Aldose reductase

Details

Name
Aldose reductase
Synonyms
  • 1.1.1.21
  • Aldehyde reductase
  • Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B1
  • ALDR1
  • AR
Gene Name
AKR1B1
Organism
Humans
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0016194|Aldose reductase
MASRLLLNNGAKMPILGLGTWKSPPGQVTEAVKVAIDVGYRHIDCAHVYQNENEVGVAIQ
EKLREQVVKREELFIVSKLWCTYHEKGLVKGACQKTLSDLKLDYLDLYLIHWPTGFKPGK
EFFPLDESGNVVPSDTNILDTWAAMEELVDEGLVKAIGISNFNHLQVEMILNKPGLKYKP
AVNQIECHPYLTQEKLIQYCQSKGIVVTAYSPLGSPDRPWAKPEDPSLLEDPRIKAIAAK
HNKTTAQVLIRFPMQRNLVVIPKSVTPERIAENFKVFDFELSSQDMTTLLSYNRNWRVCA
LLSCTSHKDYPFHEEF
Number of residues
316
Molecular Weight
35853.125
Theoretical pI
6.99
GO Classification
Functions
alditol / aldo-keto reductase (NADP) activity / electron carrier activity / glyceraldehyde oxidoreductase activity
Processes
C21-steroid hormone biosynthetic process / carbohydrate metabolic process / cellular response to hydrogen peroxide / cellular response to methylglyoxal / cellular response to peptide / daunorubicin metabolic process / doxorubicin metabolic process / fructose biosynthetic process / fructose metabolic process / inner medullary collecting duct development / maternal process involved in female pregnancy / naphthalene metabolic process / norepinephrine metabolic process / positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade / positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation / response to stress / response to thyroid hormone / response to water deprivation / small molecule metabolic process / sorbitol biosynthetic process / steroid metabolic process / stress-activated protein kinase signaling cascade / tissue homeostasis
Components
cell projection cytoplasm / cytoplasm / cytosol / extracellular exosome / extracellular space / mast cell granule / nucleoplasm / paranodal junction / perinuclear region of cytoplasm / Schmidt-Lanterman incisure / Schwann cell microvillus
General Function
Glyceraldehyde oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl-containing compounds to their corresponding alcohols with a broad range of catalytic efficiencies.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
Not Available
Cellular Location
Cytoplasm
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0016195|Aldose reductase (AKR1B1)
ATGGCAAGCCGTCTCCTGCTCAACAACGGCGCCAAGATGCCCATCCTGGGGTTGGGTACC
TGGAAGTCCCCTCCAGGGCAGGTGACTGAGGCCGTGAAGGTGGCCATTGACGTCGGGTAC
CGCCACATCGACTGTGCCCATGTGTACCAGAATGAGAATGAGGTGGGGGTGGCCATTCAG
GAGAAGCTCAGGGAGCAGGTGGTGAAGCGTGAGGAGCTCTTCATCGTCAGCAAGCTGTGG
TGCACGTACCATGAGAAGGGCCTGGTGAAAGGAGCCTGCCAGAAGACACTCAGCGACCTG
AAGCTGGACTACCTGGACCTCTACCTTATTCACTGGCCGACTGGCTTTAAGCCTGGGAAG
GAATTTTTCCCATTGGATGAGTCGGGCAATGTGGTTCCCAGTGACACCAACATTCTGGAC
ACGTGGGCGGCCATGGAAGAGCTGGTGGATGAAGGGCTGGTGAAAGCTATTGGCATCTCC
AACTTCAACCATCTCCAGGTGGAGATGATCTTAAACAAACCTGGCTTGAAGTATAAGCCT
GCAGTTAACCAGATTGAGTGCCACCCATATCTCACTCAGGAGAAGTTAATCCAGTACTGC
CAGTCCAAAGGCATCGTGGTGACCGCCTACAGCCCCCTCGGCTCTCCTGACAGGCCCTGG
GCCAAGCCCGAGGACCCTTCTCTCCTGGAGGATCCCAGGATCAAGGCGATCGCAGCCAAG
CACAATAAAACTACAGCCCAGGTCCTGATCCGGTTCCCCATGCAGAGGAACTTGGTGGTG
ATCCCCAAGTCTGTGACACCAGAACGCATTGCTGAGAACTTTAAGGTCTTTGACTTTGAA
CTGAGCAGCCAGGATATGACCACCTTACTCAGCTACAACAGGAACTGGAGGGTCTGTGCC
TTGTTGAGCTGTACCTCCCACAAGGATTACCCCTTCCATGAAGAGTTTTGA
Chromosome Location
7
Locus
7q35
External Identifiers
ResourceLink
UniProtKB IDP15121
UniProtKB Entry NameALDR_HUMAN
GenBank Protein ID178487
GenBank Gene IDJ04795
GenAtlas IDAKR1B1
HGNC IDHGNC:381
General References
  1. Bohren KM, Bullock B, Wermuth B, Gabbay KH: The aldo-keto reductase superfamily. cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases. J Biol Chem. 1989 Jun 5;264(16):9547-51. [PubMed:2498333]
  2. Chung S, LaMendola J: Cloning and sequence determination of human placental aldose reductase gene. J Biol Chem. 1989 Sep 5;264(25):14775-7. [PubMed:2504709]
  3. Graham A, Hedge PJ, Powell SJ, Riley J, Brown L, Gammack A, Carey F, Markham AF: Nucleotide sequence of cDNA for human aldose reductase. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Oct 25;17(20):8368. [PubMed:2510130]
  4. Grundmann U, Bohn H, Obermeier R, Amann E: Cloning and prokaryotic expression of a biologically active human placental aldose reductase. DNA Cell Biol. 1990 Apr;9(3):149-57. [PubMed:2111143]
  5. Nishimura C, Matsuura Y, Kokai Y, Akera T, Carper D, Morjana N, Lyons C, Flynn TG: Cloning and expression of human aldose reductase. J Biol Chem. 1990 Jun 15;265(17):9788-92. [PubMed:2112546]
  6. Graham A, Brown L, Hedge PJ, Gammack AJ, Markham AF: Structure of the human aldose reductase gene. J Biol Chem. 1991 Apr 15;266(11):6872-7. [PubMed:1901857]
  7. Ko BC, Ruepp B, Bohren KM, Gabbay KH, Chung SS: Identification and characterization of multiple osmotic response sequences in the human aldose reductase gene. J Biol Chem. 1997 Jun 27;272(26):16431-7. [PubMed:9195951]
  8. Hartmann TB, Thiel D, Dummer R, Schadendorf D, Eichmuller S: SEREX identification of new tumour-associated antigens in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Br J Dermatol. 2004 Feb;150(2):252-8. [PubMed:14996095]
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  11. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334]
  12. Ferraretto A, Negri A, Giuliani A, De Grada L, Fuhrman Conti AM, Ronchi S: Aldose reductase is involved in long-term adaptation of EUE cells to hyperosmotic stress. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Feb 17;1175(3):283-8. [PubMed:8435445]
  13. Morjana NA, Lyons C, Flynn TG: Aldose reductase from human psoas muscle. Affinity labeling of an active site lysine by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and pyridoxal 5'-diphospho-5'-adenosine. J Biol Chem. 1989 Feb 15;264(5):2912-9. [PubMed:2492527]
  14. Liu SQ, Bhatnagar A, Ansari NH, Srivastava SK: Identification of the reactive cysteine residue in human placenta aldose reductase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Aug 7;1164(3):268-72. [PubMed:8343525]
  15. Jaquinod M, Potier N, Klarskov K, Reymann JM, Sorokine O, Kieffer S, Barth P, Andriantomanga V, Biellmann JF, Van Dorsselaer A: Sequence of pig lens aldose reductase and electrospray mass spectrometry of non-covalent and covalent complexes. Eur J Biochem. 1993 Dec 15;218(3):893-903. [PubMed:8281941]
  16. Tarle I, Borhani DW, Wilson DK, Quiocho FA, Petrash JM: Probing the active site of human aldose reductase. Site-directed mutagenesis of Asp-43, Tyr-48, Lys-77, and His-110. J Biol Chem. 1993 Dec 5;268(34):25687-93. [PubMed:8245005]
  17. Gauci S, Helbig AO, Slijper M, Krijgsveld J, Heck AJ, Mohammed S: Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach. Anal Chem. 2009 Jun 1;81(11):4493-501. doi: 10.1021/ac9004309. [PubMed:19413330]
  18. Choudhary C, Kumar C, Gnad F, Nielsen ML, Rehman M, Walther TC, Olsen JV, Mann M: Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. Science. 2009 Aug 14;325(5942):834-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1175371. Epub 2009 Jul 16. [PubMed:19608861]
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  20. Wilson DK, Bohren KM, Gabbay KH, Quiocho FA: An unlikely sugar substrate site in the 1.65 A structure of the human aldose reductase holoenzyme implicated in diabetic complications. Science. 1992 Jul 3;257(5066):81-4. [PubMed:1621098]
  21. Borhani DW, Harter TM, Petrash JM: The crystal structure of the aldose reductase.NADPH binary complex. J Biol Chem. 1992 Dec 5;267(34):24841-7. [PubMed:1447221]
  22. Wilson DK, Tarle I, Petrash JM, Quiocho FA: Refined 1.8 A structure of human aldose reductase complexed with the potent inhibitor zopolrestat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Nov 1;90(21):9847-51. [PubMed:8234324]
  23. Harrison DH, Bohren KM, Petsko GA, Ringe D, Gabbay KH: The alrestatin double-decker: binding of two inhibitor molecules to human aldose reductase reveals a new specificity determinant. Biochemistry. 1997 Dec 23;36(51):16134-40. [PubMed:9405046]
  24. Ruiz F, Hazemann I, Mitschler A, Joachimiak A, Schneider T, Karplus M, Podjarny A: The crystallographic structure of the aldose reductase-IDD552 complex shows direct proton donation from tyrosine 48. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004 Aug;60(Pt 8):1347-54. Epub 2004 Jul 21. [PubMed:15272156]
  25. Howard EI, Sanishvili R, Cachau RE, Mitschler A, Chevrier B, Barth P, Lamour V, Van Zandt M, Sibley E, Bon C, Moras D, Schneider TR, Joachimiak A, Podjarny A: Ultrahigh resolution drug design I: details of interactions in human aldose reductase-inhibitor complex at 0.66 A. Proteins. 2004 Jun 1;55(4):792-804. [PubMed:15146478]
  26. Steuber H, Zentgraf M, Podjarny A, Heine A, Klebe G: High-resolution crystal structure of aldose reductase complexed with the novel sulfonyl-pyridazinone inhibitor exhibiting an alternative active site anchoring group. J Mol Biol. 2006 Feb 10;356(1):45-56. Epub 2005 Nov 10. [PubMed:16337231]
  27. Biadene M, Hazemann I, Cousido A, Ginell S, Joachimiak A, Sheldrick GM, Podjarny A, Schneider TR: The atomic resolution structure of human aldose reductase reveals that rearrangement of a bound ligand allows the opening of the safety-belt loop. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2007 Jun;63(Pt 6):665-72. Epub 2007 May 15. [PubMed:17505104]
  28. Steuber H, Zentgraf M, La Motta C, Sartini S, Heine A, Klebe G: Evidence for a novel binding site conformer of aldose reductase in ligand-bound state. J Mol Biol. 2007 May 25;369(1):186-97. Epub 2007 Mar 15. [PubMed:17418233]
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Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB00157NADHapproved, nutraceuticalunknownDetails
DB00605Sulindacapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB01689Inhibitor Idd 384experimentalunknownDetails
DB02007alpha-D-glucose 6-phosphateexperimentalunknownDetails
DB02020AlrestatinexperimentalunknownDetails
DB02021FidarestatexperimentalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB02101(S,R)-fidarestatexperimentalunknownDetails
DB02518N-AcetylalanineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB02712Sorbinilexperimental, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB02834IDD552experimentalunknownDetails
DB02994Cacodylic acidexperimentalunknownDetails
DB034612'-Monophosphoadenosine 5'-DiphosphoriboseexperimentalunknownDetails
DB04272Citric acidapproved, nutraceutical, vet_approvedunknownDetails
DB02383TolrestatwithdrawnunknowninhibitorDetails
DB05327RanirestatinvestigationalunknownDetails
DB05383PimagedineinvestigationalunknownDetails
DB02132ZenarestatexperimentalunknownDetails
DB05533QR-333investigationalunknownDetails
DB07028(2-{[(4-BROMO-2-FLUOROBENZYL)AMINO]CARBONYL}-5-CHLOROPHENOXY)ACETIC ACIDexperimentalunknownDetails
DB07030(5-CHLORO-2-{[(3-NITROBENZYL)AMINO]CARBONYL}PHENOXY)ACETIC ACIDexperimentalunknownDetails
DB07063{3-[(4,5,7-TRIFLUORO-1,3-BENZOTHIAZOL-2-YL)METHYL]-1H-INDOL-1-YL}ACETIC ACIDexperimentalunknownDetails
DB07093{3-[(5-CHLORO-1,3-BENZOTHIAZOL-2-YL)METHYL]-2,4-DIOXO-3,4-DIHYDROPYRIMIDIN-1(2H)-YL}ACETIC ACIDexperimentalunknownDetails
DB071393-[5-(3-nitrophenyl)thiophen-2-yl]propanoic acidexperimentalunknownDetails
DB071876-[(5-CHLORO-3-METHYL-1-BENZOFURAN-2-YL)SULFONYL]PYRIDAZIN-3(2H)-ONEexperimentalunknownDetails
DB07450(R)-minalrestatexperimentalunknownDetails
DB074984-[3-(3-NITROPHENYL)-1,2,4-OXADIAZOL-5-YL]BUTANOIC ACIDexperimentalunknownDetails
DB07999{4-[(CARBOXYMETHOXY)CARBONYL]-3,3-DIOXIDO-1-OXONAPHTHO[1,2-D]ISOTHIAZOL-2(1H)-YL}ACETIC ACIDexperimentalunknownDetails
DB080002-(CARBOXYMETHYL)-1-OXO-1,2-DIHYDRONAPHTHO[1,2-D]ISOTHIAZOLE-4-CARBOXYLIC ACID 3,3-DIOXIDEexperimentalunknownDetails
DB08084IDD594experimentalunknownDetails
DB08098{[5-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]thio}acetic acidexperimentalunknownDetails
DB084492-(3-((4,5,7-trifluorobenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-1-yl)acetic acidexperimentalunknownDetails
DB087723,4-DIHYDRO-4-OXO-3-((5-TRIFLUOROMETHYL-2-BENZOTHIAZOLYL)METHYL)-1-PHTHALAZINE ACETIC ACIDexperimentalunknownDetails
DB00143Glutathioneapproved, investigational, nutraceuticalunknownDetails
DB06246ExisulindinvestigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB11859Brexanoloneapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails