Beta-galactosidase

Details

Name
Beta-galactosidase
Synonyms
  • 3.2.1.23
  • Beta-gal
  • Lactase
Gene Name
lacZ
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0019112|Beta-galactosidase
MTMITDSLAVVLQRRDWENPGVTQLNRLAAHPPFASWRNSEEARTDRPSQQLRSLNGEWR
FAWFPAPEAVPESWLECDLPEADTVVVPSNWQMHGYDAPIYTNVTYPITVNPPFVPTENP
TGCYSLTFNVDESWLQEGQTRIIFDGVNSAFHLWCNGRWVGYGQDSRLPSEFDLSAFLRA
GENRLAVMVLRWSDGSYLEDQDMWRMSGIFRDVSLLHKPTTQISDFHVATRFNDDFSRAV
LEAEVQMCGELRDYLRVTVSLWQGETQVASGTAPFGGEIIDERGGYADRVTLRLNVENPK
LWSAEIPNLYRAVVELHTADGTLIEAEACDVGFREVRIENGLLLLNGKPLLIRGVNRHEH
HPLHGQVMDEQTMVQDILLMKQNNFNAVRCSHYPNHPLWYTLCDRYGLYVVDEANIETHG
MVPMNRLTDDPRWLPAMSERVTRMVQRDRNHPSVIIWSLGNESGHGANHDALYRWIKSVD
PSRPVQYEGGGADTTATDIICPMYARVDEDQPFPAVPKWSIKKWLSLPGETRPLILCEYA
HAMGNSLGGFAKYWQAFRQYPRLQGGFVWDWVDQSLIKYDENGNPWSAYGGDFGDTPNDR
QFCMNGLVFADRTPHPALTEAKHQQQFFQFRLSGQTIEVTSEYLFRHSDNELLHWMVALD
GKPLASGEVPLDVAPQGKQLIELPELPQPESAGQLWLTVRVVQPNATAWSEAGHISAWQQ
WRLAENLSVTLPAASHAIPHLTTSEMDFCIELGNKRWQFNRQSGFLSQMWIGDKKQLLTP
LRDQFTRAPLDNDIGVSEATRIDPNAWVERWKAAGHYQAEAALLQCTADTLADAVLITTA
HAWQHQGKTLFISRKTYRIDGSGQMAITVDVEVASDTPHPARIGLNCQLAQVAERVNWLG
LGPQENYPDRLTAACFDRWDLPLSDMYTPYVFPSENGLRCGTRELNYGPHQWRGDFQFNI
SRYSQQQLMETSHRHLLHAEEGTWLNIDGFHMGIGGDDSWSPSVSAEFQLSAGRYHYQLV
WCQK
Number of residues
1024
Molecular Weight
116482.045
Theoretical pI
5.2
GO Classification
Functions
alkali metal ion binding / beta-galactosidase activity / carbohydrate binding / magnesium ion binding
Processes
lactose catabolic process
Components
beta-galactosidase complex
General Function
Magnesium ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
Not Available
Cellular Location
Cytoplasmic
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0019113|Beta-galactosidase (lacZ)
ATGACCATGATTACGGATTCACTGGCCGTCGTTTTACAACGTCGTGACTGGGAAAACCCT
GGCGTTACCCAACTTAATCGCCTTGCAGCACATCCCCCTTTCGCCAGCTGGCGTAATAGC
GAAGAGGCCCGCACCGATCGCCCTTCCCAACAGTTGCGCAGCCTGAATGGCGAATGGCGC
TTTGCCTGGTTTCCGGCACCAGAAGCGGTGCCGGAAAGCTGGCTGGAGTGCGATCTTCCT
GAGGCCGATACTGTCGTCGTCCCCTCAAACTGGCAGATGCACGGTTACGATGCGCCCATC
TACACCAACGTGACCTATCCCATTACGGTCAATCCGCCGTTTGTTCCCACGGAGAATCCG
ACGGGTTGTTACTCGCTCACATTTAATGTTGATGAAAGCTGGCTACAGGAAGGCCAGACG
CGAATTATTTTTGATGGCGTTAACTCGGCGTTTCATCTGTGGTGCAACGGGCGCTGGGTC
GGTTACGGCCAGGACAGTCGTTTGCCGTCTGAATTTGACCTGAGCGCATTTTTACGCGCC
GGAGAAAACCGCCTCGCGGTGATGGTGCTGCGCTGGAGTGACGGCAGTTATCTGGAAGAT
CAGGATATGTGGCGGATGAGCGGCATTTTCCGTGACGTCTCGTTGCTGCATAAACCGACT
ACACAAATCAGCGATTTCCATGTTGCCACTCGCTTTAATGATGATTTCAGCCGCGCTGTA
CTGGAGGCTGAAGTTCAGATGTGCGGCGAGTTGCGTGACTACCTACGGGTAACAGTTTCT
TTATGGCAGGGTGAAACGCAGGTCGCCAGCGGCACCGCGCCTTTCGGCGGTGAAATTATC
GATGAGCGTGGTGGTTATGCCGATCGCGTCACACTACGTCTGAACGTCGAAAACCCGAAA
CTGTGGAGCGCCGAAATCCCGAATCTCTATCGTGCGGTGGTTGAACTGCACACCGCCGAC
GGCACGCTGATTGAAGCAGAAGCCTGCGATGTCGGTTTCCGCGAGGTGCGGATTGAAAAT
GGTCTGCTGCTGCTGAACGGCAAGCCGTTGCTGATTCGAGGCGTTAACCGTCACGAGCAT
CATCCTCTGCATGGTCAGGTCATGGATGAGCAGACGATGGTGCAGGATATCCTGCTGATG
AAGCAGAACAACTTTAACGCCGTGCGCTGTTCGCATTATCCGAACCATCCGCTGTGGTAC
ACGCTGTGCGACCGCTACGGCCTGTATGTGGTGGATGAAGCCAATATTGAAACCCACGGC
ATGGTGCCAATGAATCGTCTGACCGATGATCCGCGCTGGCTACCGGCGATGAGCGAACGC
GTAACGCGAATGGTGCAGCGCGATCGTAATCACCCGAGTGTGATCATCTGGTCGCTGGGG
AATGAATCAGGCCACGGCGCTAATCACGACGCGCTGTATCGCTGGATCAAATCTGTCGAT
CCTTCCCGCCCGGTGCAGTATGAAGGCGGCGGAGCCGACACCACGGCCACCGATATTATT
TGCCCGATGTACGCGCGCGTGGATGAAGACCAGCCCTTCCCGGCTGTGCCGAAATGGTCC
ATCAAAAAATGGCTTTCGCTACCTGGAGAGACGCGCCCGCTGATCCTTTGCGAATACGCC
CACGCGATGGGTAACAGTCTTGGCGGTTTCGCTAAATACTGGCAGGCGTTTCGTCAGTAT
CCCCGTTTACAGGGCGGCTTCGTCTGGGACTGGGTGGATCAGTCGCTGATTAAATATGAT
GAAAACGGCAACCCGTGGTCGGCTTACGGCGGTGATTTTGGCGATACGCCGAACGATCGC
CAGTTCTGTATGAACGGTCTGGTCTTTGCCGACCGCACGCCGCATCCAGCGCTGACGGAA
GCAAAACACCAGCAGCAGTTTTTCCAGTTCCGTTTATCCGGGCAAACCATCGAAGTGACC
AGCGAATACCTGTTCCGTCATAGCGATAACGAGCTCCTGCACTGGATGGTGGCGCTGGAT
GGTAAGCCGCTGGCAAGCGGTGAAGTGCCTCTGGATGTCGCTCCACAAGGTAAACAGTTG
ATTGAACTGCCTGAACTACCGCAGCCGGAGAGCGCCGGGCAACTCTGGCTCACAGTACGC
GTAGTGCAACCGAACGCGACCGCATGGTCAGAAGCCGGGCACATCAGCGCCTGGCAGCAG
TGGCGTCTGGCGGAAAACCTCAGTGTGACGCTCCCCGCCGCGTCCCACGCCATCCCGCAT
CTGACCACCAGCGAAATGGATTTTTGCATCGAGCTGGGTAATAAGCGTTGGCAATTTAAC
CGCCAGTCAGGCTTTCTTTCACAGATGTGGATTGGCGATAAAAAACAACTGCTGACGCCG
CTGCGCGATCAGTTCACCCGTGCACCGCTGGATAACGACATTGGCGTAAGTGAAGCGACC
CGCATTGACCCTAACGCCTGGGTCGAACGCTGGAAGGCGGCGGGCCATTACCAGGCCGAA
GCAGCGTTGTTGCAGTGCACGGCAGATACACTTGCTGATGCGGTGCTGATTACGACCGCT
CACGCGTGGCAGCATCAGGGGAAAACCTTATTTATCAGCCGGAAAACCTACCGGATTGAT
GGTAGTGGTCAAATGGCGATTACCGTTGATGTTGAAGTGGCGAGCGATACACCGCATCCG
GCGCGGATTGGCCTGAACTGCCAGCTGGCGCAGGTAGCAGAGCGGGTAAACTGGCTCGGA
TTAGGGCCGCAAGAAAACTATCCCGACCGCCTTACTGCCGCCTGTTTTGACCGCTGGGAT
CTGCCATTGTCAGACATGTATACCCCGTACGTCTTCCCGAGCGAAAACGGTCTGCGCTGC
GGGACGCGCGAATTGAATTATGGCCCACACCAGTGGCGCGGCGACTTCCAGTTCAACATC
AGCCGCTACAGTCAACAGCAACTGATGGAAACCAGCCATCGCCATCTGCTGCACGCGGAA
GAAGGCACATGGCTGAATATCGACGGTTTCCATATGGGGATTGGTGGCGACGACTCCTGG
AGCCCGTCAGTATCGGCGGAATTCCAGCTGAGCGCCGGTCGCTACCATTACCAGTTGGTC
TGGTGTCAAAAATAA
Chromosome Location
Not Available
Locus
Not Available
External Identifiers
ResourceLink
UniProtKB IDP00722
UniProtKB Entry NameBGAL_ECOLI
GenBank Protein ID146577
GenBank Gene IDJ01636
General References
  1. Kalnins A, Otto K, Ruther U, Muller-Hill B: Sequence of the lacZ gene of Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 1983;2(4):593-7. [PubMed:6313347]
  2. Blattner FR, Plunkett G 3rd, Bloch CA, Perna NT, Burland V, Riley M, Collado-Vides J, Glasner JD, Rode CK, Mayhew GF, Gregor J, Davis NW, Kirkpatrick HA, Goeden MA, Rose DJ, Mau B, Shao Y: The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12. Science. 1997 Sep 5;277(5331):1453-62. [PubMed:9278503]
  3. Hayashi K, Morooka N, Yamamoto Y, Fujita K, Isono K, Choi S, Ohtsubo E, Baba T, Wanner BL, Mori H, Horiuchi T: Highly accurate genome sequences of Escherichia coli K-12 strains MG1655 and W3110. Mol Syst Biol. 2006;2:2006.0007. Epub 2006 Feb 21. [PubMed:16738553]
  4. Fowler AV, Zabin I: Amino acid sequence of beta-galactosidase. XI. Peptide ordering procedures and the complete sequence. J Biol Chem. 1978 Aug 10;253(15):5521-5. [PubMed:97298]
  5. Calos MP, Miller JH: Molecular consequences of deletion formation mediated by the transposon Tn9. Nature. 1980 May 1;285(5759):38-41. [PubMed:6246435]
  6. Buchel DE, Gronenborn B, Muller-Hill B: Sequence of the lactose permease gene. Nature. 1980 Feb 7;283(5747):541-5. [PubMed:6444453]
  7. Jobe A, Bourgeois S: lac Repressor-operator interaction. VI. The natural inducer of the lac operon. J Mol Biol. 1972 Aug 28;69(3):397-408. [PubMed:4562709]
  8. Huber RE, Parfett C, Woulfe-Flanagan H, Thompson DJ: Interaction of divalent cations with beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli). Biochemistry. 1979 Sep 18;18(19):4090-5. [PubMed:114210]
  9. Fowler AV, Smith PJ: The active site regions of lacZ and ebg beta-galactosidases are homologous. J Biol Chem. 1983 Sep 10;258(17):10204-7. [PubMed:6411710]
  10. Herrchen M, Legler G: Identification of an essential carboxylate group at the active site of lacZ beta-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 1984 Feb 1;138(3):527-31. [PubMed:6420154]
  11. Gebler JC, Aebersold R, Withers SG: Glu-537, not Glu-461, is the nucleophile in the active site of (lac Z) beta-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jun 5;267(16):11126-30. [PubMed:1350782]
  12. Martinez-Bilbao M, Gaunt MT, Huber RE: E461H-beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli): altered divalent metal specificity and slow but reversible metal inactivation. Biochemistry. 1995 Oct 17;34(41):13437-42. [PubMed:7577931]
  13. Roth NJ, Huber RE: The beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli) reaction is partly facilitated by interactions of His-540 with the C6 hydroxyl of galactose. J Biol Chem. 1996 Jun 14;271(24):14296-301. [PubMed:8662937]
  14. VanBogelen RA, Abshire KZ, Moldover B, Olson ER, Neidhardt FC: Escherichia coli proteome analysis using the gene-protein database. Electrophoresis. 1997 Aug;18(8):1243-51. [PubMed:9298644]
  15. Roth NJ, Rob B, Huber RE: His-357 of beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli) interacts with the C3 hydroxyl in the transition state and helps to mediate catalysis. Biochemistry. 1998 Jul 14;37(28):10099-107. [PubMed:9665715]
  16. Huber RE, Hlede IY, Roth NJ, McKenzie KC, Ghumman KK: His-391 of beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli) promotes catalyses by strong interactions with the transition state. Biochem Cell Biol. 2001;79(2):183-93. [PubMed:11310566]
  17. Huber RE, Hakda S, Cheng C, Cupples CG, Edwards RA: Trp-999 of beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli) is a key residue for binding, catalysis, and synthesis of allolactose, the natural lac operon inducer. Biochemistry. 2003 Feb 18;42(6):1796-803. [PubMed:12578395]
  18. Xu J, McRae MA, Harron S, Rob B, Huber RE: A study of the relationships of interactions between Asp-201, Na+ or K+, and galactosyl C6 hydroxyl and their effects on binding and reactivity of beta-galactosidase. Biochem Cell Biol. 2004 Apr;82(2):275-84. [PubMed:15060622]
  19. Matthews BW: The structure of E. coli beta-galactosidase. C R Biol. 2005 Jun;328(6):549-56. [PubMed:15950161]
  20. Sutendra G, Wong S, Fraser ME, Huber RE: Beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli) has a second catalytically important Mg2+ site. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Jan 12;352(2):566-70. Epub 2006 Nov 20. [PubMed:17126292]
  21. Jacobson RH, Zhang XJ, DuBose RF, Matthews BW: Three-dimensional structure of beta-galactosidase from E. coli. Nature. 1994 Jun 30;369(6483):761-6. [PubMed:8008071]
  22. Juers DH, Jacobson RH, Wigley D, Zhang XJ, Huber RE, Tronrud DE, Matthews BW: High resolution refinement of beta-galactosidase in a new crystal form reveals multiple metal-binding sites and provides a structural basis for alpha-complementation. Protein Sci. 2000 Sep;9(9):1685-99. [PubMed:11045615]
  23. Juers DH, Heightman TD, Vasella A, McCarter JD, Mackenzie L, Withers SG, Matthews BW: A structural view of the action of Escherichia coli (lacZ) beta-galactosidase. Biochemistry. 2001 Dec 11;40(49):14781-94. [PubMed:11732897]
  24. Juers DH, Hakda S, Matthews BW, Huber RE: Structural basis for the altered activity of Gly794 variants of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase. Biochemistry. 2003 Nov 25;42(46):13505-11. [PubMed:14621996]

Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB01862Isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranosideexperimentalunknownDetails
DB01885D-Galctopyranosyl-1-OnexperimentalunknownDetails
DB019201-O-[O-Nitrophenyl]-Beta-D-GalactopyranoseexperimentalunknownDetails
DB022282-deoxy-2-fluoro-β-D-galactoseexperimentalunknownDetails
DB02294(5R,6S,7S,8S)-5-hydroxymethyl-6,7,8-trihydroxy-tetrazolo[1,5-A]piperidineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB026324-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactosideexperimentalunknownDetails
DB04116AllolactoseexperimentalunknownDetails
DB041552-Fluoro-2-Deoxy-Beta-D-Galactopyranosyl-Beta-D-GlucopyranoseexperimentalunknownDetails
DB043822-Deoxy-Beta-D-GalactoseexperimentalunknownDetails
DB04465Lactoseapproved, experimental, investigationalunknownDetails
DB04530S,S-(2-Hydroxyethyl)ThiocysteineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB13503TyrothricinapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails