Protein kinase C beta type

Details

Name
Protein kinase C beta type
Synonyms
  • 2.7.11.13
  • PKC-B
  • PKCB
  • PRKCB1
Gene Name
PRKCB
Organism
Humans
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0001738|Protein kinase C beta type
MADPAAGPPPSEGEESTVRFARKGALRQKNVHEVKNHKFTARFFKQPTFCSHCTDFIWGF
GKQGFQCQVCCFVVHKRCHEFVTFSCPGADKGPASDDPRSKHKFKIHTYSSPTFCDHCGS
LLYGLIHQGMKCDTCMMNVHKRCVMNVPSLCGTDHTERRGRIYIQAHIDRDVLIVLVRDA
KNLVPMDPNGLSDPYVKLKLIPDPKSESKQKTKTIKCSLNPEWNETFRFQLKESDKDRRL
SVEIWDWDLTSRNDFMGSLSFGISELQKASVDGWFKLLSQEEGEYFNVPVPPEGSEANEE
LRQKFERAKISQGTKVPEEKTTNTVSKFDNNGNRDRMKLTDFNFLMVLGKGSFGKVMLSE
RKGTDELYAVKILKKDVVIQDDDVECTMVEKRVLALPGKPPFLTQLHSCFQTMDRLYFVM
EYVNGGDLMYHIQQVGRFKEPHAVFYAAEIAIGLFFLQSKGIIYRDLKLDNVMLDSEGHI
KIADFGMCKENIWDGVTTKTFCGTPDYIAPEIIAYQPYGKSVDWWAFGVLLYEMLAGQAP
FEGEDEDELFQSIMEHNVAYPKSMSKEAVAICKGLMTKHPGKRLGCGPEGERDIKEHAFF
RYIDWEKLERKEIQPPYKPKARDKRDTSNFDKEFTRQPVELTPTDKLFIMNLDQNEFAGF
SYTNPEFVINV
Number of residues
671
Molecular Weight
76868.45
Theoretical pI
7.0
GO Classification
Functions
androgen receptor binding / ATP binding / calcium channel regulator activity / chromatin binding / histone binding / histone kinase activity (H3-T6 specific) / ligand-dependent nuclear receptor transcription coactivator activity / protein kinase C activity / protein kinase C binding / protein serine/threonine kinase activity / zinc ion binding
Processes
adaptive immune response / apoptotic process / B cell activation / B cell receptor signaling pathway / blood coagulation / calcium ion transport / cellular calcium ion homeostasis / cellular response to carbohydrate stimulus / histone H3-T6 phosphorylation / intracellular signal transduction / lipoprotein transport / mitotic cell cycle / mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly / negative regulation of glucose transport / negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway / platelet activation / positive regulation of angiogenesis / positive regulation of B cell receptor signaling pathway / positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling / positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity / positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway / protein phosphorylation / regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter / response to hypoxia / signal transduction / synaptic transmission / transcription, DNA-templated / vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway
Components
cytoplasm / cytosol / extracellular exosome / nucleoplasm / nucleus / plasma membrane
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various cellular processes such as regulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) signalosome, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcription regulation, insulin signaling and endothelial cells proliferation. Plays a key role in B-cell activation by regulating BCR-induced NF-kappa-B activation. Mediates the activation of the canonical NF-kappa-B pathway (NFKB1) by direct phosphorylation of CARD11/CARMA1 at 'Ser-559', 'Ser-644' and 'Ser-652'. Phosphorylation induces CARD11/CARMA1 association with lipid rafts and recruitment of the BCL10-MALT1 complex as well as MAP3K7/TAK1, which then activates IKK complex, resulting in nuclear translocation and activation of NFKB1. Plays a direct role in the negative feedback regulation of the BCR signaling, by down-modulating BTK function via direct phosphorylation of BTK at 'Ser-180', which results in the alteration of BTK plasma membrane localization and in turn inhibition of BTK activity. Involved in apoptosis following oxidative damage: in case of oxidative conditions, specifically phosphorylates 'Ser-36' of isoform p66Shc of SHC1, leading to mitochondrial accumulation of p66Shc, where p66Shc acts as a reactive oxygen species producer. Acts as a coactivator of androgen receptor (ANDR)-dependent transcription, by being recruited to ANDR target genes and specifically mediating phosphorylation of 'Thr-6' of histone H3 (H3T6ph), a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation that prevents demethylation of histone H3 'Lys-4' (H3K4me) by LSD1/KDM1A. In insulin signaling, may function downstream of IRS1 in muscle cells and mediate insulin-dependent DNA synthesis through the RAF1-MAPK/ERK signaling cascade. May participate in the regulation of glucose transport in adipocytes by negatively modulating the insulin-stimulated translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4. Under high glucose in pancreatic beta-cells, is probably involved in the inhibition of the insulin gene transcription, via regulation of MYC expression. In endothelial cells, activation of PRKCB induces increased phosphorylation of RB1, increased VEGFA-induced cell proliferation, and inhibits PI3K/AKT-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS3/eNOS) regulation by insulin, which causes endothelial dysfunction. Also involved in triglyceride homeostasis (By similarity). Phosphorylates ATF2 which promotes cooperation between ATF2 and JUN, activating transcription.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
Not Available
Cellular Location
Cytoplasm
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0010616|Protein kinase C beta type (PRKCB)
ATGGCTGACCCGGCTGCGGGGCCGCCGCCGAGCGAGGGCGAGGAGAGCACCGTGCGCTTC
GCCCGCAAAGGCGCCCTCCGGCAGAAGAACGTGCATGAGGTCAAGAACCACAAATTCACC
GCCCGCTTCTTCAAGCAGCCCACCTTCTGCAGCCACTGCACCGACTTCATCTGGGGCTTC
GGGAAGCAGGGATTCCAGTGCCAAGTTTGCTGCTTTGTGGTGCACAAGCGGTGCCATGAA
TTTGTCACATTCTCCTGCCCTGGCGCTGACAAGGGTCCAGCCTCCGATGACCCCCGCAGC
AAACACAAGTTTAAGATCCACACGTACTCCAGCCCCACGTTTTGTGACCACTGTGGGTCA
CTGCTGTATGGACTCATCCACCAGGGGATGAAATGTGACACCTGCATGATGAATGTGCAC
AAGCGCTGCGTGATGAATGTTCCCAGCCTGTGTGGCACGGACCACACGGAGCGCCGCGGC
CGCATCTACATCCAGGCCCACATCGACAGGGACGTCCTCATTGTCCTCGTAAGAGATGCT
AAAAACCTTGTACCTATGGACCCCAATGGCCTGTCAGATCCCTACGTAAAACTGAAACTG
ATTCCCGATCCCAAAAGTGAGAGCAAACAGAAGACCAAAACCATCAAATGCTCCCTCAAC
CCTGAGTGGAATGAGACATTTAGATTTCAGCTGAAAGAATCGGACAAAGACAGAAGACTG
TCAGTAGAGATTTGGGATTGGGATTTGACCAGCAGGAATGACTTCATGGGATCTTTGTCC
TTTGGGATTTCTGAACTTCAGAAAGCCAGTGTTGATGGCTGGTTTAAGTTACTGAGCCAG
GAGGAAGGCGAGTACTTCAATGTGCCTGTGCCACCAGAAGGAAGTGAGGCCAATGAAGAA
CTGCGGCAGAAATTTGAGAGGGCCAAGATCAGTCAGGGAACCAAGGTCCCGGAAGAAAAG
ACGACCAACACTGTCTCCAAATTTGACAACAATGGCAACAGAGACCGGATGAAACTGACC
GATTTTAACTTCCTAATGGTGCTGGGGAAAGGCAGCTTTGGCAAGGTCATGCTTTCAGAA
CGAAAAGGCACAGATGAGCTCTATGCTGTGAAGATCCTGAAGAAGGACGTTGTGATCCAA
GATGATGACGTGGAGTGCACTATGGTGGAGAAGCGGGTGTTGGCCCTGCCTGGGAAGCCG
CCCTTCCTGACCCAGCTCCACTCCTGCTTCCAGACCATGGACCGCCTGTACTTTGTGATG
GAGTACGTGAATGGGGGCGACCTCATGTATCACATCCAGCAAGTCGGCCGGTTCAAGGAG
CCCCATGCTGTATTTTACGCTGCAGAAATTGCCATCGGTCTGTTCTTCTTACAGAGTAAG
GGCATCATTTACCGTGACCTAAAACTTGACAACGTGATGCTCGATTCTGAGGGACACATC
AAGATTGCCGATTTTGGCATGTGTAAGGAAAACATCTGGGATGGGGTGACAACCAAGACA
TTCTGTGGCACTCCAGACTACATCGCCCCCGAGATAATTGCTTATCAGCCCTATGGGAAG
TCCGTGGATTGGTGGGCATTTGGAGTCCTGCTGTATGAAATGTTGGCTGGGCAGGCACCC
TTTGAAGGGGAGGATGAAGATGAACTCTTCCAATCCATCATGGAACACAACGTAGCCTAT
CCCAAGTCTATGTCCAAGGAAGCTGTGGCCATCTGCAAAGGGCTGATGACCAAACACCCA
GGCAAACGTCTGGGTTGTGGACCTGAAGGCGAACGTGATATCAAAGAGCATGCATTTTTC
CGGTATATTGATTGGGAGAAACTTGAACGCAAAGAGATCCAGCCCCCTTATAAGCCAAAA
GCTTGTGGGCGAAATGCTGAAAACTTCGACCGATTTTTCACCCGCCATCCACCAGTCCTA
ACACCTCCCGACCAGGAAGTCATCAGGAATATTGACCAATCAGAATTCGAAGGATTTTCC
TTTGTTAACTCTGAATTTTTAAAACCCGAAGTCAAGAGCTAA
Chromosome Location
16
Locus
16p11.2
External Identifiers
ResourceLink
UniProtKB IDP05771
UniProtKB Entry NameKPCB_HUMAN
GenBank Protein ID189969
GenBank Gene IDM13975
GenAtlas IDPRKCB1
HGNC IDHGNC:9395
General References
  1. Coussens L, Parker PJ, Rhee L, Yang-Feng TL, Chen E, Waterfield MD, Francke U, Ullrich A: Multiple, distinct forms of bovine and human protein kinase C suggest diversity in cellular signaling pathways. Science. 1986 Aug 22;233(4766):859-66. [PubMed:3755548]
  2. Kubo K, Ohno S, Suzuki K: Primary structures of human protein kinase C beta I and beta II differ only in their C-terminal sequences. FEBS Lett. 1987 Oct 19;223(1):138-42. [PubMed:3666134]
  3. Loftus BJ, Kim UJ, Sneddon VP, Kalush F, Brandon R, Fuhrmann J, Mason T, Crosby ML, Barnstead M, Cronin L, Deslattes Mays A, Cao Y, Xu RX, Kang HL, Mitchell S, Eichler EE, Harris PC, Venter JC, Adams MD: Genome duplications and other features in 12 Mb of DNA sequence from human chromosome 16p and 16q. Genomics. 1999 Sep 15;60(3):295-308. [PubMed:10493829]
  4. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334]
  5. Mahajna J, King P, Parker P, Haley J: Autoregulation of cloned human protein kinase C beta and gamma gene promoters in U937 cells. DNA Cell Biol. 1995 Mar;14(3):213-22. [PubMed:7880442]
  6. Niino YS, Ohno S, Suzuki K: Positive and negative regulation of the transcription of the human protein kinase C beta gene. J Biol Chem. 1992 Mar 25;267(9):6158-63. [PubMed:1556124]
  7. Obeid LM, Blobe GC, Karolak LA, Hannun YA: Cloning and characterization of the major promoter of the human protein kinase C beta gene. Regulation by phorbol esters. J Biol Chem. 1992 Oct 15;267(29):20804-10. [PubMed:1400396]
  8. Gevaert K, Goethals M, Martens L, Van Damme J, Staes A, Thomas GR, Vandekerckhove J: Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides. Nat Biotechnol. 2003 May;21(5):566-9. Epub 2003 Mar 31. [PubMed:12665801]
  9. Coussens L, Rhee L, Parker PJ, Ullrich A: Alternative splicing increases the diversity of the human protein kinase C family. DNA. 1987 Oct;6(5):389-94. [PubMed:3677994]
  10. Kubo K, Ohno S, Suzuki K: Nucleotide sequence of the 3' portion of a human gene for protein kinase C beta I/beta II. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Sep 11;15(17):7179-80. [PubMed:3658678]
  11. Kang SW, Wahl MI, Chu J, Kitaura J, Kawakami Y, Kato RM, Tabuchi R, Tarakhovsky A, Kawakami T, Turck CW, Witte ON, Rawlings DJ: PKCbeta modulates antigen receptor signaling via regulation of Btk membrane localization. EMBO J. 2001 Oct 15;20(20):5692-702. [PubMed:11598012]
  12. Graff JR, McNulty AM, Hanna KR, Konicek BW, Lynch RL, Bailey SN, Banks C, Capen A, Goode R, Lewis JE, Sams L, Huss KL, Campbell RM, Iversen PW, Neubauer BL, Brown TJ, Musib L, Geeganage S, Thornton D: The protein kinase Cbeta-selective inhibitor, Enzastaurin (LY317615.HCl), suppresses signaling through the AKT pathway, induces apoptosis, and suppresses growth of human colon cancer and glioblastoma xenografts. Cancer Res. 2005 Aug 15;65(16):7462-9. [PubMed:16103100]
  13. Gao T, Brognard J, Newton AC: The phosphatase PHLPP controls the cellular levels of protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 2008 Mar 7;283(10):6300-11. Epub 2007 Dec 27. [PubMed:18162466]
  14. Zahedi RP, Lewandrowski U, Wiesner J, Wortelkamp S, Moebius J, Schutz C, Walter U, Gambaryan S, Sickmann A: Phosphoproteome of resting human platelets. J Proteome Res. 2008 Feb;7(2):526-34. Epub 2007 Dec 19. [PubMed:18088087]
  15. Yamasaki T, Takahashi A, Pan J, Yamaguchi N, Yokoyama KK: Phosphorylation of Activation Transcription Factor-2 at Serine 121 by Protein Kinase C Controls c-Jun-mediated Activation of Transcription. J Biol Chem. 2009 Mar 27;284(13):8567-81. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M808719200. Epub 2009 Jan 28. [PubMed:19176525]
  16. Oppermann FS, Gnad F, Olsen JV, Hornberger R, Greff Z, Keri G, Mann M, Daub H: Large-scale proteomics analysis of the human kinome. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009 Jul;8(7):1751-64. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M800588-MCP200. Epub 2009 Apr 15. [PubMed:19369195]
  17. Metzger E, Imhof A, Patel D, Kahl P, Hoffmeyer K, Friedrichs N, Muller JM, Greschik H, Kirfel J, Ji S, Kunowska N, Beisenherz-Huss C, Gunther T, Buettner R, Schule R: Phosphorylation of histone H3T6 by PKCbeta(I) controls demethylation at histone H3K4. Nature. 2010 Apr 1;464(7289):792-6. doi: 10.1038/nature08839. Epub 2010 Mar 14. [PubMed:20228790]
  18. Kawakami T, Kawakami Y, Kitaura J: Protein kinase C beta (PKC beta): normal functions and diseases. J Biochem. 2002 Nov;132(5):677-82. [PubMed:12417015]
  19. Tabit CE, Chung WB, Hamburg NM, Vita JA: Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2010 Mar;11(1):61-74. doi: 10.1007/s11154-010-9134-4. [PubMed:20186491]
  20. Burkard TR, Planyavsky M, Kaupe I, Breitwieser FP, Burckstummer T, Bennett KL, Superti-Furga G, Colinge J: Initial characterization of the human central proteome. BMC Syst Biol. 2011 Jan 26;5:17. doi: 10.1186/1752-0509-5-17. [PubMed:21269460]
  21. Bian Y, Song C, Cheng K, Dong M, Wang F, Huang J, Sun D, Wang L, Ye M, Zou H: An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome. J Proteomics. 2014 Jan 16;96:253-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2013.11.014. Epub 2013 Nov 22. [PubMed:24275569]
  22. Grodsky N, Li Y, Bouzida D, Love R, Jensen J, Nodes B, Nonomiya J, Grant S: Structure of the catalytic domain of human protein kinase C beta II complexed with a bisindolylmaleimide inhibitor. Biochemistry. 2006 Nov 28;45(47):13970-81. [PubMed:17115692]
  23. Greenman C, Stephens P, Smith R, Dalgliesh GL, Hunter C, Bignell G, Davies H, Teague J, Butler A, Stevens C, Edkins S, O'Meara S, Vastrik I, Schmidt EE, Avis T, Barthorpe S, Bhamra G, Buck G, Choudhury B, Clements J, Cole J, Dicks E, Forbes S, Gray K, Halliday K, Harrison R, Hills K, Hinton J, Jenkinson A, Jones D, Menzies A, Mironenko T, Perry J, Raine K, Richardson D, Shepherd R, Small A, Tofts C, Varian J, Webb T, West S, Widaa S, Yates A, Cahill DP, Louis DN, Goldstraw P, Nicholson AG, Brasseur F, Looijenga L, Weber BL, Chiew YE, DeFazio A, Greaves MF, Green AR, Campbell P, Birney E, Easton DF, Chenevix-Trench G, Tan MH, Khoo SK, Teh BT, Yuen ST, Leung SY, Wooster R, Futreal PA, Stratton MR: Patterns of somatic mutation in human cancer genomes. Nature. 2007 Mar 8;446(7132):153-8. [PubMed:17344846]

Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB01738PhosphorylcolamineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB00163Vitamin Eapproved, nutraceutical, vet_approvedunknownDetails
DB06486EnzastaurininvestigationalunknownDetails
DB08846Ellagic AcidinvestigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB08862Cholecystokininapproved, investigationalunknownagonistDetails
DB14001alpha-Tocopherol succinateapproved, nutraceutical, vet_approvedunknownDetails
DB14002D-alpha-Tocopherol acetateapproved, nutraceutical, vet_approvedunknownDetails
DB00675TamoxifenapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails