Glucokinase

Details

Name
Glucokinase
Synonyms
  • 2.7.1.2
  • Hexokinase type IV
  • Hexokinase-4
  • Hexokinase-D
  • HK IV
  • HK4
Gene Name
GCK
Organism
Humans
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0002103|Glucokinase
MLDDRARMEAAKKEKVEQILAEFQLQEEDLKKVMRRMQKEMDRGLRLETHEEASVKMLPT
YVRSTPEGSEVGDFLSLDLGGTNFRVMLVKVGEGEEGQWSVKTKHQMYSIPEDAMTGTAE
MLFDYISECISDFLDKHQMKHKKLPLGFTFSFPVRHEDIDKGILLNWTKGFKASGAEGNN
VVGLLRDAIKRRGDFEMDVVAMVNDTVATMISCYYEDHQCEVGMIVGTGCNACYMEEMQN
VELVEGDEGRMCVNTEWGAFGDSGELDEFLLEYDRLVDESSANPGQQLYEKLIGGKYMGE
LVRLVLLRLVDENLLFHGEASEQLRTRGAFETRFVSQVESDTGDRKQIYNILSTLGLRPS
TTDCDIVRRACESVSTRAAHMCSAGLAGVINRMRESRSEDVMRITVGVDGSVYKLHPSFK
ERFHASVRRLTPSCEITFIESEEGSGRGAALVSAVACKKACMLGQ
Number of residues
465
Molecular Weight
52191.07
Theoretical pI
4.85
GO Classification
Functions
ATP binding / glucokinase activity / glucose binding
Processes
calcium ion import / canonical glycolysis / carbohydrate metabolic process / cellular glucose homeostasis / cellular response to insulin stimulus / cellular response to leptin stimulus / detection of glucose / endocrine pancreas development / glucose 6-phosphate metabolic process / glucose homeostasis / glucose metabolic process / glucose transport / glycolytic process / hexose transport / NADP metabolic process / negative regulation of gluconeogenesis / positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process / positive regulation of insulin secretion / regulation of glucose transport / regulation of glycolytic process / regulation of insulin secretion / regulation of potassium ion transport / small molecule metabolic process / transmembrane transport
Components
cytosol / mitochondrion / nucleoplasm
General Function
Glucose binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the initial step in utilization of glucose by the beta-cell and liver at physiological glucose concentration. Glucokinase has a high Km for glucose, and so it is effective only when glucose is abundant. The role of GCK is to provide G6P for the synthesis of glycogen. Pancreatic glucokinase plays an important role in modulating insulin secretion. Hepatic glucokinase helps to facilitate the uptake and conversion of glucose by acting as an insulin-sensitive determinant of hepatic glucose usage.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
Not Available
Cellular Location
Cytoplasm
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0016300|Glucokinase (GCK)
ATGCTGGACGACAGAGCCAGGATGGAGGCCGCCAAGAAGGAGAAGGTAGAGCAGATCCTG
GCAGAGTTCCAGCTGCAGGAGGAGGACCTGAAGAAGGTGATGAGACGGATGCAGAAGGAG
ATGGACCGCGGCCTGAGGCTGGAGACCCATGAAGAGGCCAGTGTGAAGATGCTGCCCACC
TACGTGCGCTCCACCCCAGAAGGCTCAGAAGTCGGGGACTTCCTCTCCCTGGACCTGGGT
GGCACTAACTTCAGGGTGATGCTGGTGAAGGTGGGAGAAGGTGAGGAGGGGCAGTGGAGC
GTGAAGACCAAACACCAGATGTACTCCATCCCCGAGGACGCCATGACCGGCACTGCTGAG
ATGCTCTTCGACTACATCTCTGAGTGCATCTCCGACTTCCTGGACAAGCATCAGATGAAA
CACAAGAAGCTGCCCCTGGGCTTCACCTTCTCCTTTCCTGTGAGGCACGAAGACATCGAT
AAGGGCATCCTTCTCAACTGGACCAAGGGCTTCAAGGCCTCAGGAGCAGAAGGGAACAAT
GTCGTGGGGCTTCTGCGAGACGCTATCAAACGGAGAGGGGACTTTGAAATGGATGTGGTG
GCAATGGTGAATGACACGGTGGCCACGATGATCTCCTGCTACTACGAAGACCATCAGTGC
GAGGTCGGCATGATCGTGGGCACGGGCTGCAATGCCTGCTACATGGAGGAGATGCAGAAT
GTGGAGCTGGTGGAGGGGGACGAGGGCCGCATGTGCGTCAATACCGAGTGGGGCGCCTTC
GGGGACTCCGGCGAGCTGGACGAGTTCCTGCTGGAGTATGACCGCCTGGTGGACGAGAGC
TCTGCAAACCCCGGTCAGCAGCTGTATGAGAAGCTCATAGGTGGCAAGTACATGGGCGAG
CTGGTGCGGCTTGTGCTGCTCAGGCTCGTGGACGAAAACCTGCTCTTCCACGGGGAGGCC
TCCGAGCAGCTGCGCACACGCGGAGCCTTCGAGACGCGCTTCGTGTCGCAGGTGGAGAGC
GACACGGGCGACCGCAAGCAGATCTACAACATCCTGAGCACGCTGGGGCTGCGACCCTCG
ACCACCGACTGCGACATCGTGCGCCGCGCCTGCGAGAGCGTGTCTACGCGCGCTGCGCAC
ATGTGCTCGGCGGGGCTGGCGGGCGTCATCAACCGCATGCGCGAGAGCCGCAGCGAGGAC
GTAATGCGCATCACTGTGGGCGTGGATGGCTCCGTGTACAAGCTGCACCCCAGCTTCAAG
GAGCGGTTCCATGCCAGCGTGCGCAGGCTGACGCCCAGCTGCGAGATCACCTTCATCGAG
TCGGAGGAGGGCAGTGGCCGGGGCGCGGCCCTGGTCTCGGCGGTGGCCTGTAAGAAGGCC
TGTATGCTGGGCCAGTGA
Chromosome Location
7
Locus
7p15.3-p15.1
External Identifiers
ResourceLink
UniProtKB IDP35557
UniProtKB Entry NameHXK4_HUMAN
GenBank Protein ID179427
GenBank Gene IDM88011
GenAtlas IDGCK
HGNC IDHGNC:4195
General References
  1. Tanizawa Y, Matsutani A, Chiu KC, Permutt MA: Human glucokinase gene: isolation, structural characterization, and identification of a microsatellite repeat polymorphism. Mol Endocrinol. 1992 Jul;6(7):1070-81. [PubMed:1354840]
  2. Tanizawa Y, Koranyi LI, Welling CM, Permutt MA: Human liver glucokinase gene: cloning and sequence determination of two alternatively spliced cDNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Aug 15;88(16):7294-7. [PubMed:1871135]
  3. Nishi S, Stoffel M, Xiang K, Shows TB, Bell GI, Takeda J: Human pancreatic beta-cell glucokinase: cDNA sequence and localization of the polymorphic gene to chromosome 7, band p 13. Diabetologia. 1992 Aug;35(8):743-7. [PubMed:1511800]
  4. Koranyi LI, Tanizawa Y, Welling CM, Rabin DU, Permutt MA: Human islet glucokinase gene. Isolation and sequence analysis of full-length cDNA. Diabetes. 1992 Jul;41(7):807-11. [PubMed:1612194]
  5. Stoffel M, Froguel P, Takeda J, Zouali H, Vionnet N, Nishi S, Weber IT, Harrison RW, Pilkis SJ, Lesage S, et al.: Human glucokinase gene: isolation, characterization, and identification of two missense mutations linked to early-onset non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Aug 15;89(16):7698-702. [PubMed:1502186]
  6. Sakura H, Eto K, Kadowaki H, Simokawa K, Ueno H, Koda N, Fukushima Y, Akanuma Y, Yazaki Y, Kadowaki T: Structure of the human glucokinase gene and identification of a missense mutation in a Japanese patient with early-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992 Dec;75(6):1571-3. [PubMed:1464666]
  7. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T, Sugano S: Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. Nat Genet. 2004 Jan;36(1):40-5. Epub 2003 Dec 21. [PubMed:14702039]
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  9. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334]
  10. de la Iglesia N, Veiga-da-Cunha M, Van Schaftingen E, Guinovart JJ, Ferrer JC: Glucokinase regulatory protein is essential for the proper subcellular localisation of liver glucokinase. FEBS Lett. 1999 Aug 6;456(2):332-8. [PubMed:10456334]
  11. St Charles R, Harrison RW, Bell GI, Pilkis SJ, Weber IT: Molecular model of human beta-cell glucokinase built by analogy to the crystal structure of yeast hexokinase B. Diabetes. 1994 Jun;43(6):784-91. [PubMed:8194664]
  12. Kamata K, Mitsuya M, Nishimura T, Eiki J, Nagata Y: Structural basis for allosteric regulation of the monomeric allosteric enzyme human glucokinase. Structure. 2004 Mar;12(3):429-38. [PubMed:15016359]
  13. Mitsuya M, Kamata K, Bamba M, Watanabe H, Sasaki Y, Sasaki K, Ohyama S, Hosaka H, Nagata Y, Eiki J, Nishimura T: Discovery of novel 3,6-disubstituted 2-pyridinecarboxamide derivatives as GK activators. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 May 15;19(10):2718-21. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.03.137. Epub 2009 Mar 29. [PubMed:19362831]
  14. Beck T, Miller BG: Structural basis for regulation of human glucokinase by glucokinase regulatory protein. Biochemistry. 2013 Sep 10;52(36):6232-9. doi: 10.1021/bi400838t. Epub 2013 Aug 26. [PubMed:23957911]
  15. Stoffel M, Patel P, Lo YM, Hattersley AT, Lucassen AM, Page R, Bell JI, Bell GI, Turner RC, Wainscoat JS: Missense glucokinase mutation in maturity-onset diabetes of the young and mutation screening in late-onset diabetes. Nat Genet. 1992 Oct;2(2):153-6. [PubMed:1303265]
  16. Chiu KC, Tanizawa Y, Permutt MA: Glucokinase gene variants in the common form of NIDDM. Diabetes. 1993 Apr;42(4):579-82. [PubMed:8454109]
  17. Stoffel M, Bell KL, Blackburn CL, Powell KL, Seo TS, Takeda J, Vionnet N, Xiang KS, Gidh-Jain M, Pilkis SJ, et al.: Identification of glucokinase mutations in subjects with gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 1993 Jun;42(6):937-40. [PubMed:8495817]
  18. Takeda J, Gidh-Jain M, Xu LZ, Froguel P, Velho G, Vaxillaire M, Cohen D, Shimada F, Makino H, Nishi S, et al.: Structure/function studies of human beta-cell glucokinase. Enzymatic properties of a sequence polymorphism, mutations associated with diabetes, and other site-directed mutants. J Biol Chem. 1993 Jul 15;268(20):15200-4. [PubMed:8325892]
  19. Gidh-Jain M, Takeda J, Xu LZ, Lange AJ, Vionnet N, Stoffel M, Froguel P, Velho G, Sun F, Cohen D, et al.: Glucokinase mutations associated with non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus have decreased enzymatic activity: implications for structure/function relationships. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Mar 1;90(5):1932-6. [PubMed:8446612]
  20. Hager J, Blanche H, Sun F, Vaxillaire NV, Poller W, Cohen D, Czernichow P, Velho G, Robert JJ, Cohen N, et al.: Six mutations in the glucokinase gene identified in MODY by using a nonradioactive sensitive screening technique. Diabetes. 1994 May;43(5):730-3. [PubMed:8168652]
  21. Velho G, Blanche H, Vaxillaire M, Bellanne-Chantelot C, Pardini VC, Timsit J, Passa P, Deschamps I, Robert JJ, Weber IT, Marotta D, Pilkis SJ, Lipkind GM, Bell GI, Froguel P: Identification of 14 new glucokinase mutations and description of the clinical profile of 42 MODY-2 families. Diabetologia. 1997 Feb;40(2):217-24. [PubMed:9049484]
  22. Guazzini B, Gaffi D, Mainieri D, Multari G, Cordera R, Bertolini S, Pozza G, Meschi F, Barbetti F: Three novel missense mutations in the glucokinase gene (G80S; E221K; G227C) in Italian subjects with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Mutations in brief no. 162. Online. Hum Mutat. 1998;12(2):136. [PubMed:10694920]
  23. Hattersley AT, Beards F, Ballantyne E, Appleton M, Harvey R, Ellard S: Mutations in the glucokinase gene of the fetus result in reduced birth weight. Nat Genet. 1998 Jul;19(3):268-70. [PubMed:9662401]
  24. Glaser B, Kesavan P, Heyman M, Davis E, Cuesta A, Buchs A, Stanley CA, Thornton PS, Permutt MA, Matschinsky FM, Herold KC: Familial hyperinsulinism caused by an activating glucokinase mutation. N Engl J Med. 1998 Jan 22;338(4):226-30. [PubMed:9435328]
  25. Ng MC, Cockburn BN, Lindner TH, Yeung VT, Chow CC, So WY, Li JK, Lo YM, Lee ZS, Cockram CS, Critchley JA, Bell GI, Chan JC: Molecular genetics of diabetes mellitus in Chinese subjects: identification of mutations in glucokinase and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha genes in patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus/MODY. Diabet Med. 1999 Nov;16(11):956-63. [PubMed:10588527]
  26. Nam JH, Lee HC, Kim YH, Cha BS, Song YD, Lim SK, Kim KR, Huh KB: Identification of glucokinase mutation in subjects with post-renal transplantation diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2000 Dec;50(3):169-76. [PubMed:11106831]
  27. Njolstad PR, Sovik O, Cuesta-Munoz A, Bjorkhaug L, Massa O, Barbetti F, Undlien DE, Shiota C, Magnuson MA, Molven A, Matschinsky FM, Bell GI: Neonatal diabetes mellitus due to complete glucokinase deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2001 May 24;344(21):1588-92. [PubMed:11372010]
  28. Steele AM, Tribble ND, Caswell R, Wensley KJ, Hattersley AT, Gloyn AL, Ellard S: The previously reported T342P GCK missense variant is not a pathogenic mutation causing MODY. Diabetologia. 2011 Aug;54(8):2202-5. doi: 10.1007/s00125-011-2194-5. Epub 2011 May 21. [PubMed:21604084]

Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB02379Beta-D-GlucoseexperimentalunknownDetails
DB073582-amino-N-(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-5-[(4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)sulfanyl]benzamideexperimentalunknownDetails
DB073593-[(4-fluorophenyl)sulfanyl]-N-(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-6-[(4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)sulfanyl]pyridine-2-carboxamideexperimentalunknownDetails
DB081182-(methylamino)-N-(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-5-[(4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)sulfanyl]benzamideexperimentalunknownDetails
DB082102-AMINO-4-FLUORO-5-[(1-METHYL-1H-IMIDAZOL-2-YL)SULFANYL]-N-(1,3-THIAZOL-2-YL)BENZAMIDEexperimentalunknownDetails
DB09341Dextrose, unspecified formapproved, vet_approvedunknownsubstrateinducerDetails
DB09344Invert sugarexperimentalnosubstrateDetails
DB01914D-glucoseapproved, investigational, vet_approvednosubstrateDetails