847021Terminated1
DB13022LY-28744551Completed1
DB12167LY-30234141Recruiting1
DB11862Landogrozumab1Completed1
DB01259Lapatinib1Active Not Recruiting1
DB09078Lenvatinib1Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01006Letrozole1Recruiting1
DB00650Leucovorin1Recruiting1
DB11754Lirilumab1Active Not Recruiting1
DB11754Lirilumab1Recruiting1
DB11861Litronesib1Completed2
DB12852MK-07521Completed1
DB05608MKC-11Completed2
DB11762Marizomib1Completed1
DB12381Merestinib1Active Not Recruiting1
DB00331Metformin1Recruiting1
DB00683Midazolam1Recruiting2
DB00683Midazolam1Terminated1
DB06192Nimotuzumab1Not Yet Recruiting1
DB11793Niraparib1Recruiting1
DB09035Nivolumab1Active Not Recruiting2
DB09035Nivolumab1Recruiting2
DB00334Olanzapine1Completed1
DB09074Olaparib1Recruiting1
DB09074Olaparib1Unknown Status1
DB00526Oxaliplatin1Completed1
DB00526Oxaliplatin1Recruiting1
DB05173PTC2991Suspended1
DB05448PX-121Completed1
DB01229Paclitaxel1Active Not Recruiting4
DB01229Paclitaxel1Completed2
DB01229Paclitaxel1Recruiting2
DB01229Paclitaxel1Terminated2
DB05668Palifosfamide1Completed1
DB06589Pazopanib1Completed1
DB00019Pegfilgrastim1Completed2
DB09037Pembrolizumab1Not Yet Recruiting1
DB09037Pembrolizumab1Recruiting3
DB00642Pemetrexed1Active Not Recruiting1
DB00642Pemetrexed1Completed2
DB00642Pemetrexed1Recruiting2
DB12978Pexidartinib1Recruiting1
DB04951Pirfenidone1Recruiting1
DB00635Prednisone1Completed1
DB12008Prexasertib1Active Not Recruiting1
DB12008Prexasertib1Completed1
DB12060RRx-0011Recruiting1
DB11662Rabusertib1Completed1
DB11787Ralimetinib1Completed2
DB05578Ramucirumab1Active Not Recruiting1
DB06309Refametinib1Completed1
DB06233Ridaforolimus1Completed2
DB12146Rigosertib1Completed2
DB00073Rituximab1Recruiting1
DB06314SGX-5231Terminated2
DB11836Sapanisertib1Recruiting1
DB00020Sargramostim1Active Not Recruiting1
DB00877Sirolimus1Active Not Recruiting1
DB00877Sirolimus1Completed5
DB05630Sodium stibogluconate1Completed1
DB00398Sorafenib1Active Not Recruiting3
DB01268Sunitinib1Active Not Recruiting1
DB01268Sunitinib1Terminated1
DB12550Taladegib1Completed1
DB11941Tasisulam1Terminated2
DB00853Temozolomide1Active Not Recruiting1
DB06287Temsirolimus1Active Not Recruiting3
DB06287Temsirolimus1Completed3
DB01124Tolbutamide1Terminated1
DB01030Topotecan1Completed1
DB00072Trastuzumab1Active Not Recruiting1
DB00072Trastuzumab1Recruiting1
DB00313Valproic Acid1Completed2
DB05944Varlitinib1Completed2
DB05238Vemurafenib1Active Not Recruiting1
DB08881Vemurafenib1Active Not Recruiting1
DB11581Venetoclax1Recruiting1
DB12503Vintafolide1Terminated1
DB11925Vistusertib1Recruiting1
DB02546Vorinostat1Active Not Recruiting1
DB02546Vorinostat1Completed3
DB09145Water1Completed1
DB05812Abiraterone1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB05513Atiprimod1 / 2Unknown Status1
DB00928Azacitidine1 / 2Active Not Recruiting3
DB00928Azacitidine1 / 2Recruiting2
DB00188Bortezomib1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB01101Capecitabine1 / 2Terminated1
DB00958Carboplatin1 / 2Completed1
DB08889Carfilzomib1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00002Cetuximab1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB09331Daratumumab1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB01234Dexamethasone1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB01248Docetaxel1 / 2Terminated1
DB00997Doxorubicin1 / 2Completed1
DB00997Doxorubicin1 / 2Terminated1
DB11714Durvalumab1 / 2Recruiting1
DB11849Emibetuzumab1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB11717Epacadostat1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB08871Eribulin1 / 2Recruiting1
DB00441Gemcitabine1 / 2Active Not Recruiting2
DB00441Gemcitabine1 / 2Terminated1
DB11895Ghrelin1 / 2Completed1
DB06205Hyaluronidase (Human Recombinant)1 / 2Recruiting1
DB01181Ifosfamide1 / 2Completed1
DB06186Ipilimumab1 / 2Recruiting4
DB00762Irinotecan1 / 2Terminated2
DB12154Itacitinib1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00480Lenalidomide1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB09078Lenvatinib1 / 2Recruiting1
DB12674Lurbinectedin1 / 2Recruiting1
DB05608MKC-11 / 2Completed1
DB05651Mocetinostat1 / 2Recruiting1
DB09035Nivolumab1 / 2Active Not Recruiting3
DB09035Nivolumab1 / 2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB09035Nivolumab1 / 2Recruiting7
DB09035Nivolumab1 / 2Terminated1
DB09074Olaparib1 / 2Recruiting1
DB01229Paclitaxel1 / 2Active Not Recruiting2
DB01229Paclitaxel1 / 2Terminated1
DB09037Pembrolizumab1 / 2Active Not Recruiting2
DB09037Pembrolizumab1 / 2Terminated1
DB00642Pemetrexed1 / 2Completed1
DB08910Pomalidomide1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB05578Ramucirumab1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB06309Refametinib1 / 2Completed1
DB05332Romiplostim1 / 2Completed1
DB12332Rucaparib1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB08877Ruxolitinib1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB08877Ruxolitinib1 / 2Recruiting1
DB00398Sorafenib1 / 2Completed1
DB06287Temsirolimus1 / 2Terminated1
DB00072Trastuzumab1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB05773Trastuzumab emtansine1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00755Tretinoin1 / 2Recruiting1
DB00361Vinorelbine1 / 2Terminated1
DB12001Abemaciclib2Recruiting1
DB06645Anamorelin2Recruiting1
DB11945Avelumab2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB11945Avelumab2Recruiting1
DB00002Cetuximab2Completed1
DB00515Cisplatin2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00515Cisplatin2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00531Cyclophosphamide2Recruiting1
DB01254Dasatinib2Recruiting1
DB00317Gefitinib2Completed1
DB00441Gemcitabine2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00441Gemcitabine2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00105Interferon Alfa-2b, Recombinant2Withdrawn1
DB06186Ipilimumab2Recruiting3
DB00480Lenalidomide2Terminated1
DB11845Lucitanib2Withdrawn1
DB12381Merestinib2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00331Metformin2Completed1
DB00370Mirtazapine2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00370Mirtazapine2Terminated1
DB06132Nivolumab2Recruiting1
DB09035Nivolumab2Recruiting3
DB09073Palbociclib2Recruiting1
DB09073Palbociclib2Withdrawn1
DB09037Pembrolizumab2Not Yet Recruiting2
DB09037Pembrolizumab2Recruiting2
DB05578Ramucirumab2Active Not Recruiting1
DB11730Ribociclib2Active Not Recruiting1
DB05630Sodium stibogluconate2Withdrawn1
DB00398Sorafenib2Recruiting1
DB02546Vorinostat2Completed1
DB09145Water2Withdrawn1
DB06626Axitinib2 / 3Recruiting1
DB00370Mirtazapine2 / 3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00104Octreotide2 / 3Recruiting1
DB00334Olanzapine2 / 3Recruiting1
DB09061Cannabidiol3Completed4
DB00843Donepezil3Terminated1
DB00470Dronabinol3Completed4
DB00333Methadone3Terminated1
DB00295Morphine3Terminated1
DB14011Nabiximols3Completed2
DB08813Nadroparin3Completed1
DB09035Nivolumab3Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium Chloride3Completed1
DB00624Testosterone3Completed1
DB00316Acetaminophen4Unknown Status1
DB00335AtenololNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00472FluoxetineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00502HaloperidolNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01050IbuprofenNot AvailableTerminated1
DB01065MelatoninNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00422MethylphenidateNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00334OlanzapineNot AvailableCompleted2
DB09153Sodium ChlorideNot AvailableCompleted1