Perennial Allergic Rhinitis (PAR)

Also known as: Perennial Allergic Rhinitis / Rhinitis perennial / Allergic rhinitis / Perennial rhinitis / Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00972AzelastineAzelastine, a phthalazine derivative, is an antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer available as a nasal spray for hay fever and as eye drops for allergic conjunctivitis. Azelastine is also available as a combination product of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate called Dymista™. Dymista™ is indicated in patient over 12 years old for symptomatic relief of seasonal allergic rhinitis.
DB00394Beclomethasone dipropionateBeclomethasone dipropionate is a second-generation synthetic corticosteroid agent [A179842] and a diester of [beclomethasone], which is structurally similar to [dexamethasone].[L6871] It is a prodrug of an active metabolite beclomethasone 17-monopropionate (17-BMP)[A179839] which acts on the glucocorticoid receptor to mediates its therapeutic action. Beclomethasone dipropionate itself posesses weak glucocorticoid receptor binding affinity and is rapidly converted into 17-BMP upon administration.[A179839] Formulations for oral inhalation, intranasal, and topical use are available for beclomethasone dipropionate. Beclomethasone dipropionate became first available in a pressurized metered-dose inhaler in 1972 and later in a dry powder inhaler and an aqueous nasal spray.[A179839] Due to its anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and anti-allergy properties, beclomethasone dipropionate is used in various inflammatory conditions, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and dermatoses to reduce symptoms. When inhaled, it is proposed that beclomethasone dipropionate remains active locally in the lung without causing significant side effects associated with systemic corticosteroids.[A180010] Compared to earlier corticosteroids such as [dexamethasone] and [prednisolone], beclomethasone dipropionate is reported to be less irritating to the nasal mucosa with a longer duration of action when administered intranasally.[A179848]
DB00341CetirizineCetirizine, also commonly known as _Zyrtec_, is an orally active second-generation histamine H1 antagonist proven effective in the treatment of various allergic symptoms, such as sneezing, coughing, nasal congestion, hives, and other symptoms [A175051], [A175054]. One of the most common uses for this drug is for a condition called _allergic rhinitis_. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis in the United States is about 15% according to physician diagnoses, and up to 30%, according to self-reported nasal symptoms. Allergic rhinitis is associated with multiple missed or unproductive days at work and school, problems with sleep, and other difficulties with day to day activities for many individuals [A175057]. Furthermore, some antihistamine agents that are used to treat this condition cause undesirable, sedating effects [A175060]. Cetirizine is one of the first second-generation H1 antihistamines (SGAHs)formulated to selectively inhibit the H1 receptor without sedating effects [A175054].
DB01410CiclesonideCiclesonide is a glucocorticoid used to treat obstructive airway diseases. It is marketed under the brand name Alvesco.
DB01380Cortisone acetateCortisone acetate is a steroid hormone that has both glucocoriticoid and mineral corticoid activities. Corticosteroids are used to provide relief for inflamed areas of the body. They lessen swelling, redness, itching, and allergic reactions. They are often used as part of the treatment for a number of different diseases, such as severe allergies or skin problems, asthma, or arthritis. Endogenous glucocorticoids and some synthetic corticoids have high affinity to the protein transcortin (also called CBG, corticosteroid-binding protein), whereas all of them bind albumin. Glucocorticoids also bind to the cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor.
DB01003Cromoglicic acidA chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
DB00967DesloratadineDesloratadine is a second generation, tricyclic antihistamine that which has a selective and peripheral H1-antagonist action. It is the active descarboethoxy metabolite of loratidine (a second generation histamine). Desloratidine has a long-lasting effect and does not cause drowsiness because it does not readily enter the central nervous system.
DB01234DexamethasoneAn anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
DB08906Fluticasone furoateFluticasone furoate is a synthetic glucocorticoid available as an inhaler and nasal spray for various inflammatory indications[FDA Label][F4364]. Fluticasone furoate was first approved in 2007[L5965].
DB00332IpratropiumIpratropium is a quaternary ammonium derivative of [atropine][A176957] that acts as an anticholinergic agent.[A176939] It is commonly administered through inhalation which allows producing a local effect without presenting a significant systemic absorption.[A176957] Ipratropium as a therapeutic agent was developed by Boehringer Ingelheim and its first monotherapy product was FDA approved in 1986.[L5891] On the other hand, the combination product of ipratropium and [albuterol] was approved in 1996.[L5894]
DB06282LevocetirizineLevocetirizine is a selective histamine H1 antagonist used to treat a variety of allergic symptoms.[A181748,A181790,L7694] It is the R enantiomer of [cetirizine].[L7694] Levocetirizine has greater affinity for the histamine H1 receptor than cetirizine.[L7694] Levocetirizine was granted FDA approval in 1995.[L7694]
DB00959MethylprednisoloneA prednisolone derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.
DB00471MontelukastMontelukast was first approved for clinical use by the US FDA in 1998 as Merck's brand name Singulair.[L6301] The medication is a member of the leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) category of drugs.[L6301,L6304,L6307,L6310,L6325,L6328,L6331] Although capable of demonstrating effectiveness, the use of such LTRAs like montelukast is typically in addition to or complementary with the use of inhaled corticosteroids or other agents in asthma step therapy.[A178645] Regardless, in 2008-2009, there were FDA-led investigations into the possibility of montelukast to elicit neuropsychiatric effects like agitation, hallucinations, suicidal behaviour, and others in individuals who used the medication.[A178651] And although these kinds of effects are currently included in the official prescribing information for montelukast,[L6301,L6304,L6307,L6310,L6325,L6328,L6331] the drug still sees extensive use worldwide via millions of prescriptions annually and has since become available as a generic and as a brand name product.
DB00860PrednisoloneA glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
DB00427TriprolidineFirst generation histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic rhinitis; asthma; and urticaria. It is a component of cough and cold medicines. It may cause drowsiness.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00972AzelastineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00972AzelastineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00972AzelastineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00972AzelastineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00972AzelastineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00972AzelastineCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00972AzelastineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00972AzelastineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00972AzelastineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00972AzelastineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00972AzelastineCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB00972AzelastineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00972AzelastineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00394Beclomethasone dipropionateCorticosteroid-binding globulincarrier
DB00394Beclomethasone dipropionateGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00394Beclomethasone dipropionateCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00394Beclomethasone dipropionateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00394Beclomethasone dipropionateMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00394Beclomethasone dipropionateATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00394Beclomethasone dipropionateSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00394Beclomethasone dipropionateSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB00341CetirizineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00341CetirizineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01410CiclesonideCorticosteroid-binding globulincarrier
DB01410CiclesonideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01410CiclesonideCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01410CiclesonideGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB01410CiclesonideLiver carboxylesterase 1enzyme
DB01410CiclesonideCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB01380Cortisone acetateGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB01380Cortisone acetateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01380Cortisone acetateCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB01003Cromoglicic acidCalcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1target
DB01003Cromoglicic acidProtein S100-Ptarget
DB00967DesloratadineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00967DesloratadineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00967DesloratadineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00967DesloratadineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00967DesloratadineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00967DesloratadineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01234DexamethasoneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB01234DexamethasoneAnnexin A1target
DB01234DexamethasoneNitric oxide synthase, inducibletarget
DB01234DexamethasoneNuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 1target
DB01234DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01234DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB01234DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB01234DexamethasoneBile salt export pumptransporter
DB01234DexamethasoneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01234DexamethasoneCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB01234DexamethasoneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB01234DexamethasoneATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB01234DexamethasoneSteroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyaseenzyme
DB01234DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB01234DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01234DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01234DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01234DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01234DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01234DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01234DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 3A43enzyme
DB01234DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 4A11enzyme
DB01234DexamethasoneNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB01234DexamethasoneCytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrialenzyme
DB08906Fluticasone furoateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB08906Fluticasone furoateGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB08906Fluticasone furoateMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB08906Fluticasone furoateCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB08906Fluticasone furoateSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB08906Fluticasone furoateCorticosteroid-binding globulincarrier
DB08906Fluticasone furoateMultidrug resistance protein 1carrier
DB08906Fluticasone furoateSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1carrier
DB08906Fluticasone furoateCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB08906Fluticasone furoateCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB08906Fluticasone furoateProgesterone receptortarget
DB08906Fluticasone furoateMineralocorticoid receptortarget
DB00332IpratropiumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00332IpratropiumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00332IpratropiumMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00332IpratropiumSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00332IpratropiumSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB00332IpratropiumSerum albumincarrier
DB00332Ipratropiumalpha1-acid glycoproteincarrier
DB06282LevocetirizineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB06282LevocetirizineSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB06282LevocetirizineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB06282LevocetirizineSerum albumincarrier
DB00959MethylprednisoloneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00959MethylprednisoloneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00959MethylprednisoloneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00471MontelukastCysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1target
DB00471MontelukastArachidonate 5-lipoxygenasetarget
DB00471MontelukastCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00471MontelukastCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00471MontelukastCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00471MontelukastSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB00471MontelukastProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB00471MontelukastCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB00860PrednisoloneCorticosteroid-binding globulincarrier
DB00860PrednisoloneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00860PrednisoloneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00860PrednisoloneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00860PrednisoloneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00427TriprolidineHistamine H1 receptortarget