|DB11901||Apalutamide||Apalutamide is a potent androgen receptor (AR) antagonist that selectively binds to the ligand-binding domain of AR and blocks AR nuclear translocation or binding to androgen response elements [A31846]. It has been used in trials studying the treatment of Prostate Cancer, Hepatic Impairment, Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer, and Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant, among others. Exerting an antitumor action, apalutamide blocking the effect of androgens that promote tumor growth. It targets the AR ligand-binding domain and prevents AR nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and transcription of AR gene targets in prostate tumors [A31846]. In mice bearing human CRPC xenograft models, apalutamide treatment produced tumor regressions in a dose-dependent manner that was more effective than that of [DB01128] or [DB08899]. Unlike bicalutamide, apalutamide antagonized AR-mediated signaling in AR overexpressing human CRPC cell lines [A31846].
Androgen-deprivation therapy, or hormone therapy, can be used as part of maintenance therapy for patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer. Although most patients achieve therapeutic responses at the initial hormone therapy, many patients progress to non-metastatic castration-resistant (resistance to hormone therapy) prostate cancer which is the second-most common cause of cancer-related deaths in American males [A31852]. Castration-resistant prostate cancer is often incurable, which poses significant clinical challenges for patients. Approximately 10 to 20 % of prostate cancer cases are castration-resistant, and up to 16% of these patients show no evidence of cancer metastasis at the time of castration-resistant diagnosis [L1295]. Higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and shorter PSA doubling time (PSA DT) are associated with a higher risk for metastases and death [A31846]. In a phase-2 multicenter open-label study, 89% of patients with non-metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer had ≥50% PSA decline at week 12 of apalutamide treatment [A31846]. In a randomized trial, the median metastasis-free survival for patients taking apalutamide was 40.5 months compared to 16.2 months for patients taking a placebo [L1295]. Apalutamide displayed good tolerability and safety profile in clinical studies.
Apalutamide was approved in February 2018 by the FDA as Erleada for the treatment of patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer that is resistant to treatment with hormone therapy (castration-resistant). It is available as oral tablets. Apalutamide is the first FDA-approved treatment for non-metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer [L1295].|