Pain, Chronic

Also known as: Chronic Pain / Pain NOS / Pain finding / Acute pain NOS / Pain

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00345Aminohippuric acidThe glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity. [PubChem]
DB01151DesipramineDesipramine hydrochloride is a dibenzazepine-derivative tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). TCAs are structurally similar to phenothiazines. They contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, desipramine does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, desipramine exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Secondary amine TCAs, such as desipramine and nortriptyline, are more potent inhibitors of norepinephrine reuptake than tertiary amine TCAs, such as amitriptyline and doxepine. TCAs also down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine-H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. See toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects. Desipramine exerts less anticholinergic and sedative side effects compared to tertiary amine TCAs, such as amitriptyline and clomipramine. Desipramine may be used to treat depression, neuropathic pain (unlabeled use), agitation and insomnia (unlabeled use) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (unlabeled use).
DB00295MorphineThe principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle. In January, 2017, morphine was approved for the treatment of chronic pain.
DB00540NortriptylineNortriptyline hydrochloride, the N-demethylated active metabolite of amitriptyline, is a dibenzocycloheptene-derivative tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). TCAs are structurally similar to phenothiazines. They contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, nortriptyline does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, nortriptyline exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Secondary amine TCAs, such as nortriptyline, are more potent inhibitors of norepinephrine reuptake than tertiary amine TCAs, such as amitriptyline. TCAs also down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine-H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. Compared to other TCAs, nortriptyline is less toxic and displays less drug interactions [A6584]. As a more selective noadrenaline reuptake inhibitor, nortriptyline is less likely associated with the hypertensive ‘cheese reaction' [A6584]. Nortriptyline exerts less anticholinergic and sedative side effects compared to the tertiary amine TCAs, amitriptyline and clomipramine. Apart from its indication to treat depression, nortriptyline has been investigated in chronic neuropathic pain (unlabeled use), fibromyalgia [A31911], irritable bowel syndrome (unlabeled use), diabetic neuropathy (unlabeled use) [A31912], post-traumatic stress disorder (unlabeled use), and migraine prophylaxis (unlabeled use).
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00345Aminohippuric acidSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB00345Aminohippuric acidSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00345Aminohippuric acidSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00345Aminohippuric acidSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00345Aminohippuric acidCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00345Aminohippuric acidSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB00345Aminohippuric acidSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB00345Aminohippuric acidSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 3A1transporter
DB00345Aminohippuric acidSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00345Aminohippuric acidMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB00345Aminohippuric acidSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00345Aminohippuric acidMonocarboxylate transporter 1transporter
DB00345Aminohippuric acidSolute carrier family 22 member 7transporter
DB01151DesipramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB01151DesipramineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB01151DesipramineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01151DesipramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB01151DesipramineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB01151DesipramineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB01151DesipramineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01151DesipramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB01151DesipramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB01151DesipramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB01151DesipramineAlpha-1 adrenergic receptorstarget
DB01151Desipramine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB01151DesipramineAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01151DesipramineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB01151DesipramineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB01151DesipramineSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB01151DesipramineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB01151DesipramineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01151DesipramineSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01151DesipramineSphingomyelin phosphodiesterasetarget
DB01151Desipramine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB01151Desipramine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB01151DesipramineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB01151DesipramineAlpha-2 adrenergic receptorstarget
DB00295MorphineMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00295MorphineDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00295MorphineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00295MorphineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00295MorphineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00295MorphineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00295MorphineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00295MorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00295MorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00295MorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8enzyme
DB00295MorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15enzyme
DB00295MorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4enzyme
DB00295MorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB00295MorphineLymphocyte antigen 96target
DB00540NortriptylineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00540NortriptylineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00540NortriptylineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00540NortriptylineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00540NortriptylineSerum albumincarrier
DB00540NortriptylineAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00540NortriptylineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00540NortriptylineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00540NortriptylineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00540NortriptylineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00540NortriptylineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB00540NortriptylineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB00540Nortriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00540NortriptylineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00540Nortriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00540NortriptylineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00540NortriptylineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00540NortriptylineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB00540NortriptylineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00540NortriptylineProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB00540NortriptylineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00540Nortriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00540Nortriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6target
DB00540NortriptylineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00540NortriptylineAlpha-2 adrenergic receptorstarget
DB00540NortriptylineBeta adrenergic receptortarget
DB00540NortriptylineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00540NortriptylineSigma receptortarget
DB00540Nortriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Ctarget
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB12644AZD-20661Completed1
DB00316Acetaminophen1Completed1
DB00921Buprenorphine1Completed1
DB00490Buspirone1Recruiting1
DB00201Caffeine1Completed1
DB00586Diclofenac1Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00668Epinephrine1Completed1
DB00327Hydromorphone1Completed1
DB01221Ketamine1Completed1
DB00281Lidocaine1Completed1
DB00683Midazolam1Completed1
DB01183Naloxone1Completed2
DB00338Omeprazole1Completed1
DB00497Oxycodone1Completed4
DB00497Oxycodone1Recruiting1
DB12468Pf-045310831Completed2
DB00641Simvastatin1Completed1
DB01124Tolbutamide1Completed1
DB01273Varenicline1Completed1
DB00921Buprenorphine1 / 2Unknown Status1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00813Fentanyl1 / 2Completed1
DB01221Ketamine1 / 2Completed1
DB00295Morphine1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00819Acetazolamide2Withdrawn1
DB12139Alisporivir2Completed1
DB00297Bupivacaine2Terminated1
DB00921Buprenorphine2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00921Buprenorphine2Unknown Status1
DB12830Cebranopadol2Completed1
DB11121Chloroxylenol2Withdrawn1
DB00470Dronabinol2Completed2
DB00470Dronabinol2Recruiting1
DB12177Eplivanserin2Completed1
DB00813Fentanyl2Completed1
DB00996Gabapentin2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00996Gabapentin2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB08872Gabapentin enacarbil2Active Not Recruiting1
DB01221Ketamine2Terminated1
DB00125L-Arginine2Terminated1
DB00379Mexiletine2Completed1
DB01017Minocycline2Completed1
DB01017Minocycline2Recruiting1
DB00295Morphine2Completed2
DB00295Morphine2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01183Naloxone2Unknown Status1
DB00704Naltrexone2Completed1
DB00008Peginterferon alfa-2a2Completed1
DB09287Polyethylene glycol2Completed1
DB11077Polyethylene glycol 4002Completed1
DB00230Pregabalin2Completed1
DB00230Pregabalin2Terminated1
DB00230Pregabalin2Unknown Status1
DB00468Quinine2Withdrawn1
DB00811Ribavirin2Completed1
DB00140Riboflavin2Withdrawn1
DB00708Sufentanil2Withdrawn1
DB00470Dronabinol2 / 3Completed1
DB01221Ketamine2 / 3Recruiting1
DB00107Oxytocin2 / 3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00316Acetaminophen3Completed1
DB00297Bupivacaine3Completed2
DB00921Buprenorphine3Active Not Recruiting1
DB00921Buprenorphine3Completed1
DB12830Cebranopadol3Completed1
DB12830Cebranopadol3Terminated1
DB00813Fentanyl3Completed5
DB00813Fentanyl3Terminated1
DB00813Fentanyl3Withdrawn1
DB00996Gabapentin3Recruiting2
DB00956Hydrocodone3Completed1
DB00327Hydromorphone3Completed1
DB00327Hydromorphone3Recruiting1
DB01221Ketamine3Active Not Recruiting2
DB01221Ketamine3Recruiting1
DB01221Ketamine3Withdrawn1
DB04465Lactose3Recruiting1
DB00281Lidocaine3Active Not Recruiting1
DB00281Lidocaine3Recruiting1
DB14146Loxicodegol3Active Not Recruiting1
DB14146Loxicodegol3Completed1
DB00683Midazolam3Recruiting1
DB00295Morphine3Completed2
DB01183Naloxone3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00704Naltrexone3Completed2
DB00497Oxycodone3Completed3
DB00497Oxycodone3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB01192Oxymorphone3Completed3
DB01192Oxymorphone3Terminated1
DB01192Oxymorphone3Withdrawn1
DB00635Prednisone3Recruiting1
DB00230Pregabalin3Completed1
DB00230Pregabalin3Withdrawn1
DB09153Sodium Chloride3Active Not Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium Chloride3Recruiting1
DB12335Tanezumab3Active Not Recruiting1
DB06204Tapentadol3Completed2
DB06204Tapentadol3Terminated2
DB00193Tramadol3Completed5
DB00193Tramadol3Recruiting1
DB00316Acetaminophen4Completed3
DB00316Acetaminophen4Withdrawn1
DB00321Amitriptyline4Recruiting2
DB00443Betamethasone4Recruiting1
DB00297Bupivacaine4Completed1
DB00297Bupivacaine4Enrolling by Invitation1
DB00921Buprenorphine4Suspended1
DB00318Codeine4Withdrawn1
DB01151Desipramine4Recruiting1
DB01234Dexamethasone4Completed1
DB01234Dexamethasone4Not Yet Recruiting2
DB01234Dexamethasone4Recruiting1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine4Recruiting1
DB00470Dronabinol4Recruiting1
DB00476Duloxetine4Completed1
DB00476Duloxetine4Enrolling by Invitation1
DB00476Duloxetine4Recruiting1
DB00668Epinephrine4Completed1
DB00977Ethinylestradiol4Recruiting1
DB12728Fenpropidin4Recruiting1
DB00813Fentanyl4Completed6
DB00813Fentanyl4Suspended1
DB00996Gabapentin4Completed1
DB01018Guanfacine4Recruiting1
DB00956Hydrocodone4Completed1
DB00327Hydromorphone4Completed1
DB01221Ketamine4Active Not Recruiting1
DB01221Ketamine4Completed1
DB01221Ketamine4Recruiting2
DB00281Lidocaine4Completed1
DB00281Lidocaine4Recruiting1
DB00281Lidocaine4Terminated1
DB00333Methadone4Completed3
DB04896Milnacipran4Completed1
DB00295Morphine4Completed6
DB00295Morphine4Recruiting2
DB00295Morphine4Suspended1
DB01183Naloxone4Completed1
DB01183Naloxone4Withdrawn1
DB00717Norethisterone4Recruiting1
DB00904Ondansetron4Completed1
DB00497Oxycodone4Completed2
DB00497Oxycodone4Recruiting1
DB00497Oxycodone4Suspended1
DB00497Oxycodone4Terminated2
DB00497Oxycodone4Withdrawn1
DB01192Oxymorphone4Completed1
DB00230Pregabalin4Completed1
DB00818Propofol4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00899Remifentanil4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00899Remifentanil4Completed2
DB00296Ropivacaine4Recruiting1
DB01236Sevoflurane4Active Not Recruiting1
DB09153Sodium Chloride4Completed2
DB09153Sodium Chloride4Recruiting3
DB00708Sufentanil4Completed1
DB01036Tolterodine4Recruiting2
DB00193Tramadol4Completed1
DB00656Trazodone4Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00316AcetaminophenNot AvailableCompleted1
DB11121ChloroxylenolNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting2
DB11121ChloroxylenolNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00260CycloserineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01234DexamethasoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01075DiphenhydramineNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00813FentanylNot AvailableActive Not Recruiting1
DB00813FentanylNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00874GuaifenesinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01018GuanfacineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01050IbuprofenNot AvailableTerminated1
DB01221KetamineNot AvailableCompleted2
DB01221KetamineNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00465KetorolacNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00854LevorphanolNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00281LidocaineNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting2
DB14009Medical CannabisNot AvailableNot Yet Recruiting1
DB00333MethadoneNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00959MethylprednisoloneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00959MethylprednisoloneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB04896MilnacipranNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00295MorphineNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00295MorphineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB01183NaloxoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB12510OzoneNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB03255PhenolNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00388PhenylephrineNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00899RemifentanilNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00296RopivacaineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB09153Sodium ChlorideNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00193TramadolNot AvailableTerminated1