Severe Pain

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00316AcetaminophenAcetaminophen, also known as paracetamol, is commonly used for its analgesic and antipyretic effects. Its therapeutic effects are similar to salicylates, but it lacks anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, and gastric ulcerative effects.
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidThe prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Acetylsalicylic acid also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
DB00921BuprenorphineBuprenorphine is a derivative of the opioid alkaloid thebaine that is a more potent (25 - 40 times) and longer lasting analgesic than morphine. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.
DB00611ButorphanolA synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.
DB09061CannabidiolCannabidiol, or CBD, is one of at least 85 active cannabinoids identified within the Cannabis plant. It is a major phytocannabinoid, accounting for up to 40% of the Cannabis plant's extract, that binds to a wide variety of physiological targets of the endocannabinoid system within the body. Although the exact medical implications are currently being investigated, CBD has shown promise as a therapeutic and pharmaceutical drug target. In particular, CBD has shown promise as an analgesic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, anxiolytic, antipsychotic and has shown neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity, among other currently investigated uses [A32477, A32469]. CBD's exact place within medical practice is still currently hotly debated, however as the body of evidence grows and legislation changes to reflect its wide-spread use, public and medical opinion have changed significantly with regards to its usefulness in a number of medical conditions ranging from anxiety to epilepsy. From a pharmacological perspective, Cannabis' (and CBD's) diverse receptor profile explains its potential application for such a wide variety of medical conditions. Cannabis contains more than 400 different chemical compounds, of which 61 are considered cannabinoids, a class of compounds that act upon endogenous cannabinoid receptors of the body [A32584]. Cannabinoid receptors are utilized endogenously by the body through the endocannabinoid system, which includes a group of lipid proteins, enzymes, and receptors that are involved in many physiological processes. Through its modulation of neurotransmitter release, the endocannabinoid system regulates cognition, pain sensation, appetite, memory, sleep, immune function, and mood among many other bodily systems. These effects are largely mediated through two members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2)[A32585,A32824]. CB1 receptors are found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, with the majority of receptors localized to the hippocampus and amygdala of the brain. Physiological effects of using cannabis make sense in the context of its receptor activity as the hippocampus and amygdala are primarily involved with regulation of memory, fear, and emotion. In contrast, CB2 receptors are mainly found peripherally in immune cells, lymphoid tissue, and peripheral nerve terminals [A32676]. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are two types of cannabinoids found naturally in the resin of the marijuana plant, both of which interact with the cannabinoid receptors that are found throughout the body. Although THC and CBD have been the most studied cannabinoids, there are many others identified to date including cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG), [DB14050] (CBDV), and [DB11755] (THCV) that can be found within the medical cannabis [A32830]. While both CBD and THC are used for medicinal purposes, they have different receptor activity, function, and physiological effects. If not provided in their activated form (such as through synthetic forms of THC like [DB00470] or [DB00486]), THC and CBD are obtained through conversion from their precursors, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (THCA-A) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), through decarboxylation reactions. This can be achieved through heating, smoking, vaporization, or baking of dried unfertilized female cannabis flowers. The primary psychoactive component of Cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), demonstrates its effects through weak partial agonist activity at Cannabinoid-1 (CB1R) and Cannabinoid-2 (CB2R) receptors. This activity results in the well-known effects of smoking cannabis such as increased appetite, reduced pain, and changes in emotional and cognitive processes. In contrast to THC's weak agonist activity, CBD has been shown to act as a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, the most abundant G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) in the body [A32469]. Allosteric regulation is achieved through the modulation of receptor activity on a functionally distinct site from the agonist or antagonist binding site which is clinically significant as direct agonists (such as THC) are limited by their psychomimetic effects such as changes to mood, memory, and anxiety[A32469]. In addition to the well-known activity on CB1 and CB2 receptors, there is further evidence that CBD also activates 5-HT1A/2A/3A serotonergic and TRPV1–2 vanilloid receptors, antagonizes alpha-1 adrenergic and µ-opioid receptors, inhibits synaptosomal uptake of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and cellular uptake of anandamide, acts on mitochondria Ca2+ stores, blocks low-voltage-activated (T-type) Ca2+ channels, stimulates activity of the inhibitory glycine-receptor, and inhibits activity of fatty amide hydrolase (FAAH) [A31555, A31574]. CBD is currently available in Canada within a 1:1 formulation with tetrahydrocannbinol (THC) (as the formulation known as "nabiximols") as the brand name product Sativex. It is approved for use as adjunctive treatment for symptomatic relief of spasticity in adult patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Sativex was also given a conditional Notice of Compliance (NOC/c) for use as adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in adult patients with multiple sclerosis and as adjunctive analgesic treatment for moderate to severe pain in adult patients with advanced cancer [L886]. In April 2018, a Food and Drug Administration advisory panel unanimously recommended approval of Epidiolex (cannabidiol oral solution) for the treatment of two rare forms of epilepsy - Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome, which are among the two most difficult types of epilepsy to treat [L2721, L2719]. Epidiolex was granted Orphan Drug designation as well as Fast Track Approval from the FDA for further study in these hard to treat conditions. Notably, phase 3 clinical trials of Epidiolex have demonstrated clinically significant improvement in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome [L2720]. On June 25th, 2018, Epidiolex was approved by the FDA to be the first CBD-based product available on the US market.
DB00318CodeineThe relief of pain (analgesia) is a primary goal for enhancing the quality of life of patients and for increasing the ability of patients to engage in day to day activities. Codeine, an opioid analgesic, was originally approved in the US in 1950 and is a drug used to decrease pain by increasing the threshold for pain without impairing consciousness or altering other sensory functions. Opiates such as codeine are derived from the poppy plant, _Papaver somniferum_ (Papaveraceae) [A175096]. Codeine is utilized as a central analgesic, sedative, hypnotic, antinociceptive, and antiperistaltic agent, and is also recommended in certain diseases with incessant coughing [FDA label], [A175096].
DB01551DihydrocodeineDihydrocodeine is an opioid analgesic used as an alternative or adjunct to codeine to treat moderate to severe pain, severe dyspnea, and cough. It is semi-synthetic, and was developed in Germany in 1908 during an international search to find a more effective antitussive agent to help reduce the spread of airborne infectious diseases such as tuburculosis. It was marketed in 1911.
DB00813FentanylA potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
DB00956HydrocodoneNarcotic analgesic related to codeine, but more potent and more addicting by weight. It is used also as cough suppressant.
DB01050IbuprofenIbuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) derived from propionic acid and it is considered the first of the propionics.[A39074] The formula of ibuprofen is 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid and its initial development was in 1960 while researching for a safer alternative for aspirin.[A39075] Ibuprofen was finally patented in 1961 and this drug was first launched against rheumatoid arthritis in the UK in 1969 and USA in 1974. It was the first available over-the-counter NSAID.[A39076] On the available products, ibuprofen is administered as a racemic mixture. Once administered, the R-enantiomer undergoes extensive interconversion to the S-enantiomer _in vivo_ by the activity of the alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase. The S-enantiomer is believed to be the more pharmacologically active enantiomer.[A39194]
DB00854LevorphanolA narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is nearly as effective orally as by injection.
DB00454MeperidineA narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
DB01028MethoxyfluraneAn inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with nitrous oxide to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
DB00295MorphineMorphine is the main alkaloid of opium and it was first obtained from the poppy seeds in 1805.[A176035] It is the most potent analgesic for chronic pain but its use is limited due to the induction of tolerance, severe withdrawal symptoms and high risk of relapse and abuse.[A176050] In its pure form, morphine is ten times more potent than opium and due to this property, it was used extensively in the US Civil War which derived in approximately 400,000 addicted soldiers. After this event, around the second half of the nineteenth-century, the science made several efforts to find a less addictive alternative which brought the synthesis of [heroin]. However, morphine is still the precursor to other opioids such as [codeine], [fentanyl], [methadone], [hydrocodone], [hydromorphone], [meperidine], and [oxycodone].[L5716] Morphine's first official product was developed by West-Ward Pharmaceuticals Int. and FDA approved in 1984.[L5713]
DB00844NalbuphineA narcotic used as a pain medication. It appears to be an agonist at kappa opioid receptors and an antagonist or partial agonist at mu opioid receptors. Nalbuphine is the only opioid analgesic that is not a controlled substance in the United States.
DB01183NaloxoneNaloxone is an opioid antagonist medication used to block or reverse the effects of opioid drugs, particularly within the setting of drug overdoses which are rapidly becoming a leading cause of death worldwide. More specifically, naloxone has a high affinity for μ-opioid receptors, where it acts as an inverse agonist, causing the rapid removal of any other drugs bound to these receptors. When taken in large quantities, opioid medications such as morphine, hydromorphone, methadone, heroin, or fentanyl are capable of causing life-threatening symptoms such as respiratory depression, reduced heart rate, slurred speech, drowsiness, and constricted pupils. If untreated, this can progress to vomiting, absent pulse and breathing, loss of consciousness, and even death. Naloxone is indicated for the rapid reversal of these symptoms of central nervous system depression in opioid overdose. It's important to note that naloxone only works on opioid receptors within the body, and is therefore not capable of reversing the effects of non-opioid medications such as stimulants like methamphetamine or cocaine, or benzodiazepines like lorazepam or diazepam. Also known as the brand name product Narcan, naloxone is currently available by intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous (SubQ) injection, nasal spray, or intravenous (IV) infusion. Naloxone IM injections are commonly available in the form of "kits", which is ideal for making overdose treatment accessible and readily available for administration by minimally trained individuals within the community. Kits commonly include the supplies necessary to treat an overdose in a non-medical setting such as alcohol swabs, syringes, a rescue breathing mask, and instructions for use. Frequently also carried by medical and emergency personnel and at events known to be associated with heavy drug use like music festivals, naloxone kits are considered a key component of harm reduction strategies. When injected intramuscularly (IM), naloxone acts within 3-5 minutes and can last from 30-60 minutes before its effects wear off. Administration of naloxone is associated with very few side effects. Notably, if injected into a person not currently using opioid medications, there would be no noticeable effects at all. However, for individuals using opioid medications or experiencing an overdose, IM injection of naloxone rapidly reverses opioid effects and can cause the injected individual to immediately experience withdrawal symptoms. Common symptoms of opioid withdrawal include nausea, vomiting, sweating, runny nose, aches, and diarrhea. Although certainly physically uncomfortable, opioid withdrawal symptoms are not life-threatening like they are for alcohol withdrawals. Administration of naloxone is therefore appropriate for any person appearing to have any symptoms of an opioid overdose. Due to its short duration of action, person's injected with naloxone should be monitored for responsiveness and potentially injected a second time or taken to the hospital. Naloxone is also available within the combination product Suboxone with the opioid medication buprenorphine. Suboxone is used for the maintentance treatment of opioid dependence and addiction. When taken orally, naloxone has no pharmacological effect and does not reduce the effectiveness of the opioid effect of buprenorphine. The primary purpose of including naloxone within Suboxone is to act as a deterrent to injection, as injected naloxone would rapidly reverse the effects of buprenorphine.
DB00704NaltrexoneDerivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of naloxone. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.
DB00497OxycodoneOxycodone is a semisynthetic derivative of codeine that acts as a narcotic analgesic more potent and addicting than codeine. An extended-release (ER) form of oxycodone (Xtampza ER) was approved for the management of daily, around-the-clock pain management in April, 2016.
DB01192OxymorphoneAn opioid analgesic with actions and uses similar to those of morphine, apart from an absence of cough suppressant activity. It is used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain, including pain in obstetrics. It may also be used as an adjunct to anesthesia (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1092). On June 8, 2017, FDA requested Endo Pharmaceuticals to remove the medication from the market due to opioid misuse and abuse risks associated with the product's injectable reformulation.
DB00652PentazocineThe first mixed agonist-antagonist analgesic to be marketed. It is an agonist at the kappa and sigma opioid receptors and has a weak antagonist action at the mu receptor. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1991, p97)
DB00193TramadolTramadol, with the chemical formula cis-2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-cyclohexanol hydrochloride, is a 4-phenylpiperidine analog of codeine.[A173983] It is a usual go-to medication as it has less potential for abuse and respiratory depression. Tramadol can be found as 2 enantiomers with active analgesic properties however, the mechanism of action of each of the enantiomers differs greatly.[A173980] In the FDA records, the first approved tramadol product was developed by Actavis Elizabeth and FDA approved in 2002.[L5125]
DB09120ZucapsaicinZucapsaicin, the cis-isomer of capsaicin, is a topical analgesic used to treat osteoarthritis of the knee and other neuropathic pain. It is a modulator of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV-1), also known as the vanilloid or capsaicin receptor 1, that reduces pain and improves articular functions. Zucapsaicin has also been tested for treatment of a variety of conditions associated with ongoing nerve pain. This includes herpes simplex infections; cluster headaches and migraine; and knee osteoarthritis. It was approved by the Health Canada in 2010 as topical cream marketed under the brand name Zuacta but currently not FDA-approved.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00316AcetaminophenProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB00316AcetaminophenProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00316AcetaminophenCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00316AcetaminophenCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00316AcetaminophenMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00316AcetaminophenSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00316AcetaminophenCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00316AcetaminophenCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00316AcetaminophenCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB00316AcetaminophenCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00316AcetaminophenCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00316AcetaminophenCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00316AcetaminophenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00316AcetaminophenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
DB00316AcetaminophenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00316AcetaminophenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15enzyme
DB00316AcetaminophenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10enzyme
DB00316AcetaminophenSulfotransferase 1A1enzyme
DB00316AcetaminophenSulfotransferase 1A3/1A4enzyme
DB00316AcetaminophenEstrogen sulfotransferaseenzyme
DB00316AcetaminophenBile salt sulfotransferaseenzyme
DB00316AcetaminophenArylamine N-acetyltransferase 2enzyme
DB00316AcetaminophenProstaglandin G/H synthase 3target
DB00316AcetaminophenFatty-acid amide hydrolase 1target
DB00316AcetaminophenTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1target
DB00316AcetaminophenGlutathione S-transferase Ptarget
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidSerum albumincarrier
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidAldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1target
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidSolute carrier family 22 member 7transporter
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acid5'-AMP-activated protein kinasetarget
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidEndothelin-1 receptortarget
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidInhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit betatarget
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidCellular tumor antigen p53target
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acid78 kDa glucose-regulated proteintarget
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidRibosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-3target
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidNF-kappa-B inhibitor alphatarget
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acidNuclear factor NF-kappa-Btarget
DB00921BuprenorphineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00921BuprenorphineMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00921BuprenorphineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00921BuprenorphineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00921BuprenorphineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00921BuprenorphineATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00921BuprenorphineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00921BuprenorphineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00921BuprenorphineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00921BuprenorphineCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00921BuprenorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00921BuprenorphineDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00921BuprenorphineCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB00921BuprenorphineCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00921BuprenorphineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00921BuprenorphineNociceptin receptortarget
DB00921BuprenorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00611ButorphanolKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00611ButorphanolMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00611ButorphanolDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB09061CannabidiolCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolCannabinoid receptor 1target
DB09061CannabidiolCannabinoid receptor 2target
DB09061CannabidiolG-protein coupled receptor 12target
DB09061CannabidiolGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB09061CannabidiolGlycine receptor (alpha-1/beta)target
DB09061CannabidiolGlycine receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB09061CannabidiolN-arachidonyl glycine receptortarget
DB09061CannabidiolG-protein coupled receptor 55target
DB09061Cannabidiol5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB09061Cannabidiol5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB09061CannabidiolNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
DB09061CannabidiolDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB09061CannabidiolMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB09061CannabidiolPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB09061CannabidiolCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolAcetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, mitochondrialenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolArylalkylamine N-acetyltransferaseenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolCatalaseenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolSn1-specific diacylglycerol lipase alphaenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolFatty-acid amide hydrolase 1enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolGlutathione reductase, mitochondrialenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolGlutathione peroxidase 1enzyme
DB09061Cannabidiol3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductaseenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolIndoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolArachidonate 5-lipoxygenaseenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolArachidonate 15-lipoxygenaseenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolN-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidaseenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolQuinone oxidoreductaseenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolN-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase Denzyme
DB09061CannabidiolPhospholipase A2enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolSteroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyaseenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolSuperoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]enzyme
DB09061CannabidiolSphingomyelin phosphodiesteraseenzyme
DB09061CannabidiolMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB09061CannabidiolATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB09061CannabidiolEquilibrative nucleoside transporter 1transporter
DB09061CannabidiolTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1target
DB09061CannabidiolVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Gtarget
DB09061CannabidiolVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Htarget
DB09061CannabidiolVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Itarget
DB09061CannabidiolTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A member 1target
DB09061CannabidiolTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8target
DB09061CannabidiolTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2target
DB09061CannabidiolTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 3target
DB09061CannabidiolTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4target
DB09061CannabidiolVoltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1target
DB09061Cannabidiol5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB09061CannabidiolAdenosine receptor A1target
DB00318CodeineMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00318CodeineDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00318CodeineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00318CodeineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00318CodeineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00318CodeineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB00318CodeineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00318CodeineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4enzyme
DB00318CodeineMagnesium stearatecarrier
DB00318CodeineLactose monohydratecarrier
DB00318CodeineStarch, pregelatinizedcarrier
DB00318CodeineSodium starch glycolatecarrier
DB01551DihydrocodeineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01551DihydrocodeineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00813FentanylMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00813FentanylDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00813FentanylCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00813FentanylCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00813FentanylCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00813FentanylMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00813FentanylKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00813FentanylMultidrug resistance protein 1target
DB00956HydrocodoneMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00956HydrocodoneDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00956HydrocodoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00956HydrocodoneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB01050IbuprofenProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB01050IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenSerum albumincarrier
DB01050IbuprofenMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB01050IbuprofenMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB01050IbuprofenMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenApoptosis regulator Bcl-2target
DB01050IbuprofenThrombomodulintarget
DB01050IbuprofenFatty acid-binding protein, intestinaltarget
DB01050IbuprofenPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB01050IbuprofenCystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatortarget
DB01050IbuprofenPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
DB01050IbuprofenPlatelet glycoprotein Ib alpha chaintarget
DB01050IbuprofenProtein S100-A7target
DB01050IbuprofenAlpha-methylacyl-CoA racemaseenzyme
DB00854LevorphanolMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00854LevorphanolDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00854LevorphanolKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00454MeperidineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00454MeperidineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00454MeperidineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00454MeperidineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1target
DB00454MeperidineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Btarget
DB00454MeperidineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Atarget
DB00454MeperidineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Ctarget
DB00454MeperidineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Dtarget
DB00454MeperidineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00454MeperidineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00454MeperidineSerum albumincarrier
DB00454MeperidineAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00454MeperidineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptortarget
DB00454MeperidineMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00454MeperidineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB00454MeperidineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00454MeperidineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00454MeperidineLiver carboxylesterase 1target
DB00454MeperidineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1target
DB01028MethoxyfluraneATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrialtarget
DB01028MethoxyfluraneNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1target
DB01028MethoxyfluraneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01028MethoxyfluranePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1target
DB01028MethoxyfluraneGlutamate receptor 1target
DB01028MethoxyfluraneGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01028MethoxyfluraneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00295MorphineMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00295MorphineDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00295MorphineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00295MorphineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00295MorphineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00295MorphineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00295MorphineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00295MorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00295MorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00295MorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8enzyme
DB00295MorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15enzyme
DB00295MorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4enzyme
DB00295MorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB00295MorphineLymphocyte antigen 96target
DB00844NalbuphineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00844NalbuphineMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00844NalbuphineDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB01183NaloxoneMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB01183NaloxoneEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB01183NaloxoneCyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1target
DB01183NaloxoneDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB01183NaloxoneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB01183NaloxoneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01183NaloxoneKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB01183NaloxoneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01183NaloxoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01183NaloxoneSerum albumincarrier
DB01183NaloxoneToll-like receptor 4target
DB01183NaloxoneLiver carboxylesterase 1target
DB01183NaloxoneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00704NaltrexoneMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00704NaltrexoneKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00704NaltrexoneDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00704NaltrexoneHCG20471, isoform CRA_ctarget
DB00704NaltrexoneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00497OxycodoneMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00497OxycodoneKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00497OxycodoneDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00497OxycodoneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00497OxycodoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00497OxycodoneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00497OxycodoneKappa-type opioid receptor 2btarget
DB00497Oxycodonealpha1-acid glycoproteintarget
DB01192OxymorphoneMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB01192OxymorphoneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01192OxymorphoneDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB01192OxymorphoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00652PentazocineMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00652PentazocineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00652PentazocineSigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1target
DB00193TramadolMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00193TramadolSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00193Tramadol5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00193TramadolKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00193TramadolSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00193TramadolCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00193TramadolDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00193TramadolCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00193TramadolCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00193TramadolGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Atarget
DB00193TramadolAlpha-7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunittarget
DB00193TramadolMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00193TramadolMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00193TramadolUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00193TramadolMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB09120ZucapsaicinTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1target
DB09120ZucapsaicinCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB09120ZucapsaicinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB09120ZucapsaicinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB09120ZucapsaicinCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB01183NaloxoneNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00497OxycodoneNot AvailableCompleted1