Sleeplessness

Also known as: INSOMNIA / Insomnia NOS

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00321AmitriptylineAmitriptyline hydrochloride is a dibenzocycloheptene-derivative tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). TCAs are structurally similar to phenothiazines. They contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, amitriptyline does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, amitriptyline exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Tertiary amine TCAs, such as amitriptyline, are more potent inhibitors of serotonin reuptake than secondary amine TCAs, such as nortriptyline. TCAs also down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine-H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. See toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects. Amitriptyline may be used to treat depression, chronic pain (unlabeled use), irritable bowel syndrome (unlabeled use), diabetic neuropathy (unlabeled use), post-traumatic stress disorder (unlabeled use), and for migraine prophylaxis (unlabeled use).
DB00237ButabarbitalButabarbital (trade name Butisol) is a prescription barbiturate sleep aid. Butabarbital has a particularly fast onset of effects and short duration of action compared to other barbiturates, which makes it useful for certain applications such as treating severe insomnia and relieving anxiety before surgical procedures; however it is also relatively dangerous particularly when combined with alcohol, and so is now rarely used, although it is still prescribed in some Eastern European and South American countries. Its short duration of action gives butabarbital a high abuse potential, comparable to secobarbital. [Wikipedia]
DB01151DesipramineDesipramine hydrochloride is a dibenzazepine-derivative tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). TCAs are structurally similar to phenothiazines. They contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, desipramine does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, desipramine exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Secondary amine TCAs, such as desipramine and nortriptyline, are more potent inhibitors of norepinephrine reuptake than tertiary amine TCAs, such as amitriptyline and doxepine. TCAs also down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine-H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. See toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects. Desipramine exerts less anticholinergic and sedative side effects compared to tertiary amine TCAs, such as amitriptyline and clomipramine. Desipramine may be used to treat depression, neuropathic pain (unlabeled use), agitation and insomnia (unlabeled use) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (unlabeled use).
DB01075DiphenhydramineA histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.
DB01142DoxepinDoxepin hydrochloride is a dibenzoxepin-derivative tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). TCAs are structurally similar to phenothiazines. They contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, doxepin does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, doxepin exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Tertiary amine TCAs, such as doxepin and amitriptyline, are more potent inhibitors of serotonin reuptake than secondary amine TCAs, such as nortriptyline and desipramine. TCAs also down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. Doxepin has less sedative and anticholinergic effects than amitriptyline. See toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects. Doxepin may be used to treat depression and insomnia. Unlabeled indications include chronic and neuropathic pain, and anxiety. Doxepin may also be used as a second line agent to treat idiopathic urticaria.
DB00366DoxylamineHistamine H1 antagonist with pronounced sedative properties. It is used in allergies and as an antitussive, antiemetic, and hypnotic. Doxylamine has also been administered in veterinary applications and was formerly used in parkinsonism. [PubChem]
DB01215EstazolamA benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, hypnotic, and muscle relaxant properties. It has been shown in some cases to be more potent than diazepam or nitrazepam. [PubChem]
DB00402EszopicloneEszopiclone, marketed by Sepracor under the brand-name Lunesta, is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent (viz., a sedative) used as a treatment for insomnia. Eszopiclone is the active stereoisomer of zopiclone, and belongs to the class of drugs known as cyclopyrrones. Its main selling point is that it is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for long-term use, unlike almost all other hypnotic sedatives, which are approved only for the relief of short-term (6-8 weeks) insomnia.
DB00690FlurazepamA benzodiazepine derivative used mainly as a hypnotic. [PubChem]
DB01065MelatoninMelatonin is a biogenic amine that is found in animals, plants and microbes. Aaron B. Lerner of Yale University is credited for naming the hormone and for defining its chemical structure in 1958. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the pineal gland. The pineal gland is small endocrine gland, about the size of a rice grain and shaped like a pine cone (hence the name), that is located in the center of the brain (rostro-dorsal to the superior colliculus) but outside the blood-brain barrier. The secretion of melatonin increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light, thereby regulating the circadian rhythms of several biological functions, including the sleep-wake cycle. In particular, melatonin regulates the sleep-wake cycle by chemically causing drowsiness and lowering the body temperature. Melatonin is also implicated in the regulation of mood, learning and memory, immune activity, dreaming, fertility and reproduction. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant. Most of the actions of melatonin are mediated through the binding and activation of melatonin receptors. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may have lower than normal levels of melatonin. A 2008 study found that unaffected parents of individuals with ASD also have lower melatonin levels, and that the deficits were associated with low activity of the ASMT gene, which encodes the last enzyme of melatonin synthesis. Reduced melatonin production has also been proposed as a likely factor in the significantly higher cancer rates in night workers.
DB01595NitrazepamA benzodiazepine derivative used as an anticonvulsant and hypnotic.
DB00312PentobarbitalA short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
DB01174PhenobarbitalA barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It promotes binding to inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype receptors, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations. [PubChem]
DB01589QuazepamQuazepam is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. It induces impairment of motor function and has hypnotic properties. Quazepam is used to treat insomnia.
DB00980RamelteonRamelteon is the first in a new class of sleep agents that selectively binds to the melatonin receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). It is used for insomnia, particularly delayed sleep onset. Ramelteon has not been shown to produce dependence and has shown no potential for abuse.
DB00418SecobarbitalSecobarbital (marketed by Eli Lilly and Company under the brand names SeconalĀ® and Tuinal) is a barbiturate derivative drug. It possesses anaesthetic, anticonvulsant, sedative and hypnotic properties. In the United Kingdom, it was known as Quinalbarbitone.
DB09034SuvorexantSuvorexant is a selective dual antagonist of orexin receptors OX1R and OX2R that promotes sleep by reducing wakefulness and arousal. It has been approved for the treatment of insomnia.
DB00231TemazepamA benzodiazepine that acts as a gamma-aminobutyric acid modulator and anti-anxiety agent. [PubChem]
DB00656TrazodoneA serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has been shown to be effective in patients with major depressive disorders and other subsets of depressive disorders. It is generally more useful in depressive disorders associated with insomnia and anxiety. This drug does not aggravate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p309)
DB00897TriazolamWithdrawn in the United Kingdom due to risk of psychiatric adverse drug reactions. This drug continues to be available in the U.S. Internationally, triazolam is a Schedule IV drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.
DB00726TrimipramineTricyclic antidepressant similar to imipramine, but with more antihistaminic and sedative properties. [PubChem]
DB00962ZaleplonZaleplon is a sedative/hypnotic, mainly used for insomnia. It is known as a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. Zaleplon interacts with the GABA receptor complex and shares some of the pharmacological properties of the benzodiazepines. Zaleplon is a schedule IV drug in the United States.
DB00425ZolpidemZolpidem is a prescription short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic that potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to benzodiazepine receptors which are located on the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. Zolpidem is used for the short-term treatment of insomnia. It works quickly (usually within 15 minutes) and has a short half-life (2-3 hours). It is classified as an imidazopyridine. As an anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant, the beneficial effects start to emerge at 10 and 20 times the dose required for sedation, respectively. For that reason, it has never been approved for either muscle relaxation or seizure prevention. Recently, zolpidem has been cited in various medical reports mainly in the United Kingdom as waking persistent vegetative state (PVS) patients, and dramatically improving the conditions of people with brain injuries.
DB01198ZopicloneZopiclone is a novel hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia. Its mechanism of action is based on modulating benzodiazepine receptors. In addition to zopiclone's benzodiazepine pharmacological properties it also has some barbiturate like properties.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00321AmitriptylineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00321AmitriptylineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00321AmitriptylinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 2target
DB00321AmitriptylineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00321AmitriptylineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00321AmitriptylineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00321AmitriptylineSerum albumincarrier
DB00321AmitriptylineAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00321AmitriptylineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00321AmitriptylineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00321AmitriptylineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00321AmitriptylineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB00321AmitriptylineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB00321AmitriptylineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00321Amitriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00321Amitriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00321AmitriptylineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00321AmitriptylineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00321AmitriptylinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1target
DB00321AmitriptylinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 2target
DB00321AmitriptylinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 3target
DB00321AmitriptylineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineHigh affinity nerve growth factor receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineBDNF/NT-3 growth factors receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00321AmitriptylineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00321AmitriptylineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00321AmitriptylineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00321AmitriptylineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00321AmitriptylineHistamine H2 receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineHistamine H4 receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineSigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1target
DB00321Amitriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00321AmitriptylineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00321Amitriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7target
DB00321Amitriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Dtarget
DB00321AmitriptylineMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00321Amitriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Btarget
DB00321Amitriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6target
DB00321AmitriptylinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 3target
DB00321AmitriptylineBeta adrenergic receptortarget
DB00237ButabarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00237ButabarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
DB00237ButabarbitalGlutamate receptor 2target
DB00237ButabarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
DB00237ButabarbitalGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB01151DesipramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB01151DesipramineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB01151DesipramineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01151DesipramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB01151DesipramineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB01151DesipramineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB01151DesipramineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01151DesipramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB01151DesipramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB01151DesipramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB01151DesipramineAlpha-1 adrenergic receptorstarget
DB01151Desipramine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB01151DesipramineAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01151DesipramineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB01151DesipramineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB01151DesipramineSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB01151DesipramineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB01151DesipramineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01151DesipramineSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01151DesipramineSphingomyelin phosphodiesterasetarget
DB01151Desipramine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB01151Desipramine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB01151DesipramineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB01151DesipramineAlpha-2 adrenergic receptorstarget
DB01075DiphenhydramineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01075DiphenhydramineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01075DiphenhydramineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01075DiphenhydramineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01075DiphenhydramineCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB01075DiphenhydramineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01075DiphenhydramineProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB01075DiphenhydramineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB01075DiphenhydramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB01075DiphenhydramineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB01075DiphenhydramineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB01075DiphenhydramineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB01142DoxepinSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB01142DoxepinSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB01142DoxepinHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinHistamine H2 receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01142DoxepinMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB01142DoxepinMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB01142DoxepinMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB01142DoxepinMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB01142DoxepinMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB01142DoxepinAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01142Doxepin5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB01142Doxepin5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB01142DoxepinD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01142DoxepinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01142DoxepinCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01142DoxepinAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB01142DoxepinMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01142Doxepin5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Btarget
DB01142Doxepin5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB01142DoxepinAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01142Doxepin5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6target
DB01142DoxepinHistamine H4 receptortarget
DB01142DoxepinPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
DB00366DoxylamineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00366DoxylamineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00366DoxylamineCYP2B proteinenzyme
DB00366DoxylamineNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 3target
DB01215EstazolamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltatarget
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pitarget
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3target
DB01215EstazolamGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00402EszopicloneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00402EszopicloneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00402EszopicloneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00402EszopicloneProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB00402EszopicloneTranslocator proteintarget
DB00402EszopicloneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00402EszopicloneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00402EszopicloneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00402EszopicloneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00402EszopicloneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1target
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3target
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltatarget
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pitarget
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2target
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetatarget
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1target
DB00690FlurazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00690FlurazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3target
DB00690FlurazepamMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00690FlurazepamCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00690FlurazepamCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB00690FlurazepamSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB01065MelatoninAcetylserotonin O-methyltransferasetarget
DB01065MelatoninMelatonin receptor type 1Atarget
DB01065MelatoninMelatonin receptor type 1Btarget
DB01065MelatoninNuclear receptor ROR-betatarget
DB01065MelatoninCalmodulintarget
DB01065MelatoninCalreticulintarget
DB01065MelatoninRibosyldihydronicotinamide dehydrogenase [quinone]target
DB01065MelatoninMyeloperoxidasetarget
DB01065MelatoninEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB01065MelatoninEosinophil peroxidasetarget
DB01065MelatoninCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB01065MelatoninCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01065MelatoninCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01065MelatoninCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01065MelatoninAcetylserotonin O-methyltransferaseenzyme
DB01065MelatoninIndoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1enzyme
DB01065MelatoninMyeloperoxidaseenzyme
DB01065MelatoninCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
DB01065MelatoninSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB01065MelatoninCytochrome P450 19A1enzyme
DB01595NitrazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01595NitrazepamCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01595NitrazepamSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltatarget
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pitarget
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetatarget
DB01595NitrazepamMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00312PentobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00312PentobarbitalCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00312PentobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00312PentobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB00312PentobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00312PentobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00312PentobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00312PentobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00312PentobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
DB00312PentobarbitalGlutamate receptor 2target
DB00312PentobarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
DB00312PentobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00312PentobarbitalCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB00312PentobarbitalGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00312PentobarbitalNMDA receptortarget
DB00312PentobarbitalNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB01174PhenobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2transporter
DB01174PhenobarbitalBile salt export pumptransporter
DB01174PhenobarbitalMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01174PhenobarbitalMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB01174PhenobarbitalSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1transporter
DB01174PhenobarbitalCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB01174PhenobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB01174PhenobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
DB01174PhenobarbitalGlutamate receptor 2target
DB01174PhenobarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 4A11enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalCytochrome P450 4B1enzyme
DB01174PhenobarbitalNMDA receptortarget
DB01174PhenobarbitalNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltatarget
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pitarget
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3target
DB01589QuazepamCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01589QuazepamCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01589QuazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01589QuazepamGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB01589QuazepamCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00980RamelteonMelatonin receptor type 1Btarget
DB00980RamelteonMelatonin receptor type 1Atarget
DB00980RamelteonCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00980RamelteonCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00980RamelteonCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00418SecobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00418SecobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00418SecobarbitalCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00418SecobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00418SecobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00418SecobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00418SecobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00418SecobarbitalGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB00418SecobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00418SecobarbitalNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
DB00418SecobarbitalGlutamate receptor 2target
DB00418SecobarbitalGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
DB00418SecobarbitalCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00418SecobarbitalNMDA receptortarget
DB09034SuvorexantOrexin receptor type 1target
DB09034SuvorexantOrexin receptor type 2target
DB00231TemazepamCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00231TemazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00231TemazepamCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00231TemazepamCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00231TemazepamCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00231TemazepamTranslocator proteintarget
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltatarget
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pitarget
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetatarget
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3target
DB00231TemazepamGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00656Trazodone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00656TrazodoneSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00656TrazodoneAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00656TrazodoneAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00656TrazodoneHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00656Trazodone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00656TrazodoneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00656TrazodoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00656Trazodone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00656TrazodoneAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00656TrazodoneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00656TrazodoneCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00656TrazodoneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00897TriazolamTranslocator proteintarget
DB00897TriazolamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00897TriazolamCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00897TriazolamCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltatarget
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pitarget
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetatarget
DB00897TriazolamCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00897TriazolamCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00897TriazolamGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00726TrimipramineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00726TrimipramineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00726TrimipramineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00726TrimipramineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB00726Trimipramine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00726Trimipramine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00726TrimipramineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00726TrimipramineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00726TrimipramineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00726TrimipramineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00726TrimipramineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00726TrimipramineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00726TrimipramineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00726TrimipramineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00726TrimipramineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00726Trimipramine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00726Trimipramine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB00726Trimipramine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Dtarget
DB00726TrimipramineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00726TrimipramineD(1) dopamine receptortarget
DB00726TrimipramineBeta adrenergic receptortarget
DB00726TrimipramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptortarget
DB00726Trimipramine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Ctarget
DB00962ZaleplonTranslocator proteintarget
DB00962ZaleplonGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00962ZaleplonCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00962ZaleplonAldehyde oxidaseenzyme
DB00962ZaleplonCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00962ZaleplonCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00425ZolpidemGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00425ZolpidemCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00425ZolpidemCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00425ZolpidemGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00425ZolpidemGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00425ZolpidemCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00425ZolpidemCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00425ZolpidemCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00425ZolpidemCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00425ZolpidemCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00425ZolpidemProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB00425ZolpidemGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB00425ZolpidemGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB01198ZopicloneTranslocator proteintarget
DB01198ZopicloneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01198ZopicloneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01198ZopicloneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01198ZopicloneProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB01198ZopicloneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01198ZopicloneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB01198ZopicloneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB01198ZopicloneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB01198ZopicloneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acid0Completed1
DB01142Doxepin0Completed1
DB01198Zopiclone0Completed1
DB12032Atagabalin1Completed1
DB00402Eszopiclone1Completed2
DB01205Flumazenil1Completed1
DB00996Gabapentin1Completed1
DB11951Lemborexant1Completed2
DB12288Piromelatine1Completed1
DB00818Propofol1Completed1
DB00980Ramelteon1Completed2
DB09034Suvorexant1Completed4
DB00231Temazepam1Completed1
DB00425Zolpidem1Completed4
DB01198Zopiclone1Completed3
DB00633Dexmedetomidine1 / 2Recruiting1
DB00425Zolpidem1 / 2Completed1
DB06413Armodafinil2Completed1
DB12032Atagabalin2Completed1
DB12032Atagabalin2Withdrawn1
DB01373Calcium2Completed1
DB01175Escitalopram2Completed1
DB00996Gabapentin2Active Not Recruiting1
DB08872Gabapentin Enacarbil2Active Not Recruiting1
DB01592Iron2Completed1
DB00172L-Proline2Completed1
DB01065Melatonin2Completed1
DB00370Mirtazapine2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00486Nabilone2Unknown Status1
DB05026Nelotanserin2Completed1
DB01267Paliperidone2Completed1
DB13196Valerian2Completed1
DB06413Armodafinil2 / 3Active Not Recruiting1
DB01224Quetiapine2 / 3Completed1
DB00321Amitriptyline3Recruiting1
DB12537Benzodiazepine3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB09017Brotizolam3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01075Diphenhydramine3Unknown Status1
DB12177Eplivanserin3Completed3
DB01175Escitalopram3Terminated1
DB06678Esmirtazapine3Completed4
DB00402Eszopiclone3Completed8
DB06554Gaboxadol3Completed3
DB12590Indiplon3Terminated1
DB12590Indiplon3Withdrawn1
DB11951Lemborexant3Recruiting1
DB00980Ramelteon3Completed2
DB00980Ramelteon3Terminated3
DB01104Sertraline3Terminated1
DB09034Suvorexant3Completed1
DB09034Suvorexant3Recruiting1
DB05359Tasimelteon3Completed1
DB00656Trazodone3Completed1
DB00285Venlafaxine3Completed1
DB00425Zolpidem3Completed2
DB00425Zolpidem3Recruiting3
DB01198Zopiclone3Completed1
DB00289Atomoxetine4Completed1
DB00289Atomoxetine4Unknown Status1
DB01156Bupropion4Terminated1
DB01142Doxepin4Completed1
DB01175Escitalopram4Completed1
DB01175Escitalopram4Unknown Status1
DB00402Eszopiclone4Completed8
DB00402Eszopiclone4Terminated1
DB00402Eszopiclone4Unknown Status1
DB00898Ethanol4Completed1
DB00996Gabapentin4Completed1
DB01018Guanfacine4Terminated1
DB00745Modafinil4Terminated1
DB01224Quetiapine4Completed1
DB01224Quetiapine4Unknown Status1
DB01129Rabeprazole4Completed1
DB00980Ramelteon4Completed3
DB00980Ramelteon4Recruiting1
DB00980Ramelteon4Unknown Status2
DB09034Suvorexant4Not Yet Recruiting2
DB09034Suvorexant4Recruiting6
DB00231Temazepam4Completed2
DB00656Trazodone4Unknown Status1
DB00425Zolpidem4Completed8
DB00425Zolpidem4Recruiting1
DB01198Zopiclone4Completed1
DB01198Zopiclone4Recruiting1
DB06413ArmodafinilNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00633DexmedetomidineNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB01175EscitalopramNot AvailableTerminated1
DB01175EscitalopramNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00402EszopicloneNot AvailableCompleted5
DB00996GabapentinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01065MelatoninNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00422MethylphenidateNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00683MidazolamNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00457PrazosinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB01224QuetiapineNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00980RamelteonNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00980RamelteonNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00734RisperidoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00656TrazodoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00425ZolpidemNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00425ZolpidemNot AvailableCompleted2