3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase

Details

Name
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase
Synonyms
  • 1.1.1.34
  • HMG-CoA reductase
Gene Name
HMGCR
Organism
Humans
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0001146|3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase
MLSRLFRMHGLFVASHPWEVIVGTVTLTICMMSMNMFTGNNKICGWNYECPKFEEDVLSS
DIIILTITRCIAILYIYFQFQNLRQLGSKYILGIAGLFTIFSSFVFSTVVIHFLDKELTG
LNEALPFFLLLIDLSRASTLAKFALSSNSQDEVRENIARGMAILGPTFTLDALVECLVIG
VGTMSGVRQLEIMCCFGCMSVLANYFVFMTFFPACVSLVLELSRESREGRPIWQLSHFAR
VLEEEENKPNPVTQRVKMIMSLGLVLVHAHSRWIADPSPQNSTADTSKVSLGLDENVSKR
IEPSVSLWQFYLSKMISMDIEQVITLSLALLLAVKYIFFEQTETESTLSLKNPITSPVVT
QKKVPDNCCRREPMLVRNNQKCDSVEEETGINRERKVEVIKPLVAETDTPNRATFVVGNS
SLLDTSSVLVTQEPEIELPREPRPNEECLQILGNAEKGAKFLSDAEIIQLVNAKHIPAYK
LETLMETHERGVSIRRQLLSKKLSEPSSLQYLPYRDYNYSLVMGACCENVIGYMPIPVGV
AGPLCLDEKEFQVPMATTEGCLVASTNRGCRAIGLGGGASSRVLADGMTRGPVVRLPRAC
DSAEVKAWLETSEGFAVIKEAFDSTSRFARLQKLHTSIAGRNLYIRFQSRSGDAMGMNMI
SKGTEKALSKLHEYFPEMQILAVSGNYCTDKKPAAINWIEGRGKSVVCEAVIPAKVVREV
LKTTTEAMIEVNINKNLVGSAMAGSIGGYNAHAANIVTAIYIACGQDAAQNVGSSNCITL
MEASGPTNEDLYISCTMPSIEIGTVGGGTNLLPQQACLQMLGVQGACKDNPGENARQLAR
IVCGTVMAGELSLMAALAAGHLVKSHMIHNRSKINLQDLQGACTKKTA
Number of residues
888
Molecular Weight
97475.155
Theoretical pI
6.72
GO Classification
Functions
coenzyme binding / hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH) activity / hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity / NADPH binding
Processes
aging / cellular lipid metabolic process / cholesterol biosynthetic process / coenzyme A metabolic process / isoprenoid biosynthetic process / myoblast differentiation / negative regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus / negative regulation of MAP kinase activity / negative regulation of striated muscle cell apoptotic process / negative regulation of vasodilation / negative regulation of wound healing / positive regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process / positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade / positive regulation of skeletal muscle tissue development / positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation / positive regulation of stress-activated MAPK cascade / protein tetramerization / response to ethanol / response to nutrient / small molecule metabolic process / sterol biosynthetic process / ubiquinone metabolic process / visual learning
Components
endoplasmic reticulum / endoplasmic reticulum membrane / integral component of membrane / peroxisomal membrane
General Function
Nadph binding
Specific Function
Transmembrane glycoprotein that is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis as well as in the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids that are essential for normal cell function including ubiquinone and geranylgeranyl proteins.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
10-39 57-78 90-114 124-149 160-187 192-220 315-339
Cellular Location
Endoplasmic reticulum membrane
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0010398|3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR)
ATGTTGTCAAGACTTTTTCGAATGCATGGCCTCTTTGTGGCCTCCCATCCCTGGGAAGTC
ATAGTGGGGACAGTGACACTGACCATCTGCATGATGTCCATGAACATGTTTACTGGTAAC
AATAAGATCTGTGGTTGGAATTATGAATGTCCAAAGTTTGAAGAGGATGTTTTGAGCAGT
GACATTATAATTCTGACAATAACACGATGCATAGCCATCCTGTATATTTACTTCCAGTTC
CAGAATTTACGTCAACTTGGATCAAAATATATTTTGGGTATTGCTGGCCTTTTCACAATT
TTCTCAAGTTTTGTATTCAGTACAGTTGTCATTCACTTCTTAGACAAAGAATTGACAGGC
TTGAATGAAGCTTTGCCCTTTTTCCTACTTTTGATTGACCTTTCCAGAGCAAGCACATTA
GCAAAGTTTGCCCTCAGTTCCAACTCACAGGATGAAGTAAGGGAAAATATTGCTCGTGGA
ATGGCAATTTTAGGTCCTACGTTTACCCTCGATGCTCTTGTTGAATGTCTTGTGATTGGA
GTTGGTACCATGTCAGGGGTACGTCAGCTTGAAATTATGTGCTGCTTTGGCTGCATGTCA
GTTCTTGCCAACTACTTCGTGTTCATGACTTTCTTCCCAGCTTGTGTGTCCTTGGTATTA
GAGCTTTCTCGGGAAAGCCGCGAGGGTCGTCCAATTTGGCAGCTCAGCCATTTTGCCCGA
GTTTTAGAAGAAGAAGAAAATAAGCCGAATCCTGTAACTCAGAGGGTCAAGATGATTATG
TCTCTAGGCTTGGTTCTTGTTCATGCTCACAGTCGCTGGATAGCTGATCCTTCTCCTCAA
AACAGTACAGCAGATACTTCTAAGGTTTCATTAGGACTGGATGAAAATGTGTCCAAGAGA
ATTGAACCAAGTGTTTCCCTCTGGCAGTTTTATCTCTCTAAAATGATCAGCATGGATATT
GAACAAGTTATTACCCTAAGTTTAGCTCTCCTTCTGGCTGTCAAGTACATCTTCTTTGAA
CAAACAGAGACAGAATCTACACTCTCATTAAAAAACCCTATCACATCTCCTGTAGTGACA
CAAAAGAAAGTCCCAGACAATTGTTGTAGACGTGAACCTATGCTGGTCAGAAATAACCAG
AAATGTGATTCAGTAGAGGAAGAGACAGGGATAAACCGAGAAAGAAAAGTTGAGGTTATA
AAACCCTTAGTGGCTGAAACAGATACCCCAAACAGAGCTACATTTGTGGTTGGTAACTCC
TCCTTACTCGATACTTCATCAGTACTGGTGACACAGGAACCTGAAATTGAACTTCCCAGG
GAACCTCGGCCTAATGAAGAATGTCTACAGATACTTGGGAATGCAGAGAAAGGTGCAAAA
TTCCTTAGTGATGCTGAGATCATCCAGTTAGTCAATGCTAAGCATATCCCAGCCTACAAG
TTGGAAACTCTGATGGAAACTCATGAGCGTGGTGTATCTATTCGCCGACAGTTACTTTCC
AAGAAGCTTTCAGAACCTTCTTCTCTCCAGTACCTACCTTACAGGGATTATAATTACTCC
TTGGTGATGGGAGCTTGTTGTGAGAATGTTATTGGATATATGCCCATCCCTGTTGGAGTG
GCAGGACCCCTTTGCTTAGATGAAAAAGAATTTCAGGTTCCAATGGCAACAACAGAAGGT
TGTCTTGTGGCCAGCACCAATAGAGGCTGCAGAGCAATAGGTCTTGGTGGAGGTGCCAGC
AGCCGAGTCCTTGCAGATGGGATGACTCGTGGCCCAGTTGTGCGTCTTCCACGTGCTTGT
GACTCTGCAGAAGTGAAAGCCTGGCTCGAAACATCTGAAGGGTTCGCAGTGATAAAGGAG
GCATTTGACAGCACTAGCAGATTTGCACGTCTACAGAAACTTCATACAAGTATAGCTGGA
CGCAACCTTTATATCCGTTTCCAGTCCAGGTCAGGGGATGCCATGGGGATGAACATGATT
TCAAAGGGTACAGAGAAAGCACTTTCAAAACTTCACGAGTATTTCCCTGAAATGCAGATT
CTAGCCGTTAGTGGTAACTATTGTACTGACAAGAAACCTGCTGCTATAAATTGGATAGAG
GGAAGAGGAAAATCTGTTGTTTGTGAAGCTGTCATTCCAGCCAAGGTTGTCAGAGAAGTA
TTAAAGACTACCACAGAGGCTATGATTGAGGTCAACATTAACAAGAATTTAGTGGGCTCT
GCCATGGCTGGGAGCATAGGAGGCTACAACGCCCATGCAGCAAACATTGTCACCGCCATC
TACATTGCCTGTGGACAGGATGCAGCACAGAATGTTGGTAGTTCAAACTGTATTACTTTA
ATGGAAGCAAGTGGTCCCACAAATGAAGATTTATATATCAGCTGCACCATGCCATCTATA
GAGATAGGAACGGTGGGTGGTGGGACCAACCTACTACCTCAGCAAGCCTGTTTGCAGATG
CTAGGTGTTCAAGGAGCATGCAAAGATAATCCTGGGGAAAATGCCCGGCAGCTTGCCCGA
ATTGTGTGTGGGACCGTAATGGCTGGGGAATTGTCACTTATGGCAGCATTGGCAGCAGGA
CATCTTGTCAAAAGTCACATGATTCACAACAGGTCGAAGATCAATTTACAAGACCTCCAA
GGAGCTTGCACCAAGAAGACAGCCTGA
Chromosome Location
5
Locus
5q13.3-q14
External Identifiers
ResourceLink
UniProtKB IDP04035
UniProtKB Entry NameHMDH_HUMAN
GenBank Protein ID306865
GenBank Gene IDM11058
GenAtlas IDHMGCR
HGNC IDHGNC:5006
General References
  1. Luskey KL, Stevens B: Human 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Conserved domains responsible for catalytic activity and sterol-regulated degradation. J Biol Chem. 1985 Aug 25;260(18):10271-7. [PubMed:2991281]
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  5. Brown MS, Goldstein JL: Multivalent feedback regulation of HMG CoA reductase, a control mechanism coordinating isoprenoid synthesis and cell growth. J Lipid Res. 1980 Jul;21(5):505-17. [PubMed:6995544]
  6. Sever N, Yang T, Brown MS, Goldstein JL, DeBose-Boyd RA: Accelerated degradation of HMG CoA reductase mediated by binding of insig-1 to its sterol-sensing domain. Mol Cell. 2003 Jan;11(1):25-33. [PubMed:12535518]
  7. Leichner GS, Avner R, Harats D, Roitelman J: Dislocation of HMG-CoA reductase and Insig-1, two polytopic endoplasmic reticulum proteins, en route to proteasomal degradation. Mol Biol Cell. 2009 Jul;20(14):3330-41. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E08-09-0953. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19458199]
  8. Leichner GS, Avner R, Harats D, Roitelman J: Metabolically regulated endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase: evidence for requirement of a geranylgeranylated protein. J Biol Chem. 2011 Sep 16;286(37):32150-61. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.278036. Epub 2011 Jul 21. [PubMed:21778231]
  9. Stormo C, Kringen MK, Grimholt RM, Berg JP, Piehler AP: A novel 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) splice variant with an alternative exon 1 potentially encoding an extended N-terminus. BMC Mol Biol. 2012 Sep 18;13:29. doi: 10.1186/1471-2199-13-29. [PubMed:22989091]
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  12. Istvan ES, Palnitkar M, Buchanan SK, Deisenhofer J: Crystal structure of the catalytic portion of human HMG-CoA reductase: insights into regulation of activity and catalysis. EMBO J. 2000 Mar 1;19(5):819-30. [PubMed:10698924]
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Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB00227Lovastatinapproved, investigationalyesinhibitorDetails
DB00439Cerivastatinapproved, withdrawnyesinhibitorDetails
DB00641SimvastatinapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB01076AtorvastatinapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB01098RosuvastatinapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB00157NADHapproved, nutraceuticalunknownDetails
DB01992Coenzyme Ainvestigational, nutraceuticalunknownDetails
DB03169(S)-Hmg-CoaexperimentalunknownDetails
DB03461Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphateexperimentalunknownDetails
DB04377MeglutolexperimentalunknownDetails
DB044471,4-DithiothreitolexperimentalunknownDetails
DB01095FluvastatinapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB00175PravastatinapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB05317TAK-475investigationalunknownDetails
DB06693MevastatinexperimentalyesinhibitorDetails
DB08860PitavastatinapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB09270Ubidecarenoneapproved, investigational, nutraceuticalnosubstrateDetails
DB09061Cannabidiolapproved, investigationalunknownstimulatorDetails
DB14011NabiximolsinvestigationalunknownstimulatorDetails
DB14009Medical Cannabisexperimental, investigationalunknowninducerDetails