Kidney Transplant Rejection

Also known as: Kidney transplant rejection / Renal Transplant Rejection / Acute allograft nephropathy

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00087AlemtuzumabHumanized monoclonal antibody specific to lymphocyte antigens. It is a recombinant DNA-derived humanized monoclonal antibody (Campath-1H) that is directed against the 21-28 kD cell surface glycoprotein,CD52. The Campath-1H antibody is an IgG1 kappa with human variable framework and constant regions, and complementarity-determining regions from a murine (rat) monoclonal antibody (Campath-1G). Campath is produced in mammalian cell (Chinese hamster ovary) suspension culture in a medium containing neomycin.
DB09312Antilymphocyte immunoglobulin (horse)Equine anti-thymocyte globulin is composed of purified gamma globulin containing primarily IgG against human thymus lymphocytes. It is formed by inoculating a horse with an antigen (human thymoyctes) which then induces the horse immune system's B-lymphocytes to produce IgG immunoglobulins specific for that antigen. The result is polyclonal IgG that is then purified from the horse's serum to produce a usable drug product that can be used for immunosuppression. Although the exact mechanism of action is unknown, equine anti-thymocyte globulin targets a variety of immune system proteins including lymphocyte surface proteins, granulocytes, platelets, bone marrow cells, and other cell types. Equine ATG is currently indicated for the suppression of the immune system to prevent renal transplant rejection and in the treatment of aplastic anemia. Induction of T cell apoptosis and resulting T-cell lymphopenia found in vivo is credited for its therapeutic effect in these conditions. There are currently various ATG products available, which differ in the source of inoculated animal (rabbit, horse, or pig) and in the type of antigen product used to produce immunoglobulin (thymocytes, peripheral T cells, etc.).
DB00098Antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rabbit)Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin. Thymoglobulin is a polyclonal antibody that suppresses certain types of immune cells responsible for acute organ rejection in transplant patients. Thymoglobulin is a mixture of antibodies intended to bind to various cell surface antigens. The most common mode of action of Thymoglobulin is via selective depletion of T-cells.
DB00993AzathioprineAn immunosuppressive antimetabolite pro-drug. It is an imidazolyl derivative of 6-mercaptopurine and many of its biological effects are similar to those of the parent compound. Azathioprine is converted into 6-mercaptopurine in the body where it blocks purine metabolism and DNA synthesis.
DB00074BasiliximabA recombinant chimeric (murine/human) monoclonal antibody (IgG1k) that functions as an immunosuppressive agent, specifically binding to and blocking the interleukin-2 receptor a-chain (IL-2R alpha, also known as CD25 antigen) on the surface of activated T-lymphocytes. It is a 144 kDa glycoprotein obtained from fermentation of an established mouse myeloma cell line genetically engineered to express plasmids containing the human heavy and light chain constant region genes and mouse heavy and light chain variable region genes encoding the RFT5 antibody that binds selectively to the IL-2R alpha.
DB06681BelataceptBelatacept is a soluble fusion protein, which links the extracellular domain of human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) to the modified Fc (hinge, CH2, and CH3 domains) portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). Structurally, abatacept is a glycosylated fusion protein with a MALDI-MS molecular weight of 92,300 Da and it is a homodimer of two homologous polypeptide chains of 357 amino acids each. It is produced through recombinant DNA technology in mammalian CHO cells. The drug has activity as a selective co-stimulation modulator with inhibitory activity on T lymphocytes. It is approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Belatacept selectively blocks the process of T-cell activation. It was developed by Bristol-Myers-Squibb. Belatacept is only 2 amino acids different from abatacept (Orencia). FDA approved on June 15, 2011.
DB00091CiclosporinCyclosporine is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide formed by 11 amino acids that presents powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties.[A174088] It is isolated from the fungus _Beauveria nivea_ and it was first formulated as an injectable ethanolic solution in 1980 followed by a vegetable oil formulation in 1990.[A174049] This drug was first discovered in 1970 by Sandoz.[A174076] On the FDA records, the first approved product was registered by the company West-Ward Pharmaceuticals International in 1999.[L5149]
DB01590EverolimusEverolimus is a derivative of Rapamycin (sirolimus), and works similarly to Rapamycin as an mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor. It is currently used as an immunosuppressant to prevent rejection of organ transplants. In a similar fashion to other mTOR inhibitors Everolimus' effect is solely on the mTORC1 protein and not on the mTORC2 protein.
DB00075MuromonabMurine monoclonal antibody specific to CD3 T-cell lymphocyte antigens. More specifically it is a purified murine (mouse) monoclonal antibody, directed against the CD3 (T3) receptor on the surface of human T-cells (T-lymphocytes) cultured using the murine ascites method. Muromonab is 93% monomeric immune globulin G type 2a (IgG2a).
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilMycophenolate mofetil is the 2-morpholinoethyl ester of mycophenolic acid (MPA), an immunosuppressive agent, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitor.
DB01024Mycophenolic acidMycophenolic acid is an an immunosuppresant drug and potent anti-proliferative, and can be used in place of the older anti-proliferative azathioprine. It is usually used as part of triple therapy including a calcineurin inhibitor (ciclosporin or tacrolimus) and prednisolone. It is also useful in research for the selection of animal cells that express the E. coli gene coding for XGPRT (xanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase).
DB00864TacrolimusTacrolimus (also FK-506 or Fujimycin) is an immunosuppressive drug whose main use is after organ transplant to reduce the activity of the patient's immune system and so the risk of organ rejection. It is also used in a topical preparation in the treatment of severe atopic dermatitis, severe refractory uveitis after bone marrow transplants, and the skin condition vitiligo. It was discovered in 1984 from the fermentation broth of a Japanese soil sample that contained the bacteria Streptomyces tsukubaensis. Tacrolimus is chemically known as a macrolide. It reduces peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity by binding to the immunophilin FKBP-12 (FK506 binding protein) creating a new complex. This FKBP12-FK506 complex inhibits calcineurin which inhibits T-lymphocyte signal transduction and IL-2 transcription.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00087AlemtuzumabCAMPATH-1 antigentarget
DB00087AlemtuzumabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-Btarget
DB00087AlemtuzumabComplement C1r subcomponenttarget
DB00087AlemtuzumabComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Atarget
DB00087AlemtuzumabComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Btarget
DB00087AlemtuzumabComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Ctarget
DB00087AlemtuzumabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-Atarget
DB00087AlemtuzumabHigh affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor Itarget
DB00087AlemtuzumabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-atarget
DB00087AlemtuzumabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-btarget
DB00087AlemtuzumabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-ctarget
DB00098Antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rabbit)T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1atarget
DB00098Antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rabbit)Major histocompatibility complex class I-related gene proteintarget
DB00098Antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rabbit)Integrin alpha-Ltarget
DB00098Antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rabbit)T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD86target
DB00098Antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rabbit)Low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-btarget
DB00098Antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rabbit)T-cell surface glycoprotein CD4target
DB00098Antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rabbit)Integrin beta-1target
DB00098Antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rabbit)Integrin alpha-Vtarget
DB00098Antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rabbit)Integrin beta-3target
DB00993AzathioprineHypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferasetarget
DB00993AzathioprineThiopurine S-methyltransferaseenzyme
DB00993AzathioprineXanthine dehydrogenase/oxidaseenzyme
DB00993AzathioprineGlutathione S-transferase A1enzyme
DB00993AzathioprineGlutathione S-transferase A2enzyme
DB00993AzathioprineGlutathione S-transferase Mu 1enzyme
DB00993AzathioprineRas-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1target
DB00993AzathioprineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00074BasiliximabInterleukin-2 receptor subunit alphatarget
DB00074BasiliximabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-Btarget
DB00074BasiliximabComplement C1r subcomponenttarget
DB00074BasiliximabComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Atarget
DB00074BasiliximabComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Btarget
DB00074BasiliximabComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Ctarget
DB00074BasiliximabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-Atarget
DB00074BasiliximabComplement C1s subcomponenttarget
DB00074BasiliximabHigh affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor Itarget
DB00074BasiliximabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-atarget
DB00074BasiliximabInterleukin-2 receptor subunit betatarget
DB00074BasiliximabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-btarget
DB00074BasiliximabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-ctarget
DB06681BelataceptT-lymphocyte activation antigen CD86target
DB06681BelataceptT-lymphocyte activation antigen CD80target
DB00091CiclosporinCalcium signal-modulating cyclophilin ligandtarget
DB00091CiclosporinPeptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase Atarget
DB00091CiclosporinCalcineurin subunit B type 2target
DB00091CiclosporinCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00091CiclosporinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00091CiclosporinCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00091CiclosporinMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00091CiclosporinCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2transporter
DB00091CiclosporinBile salt export pumptransporter
DB00091CiclosporinSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00091CiclosporinIleal sodium/bile acid cotransportertransporter
DB00091CiclosporinSodium/bile acid cotransportertransporter
DB00091CiclosporinSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00091CiclosporinMultidrug resistance-associated protein 7transporter
DB00091CiclosporinCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00091CiclosporinATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00091CiclosporinSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00091CiclosporinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00091CiclosporinCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00091CiclosporinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00091CiclosporinCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00091CiclosporinPeptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase F, mitochondrialtarget
DB00091CiclosporinSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB01590EverolimusSerine/threonine-protein kinase mTORtarget
DB01590EverolimusCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01590EverolimusSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB01590EverolimusSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB01590EverolimusSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00075MuromonabT-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chaintarget
DB00075MuromonabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-Btarget
DB00075MuromonabComplement C1r subcomponenttarget
DB00075MuromonabComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Atarget
DB00075MuromonabComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Btarget
DB00075MuromonabComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Ctarget
DB00075MuromonabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-Atarget
DB00075MuromonabComplement C1s subcomponenttarget
DB00075MuromonabHigh affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor Itarget
DB00075MuromonabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-atarget
DB00075MuromonabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-btarget
DB00075MuromonabLow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-ctarget
DB00075MuromonabT-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 delta chaintarget
DB00075MuromonabT-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 gamma chaintarget
DB00075MuromonabT-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 zeta chaintarget
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilInosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2target
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilInosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 1target
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-7enzyme
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8enzyme
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10enzyme
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilLiver carboxylesterase 1enzyme
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilCocaine esteraseenzyme
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilSerum albumincarrier
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetilMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01024Mycophenolic acidInosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2target
DB01024Mycophenolic acidInosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 1target
DB01024Mycophenolic acidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB01024Mycophenolic acidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB01024Mycophenolic acidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB01024Mycophenolic acidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-7enzyme
DB01024Mycophenolic acidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
DB00864TacrolimusPeptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase FKBP1Atarget
DB00864TacrolimusCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00864TacrolimusCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00864TacrolimusCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00864TacrolimusMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00864TacrolimusATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 5transporter
DB00864TacrolimusSerum albumincarrier
DB00864TacrolimusAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00864TacrolimusSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00864Tacrolimus0Recruiting1
DB08879Belimumab1 / 2Completed1
DB00188Bortezomib1 / 2Completed1
DB12849Clazakizumab1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00073Rituximab1 / 2Completed1
DB15258Imlifidase2Recruiting1
DB12821Perflubutane2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB05320ATG-Fresenius S3Terminated1
DB00098Antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rabbit)4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00098Antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rabbit)4Completed1
DB00098Antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rabbit)4Recruiting1
DB00074Basiliximab4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00074Basiliximab4Completed1
DB00074Basiliximab4Recruiting1
DB06681Belatacept4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00091Ciclosporin4Terminated1
DB01590Everolimus4Recruiting2
DB00603Medroxyprogesterone acetate4Recruiting1
DB00688Mycophenolate mofetil4Recruiting1
DB01024Mycophenolic acid4Active Not Recruiting1
DB01024Mycophenolic acid4Recruiting2
DB00635Prednisone4Recruiting1
DB10415Rabbit4Recruiting1
DB00877Sirolimus4Completed1
DB00864Tacrolimus4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00864Tacrolimus4Recruiting2
DB00864Tacrolimus4Terminated1
DB06215FerumoxytolNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00073RituximabNot AvailableCompleted1