|DB00479||Amikacin||Amikacin is a semi-synthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic that is derived from kanamycin A [FDA label]. Amikacin is synthesized by acylation with the l-(-)-γ-amino-α-hydroxybutyryl side chain at the C-1 amino group of the deoxystreptamine moiety of kanamycin A [A39531].
Amikacin's unique property is that it exerts activity against more resistant gram-negative bacilli such as Acinetobacter baumanii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Amikacin also exerts excellent activity against most aerobic gram-negative bacilli from the Enterobacteriaceae family, including Nocardia and some Mycobacterium (M. avium-intracellulare, M. chelonae, and M. fortuitum)[L4680]. M. avium-intracellulare (MAC) is a type of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) found in water and soil. Symptoms of this disease include a persistent cough, fatigue, weight loss, night sweats, and shortness of breath and the coughing up of blood [L4680].
Several forms of amikacin are used currently, including an intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) injection [F1949]. In September 2018, a liposomal inhalation suspension of this drug was approved by the FDA for the treatment of lung disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteria in a small population of patients with the disease who do not respond to traditional treatment [L4680],[L4681].|
|DB00355||Aztreonam||A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.|
|DB01327||Cefazolin||A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.|
|DB00493||Cefotaxime||Cefotaxime is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. Like other third-generation cephalosporins, it has broad spectrum activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. In most cases, it is considered to be equivalent to ceftriaxone in terms of safety and efficacy. Cefotaxime sodium is marketed under various trade names including Claforan (Sanofi-Aventis).|
|DB01330||Cefotetan||A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.|
|DB01331||Cefoxitin||Cefoxitin is a semi-synthetic, broad-spectrum cepha antibiotic for intravenous administration. It is derived from cephamycin C, which is produced by Streptomyces lactamdurans.|
|DB00438||Ceftazidime||Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from cephaloridine and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.|
|DB01212||Ceftriaxone||A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.|
|DB01112||Cefuroxime||Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, gonorrhea, and haemophilus.|
|DB01597||Cilastatin||A renal dehydropeptidase-I and leukotriene D4 dipeptidase inhibitor. Since the antibiotic, imipenem, is hydrolyzed by dehydropeptidase-I, which resides in the brush border of the renal tubule, cilastatin is administered with imipenem to increase its effectiveness. The drug also inhibits the metabolism of leukotriene D4 to leukotriene E4.|
|DB00537||Ciprofloxacin||Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.The bactericidal action of ciprofloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV, which are required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, strand supercoiling repair, and recombination.|
|DB01598||Imipenem||Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with cilastatin, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.|
|DB00916||Metronidazole||A nitroimidazole used to treat amebiasis; vaginitis; trichomonas infections; giardiasis; anaerobic bacteria; and treponemal infections. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).|