|DB09102||Daclatasvir||Daclatasvir is a direct-acting antiviral agent against Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) used for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1 and 3 infection. It is marketed under the name DAKLINZA and is contained in daily oral tablets as the hydrochloride salt form . Hepatitis C is an infectious liver disease caused by infection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). HCV is a single-stranded RNA virus that is categorized into nine distinct genotypes, with genotype 1 being the most common in the United States, and affecting 72% of all chronic HCV patients [L852]. Daclatasvir was the first drug with demonstrated safety and therapeutic efficacy in treating HCV genotype 3 without the need for co-administration of interferon or [DB00811]. It exerts its antiviral action by preventing RNA replication and virion assembly via binding to NS5A, a nonstructural phosphoprotein encoded by HCV. Binding to the N-terminus of the D1 domain of NS5A prevents its interaction with host cell proteins and membranes required for virion replication complex assembly. Daclatasvir is shown to target both the cis- and trans-acting functions of NS5A and disrupts the function of new HCV replication complexes by modulating the NS5A phosphorylation status [A19640]. The most common critical NS5A amino acid substitutions that led to reduced susceptibility to daclatasvir therapy occured at position Q30 (Q30H/K/R) and M28 in genotype 1a patients and Y93H in genotype 3 patients.
According to 2017 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), 60mg of daclatasvir is recommended with 400mg [DB08934] for genotype 1a/b patients with or without cirrhosis as second-line therapy. The same dosing regimen can be used as first-line therapy in patients with genotype 3 without cirrhosis and second-line therapy in genotype 3 patients with compensated cirrhosis. Combination therapies that include daclatasir can be used for challenging-to-treat patients who have HIV-1 coinfection, advanced cirrhosis, or post-liver transplant recurrence of HCV [L863]. The therapy is intended to cure or achieve a sustained virologic response (SVR12), after 12 weeks of daily therapy. SVR and eradication of HCV infection is associated with significant long-term health benefits including reduced liver-related damage, improved quality of life, reduced incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, and reduced all-cause mortality [A19626].
Daclatasvir was FDA-approved in July 2015 for use with [DB08934] (Sovaldi) with or without [DB00811] to treat HCV genotype 1 and 3 infections. The SVR12 in HCV genotype 1a-infected treatment-naïve subjects without and with cirrhosis undergoing daclatasvir and [DB08934] therapy were 88% and 99%, respectively [FDA Label]. The same dosing regimen in treatment-naïve patients with HCV genotype 3 infection with or without cirrhosis achieved SVR12 rates of 71% and 98%, respectively [FDA Label].|
|DB00426||Famciclovir||Famciclovir is a guanine analogue antiviral drug used for the treatment of various herpes virus infections, most commonly for herpes zoster (shingles). It is a prodrug form of penciclovir with improved oral bioavailability. Famciclovir is marketed under the trade name Famvir (Novartis).|
|DB00693||Fluorescein||A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium, such as the aqueous humor, and is used therapeutically as a diagnostic aid in corneal injuries and corneal trauma. It has been approved by FDA for use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 12th ed; American Medical Association Drug Evaluations; 1995, p2275)|
|DB01141||Micafungin||Micafungin is an antifungal drug. It belongs to the antifungal class of compounds known as echinocandins and exerts its effect by inhibiting the synthesis of 1,3-beta-D-glucan, an integral component of the fungal cell wall.|
|DB00738||Pentamidine||Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.|
|DB00635||Prednisone||A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from cortisone. It is biologically inert and converted to prednisolone in the liver.|
|DB00811||Ribavirin||Producing a broad-spectrum activity against several RNA and DNA viruses, Ribavirin is a synthetic guanosine nucleoside and antiviral agent that interferes with the synthesis of viral mRNA. It is primarily indicated for use in treating hepatitis C and viral hemorrhagic fevers. HCV is a single-stranded RNA virus that is categorized into nine distinct genotypes, with genotype 1 being the most common in the United States, and affecting 72% of all chronic HCV patients [L852]. It is reported that ribavirin might be only effective in early stages of viral hemorrhagic fevers including Lasser fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever, and Hantavirus infection. Ribavirin is a prodrug that is metabolized into nucleoside analogs that blocks viral RNA synthesis and viral mRNA capping. Before the development of newer drugs, ribavirin and [DB00008]/[DB00022] dual therapy was considered the first-generation and standard antiviral treatment [A19626]. The dual therapy was administered for 48 weeks in patients with genotype 1, 4, 5, and 6, and 24 weeks in patients with genotype 2 and 3 [A19626]. Newer drugs developed as Hepatitis C viral infection treatments can be used to reduce or eliminate the use of ribavirin, which are associated with serious adverse effects. They also improve therapeutic efficacy in patients with failed [DB00008]/[DB00022] and ribavirin-based therapy. The potential use of ribavirin as a treatment for acute myeloid leukemia is currently under investigation.
According to 2017 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and 2015 consensus guidelines from the Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver (CASL), ribavirin is typically used as an adjunct therapy to various first-line and second-line combination therapies recommended for each genotypes. Ribavirin is added to decrease relapse rates by accelerating viral clearance early in the treatment course [A19645]. When used to treat Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, it is always used as a part of combination therapies as ribavirin monotherapy is not efficacious in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection [A19644]. Additionally, including ribavirin in the regimen can increase the risk of anemia.
In HCV genotye 1/2/3/4/5/6 patients, ribavirin can be used in combination therapy involving [DB09102] and [DB08934], Eplusa ([DB08934], [DB11613]), Harvoni ([DB08934], [DB09027]), [DB06290] and [DB08934], Viekira Pak ([DB09296], [DB09297], [DB00503], [DB09183]), Technivie ([DB00503], [DB09296], [DB09297]) and Zepatier ([DB11574], [DB11575]). Addition of weight-based ribavirin to Technivie therapy increased sustained virologic response after 12 weeks of daily therapy (SVR12) from 90% to 97% in patients with HCV genotype 1a and 90.9% to 100% in HCV genotype 4 patients [L852]. Zepatier therapy along with ribavirin improved SVR in HCV genotype 5 patients. Combination therapy of ribavirin and [DB00008] results in the SVR of 44% in patients with genotype 1 infection and 70% in patients with genotype 2-6. The inclusion of ribavirin in the combination therapies depend on individual patient's profile, for example if HCV genotype 3 patient has a Y93H genetic variant and compensated cirrhosis.|
|DB00577||Valaciclovir||Valaciclovir (valacyclovir), also known as _Valtrex_, is an antiviral drug that has been used to manage and treat various herpes infections for more than 2 decades. It was initially approved by the FDA in 1995 [FDA label] and marketed by GlaxoSmithKline [L5671]. Valacyclovir is the L-valine ester of aciclovir. It is a member of the purine (guanine) nucleoside analog drug class [F3949]. This class of drugs forms an important part of hepatitis, HIV, and cytomegalovirus drug regimens [A175900].
One major use of valacyclovir is the treatment of genital herpes episodes or outbreaks. Genital herpes is a frequently diagnosed sexually transmitted disease which currently affects more than 400 million individuals worldwide. It is caused by infection with the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Infection with this virus is lifelong with periodic episodes of reactivation [A175903].|