Aldehyde oxidase

Details

Name
Aldehyde oxidase
Synonyms
  • 1.2.3.1
  • Aldehyde oxidase 1
  • AO
  • Azaheterocycle hydroxylase
Gene Name
AOX1
Organism
Humans
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0006819|Aldehyde oxidase
MDRASELLFYVNGRKVIEKNVDPETMLLPYLRKKLRLTGTKYGCGGGGCGACTVMISRYN
PITKRIRHHPANACLIPICSLYGAAVTTVEGIGSTHTRIHPVQERIAKCHGTQCGFCTPG
MVMSIYTLLRNHPEPTLDQLTDALGGNLCRCTGYRPIIDACKTFCKTSGCCQSKENGVCC
LDQGINGLPEFEEGSKTSPKLFAEEEFLPLDPTQELIFPPELMIMAEKQSQRTRVFGSER
MMWFSPVTLKELLEFKFKYPQAPVIMGNTSVGPEVKFKGVFHPVIISPDRIEELSVVNHA
YNGLTLGAGLSLAQVKDILADVVQKLPEEKTQMYHALLKHLGTLAGSQIRNMASLGGHII
SRHPDSDLNPILAVGNCTLNLLSKEGKRQIPLNEQFLSKCPNADLKPQEILVSVNIPYSR
KWEFVSAFRQAQRQENALAIVNSGMRVFFGEGDGIIRELCISYGGVGPATICAKNSCQKL
IGRHWNEQMLDIACRLILNEVSLLGSAPGGKVEFKRTLIISFLFKFYLEVSQILKKMDPV
HYPSLADKYESALEDLHSKHHCSTLKYQNIGPKQHPEDPIGHPIMHLSGVKHATGEAIYC
DDMPLVDQELFLTFVTSSRAHAKIVSIDLSEALSMPGVVDIMTAEHLSDVNSFCFFTEAE
KFLATDKVFCVGQLVCAVLADSEVQAKRAAKRVKIVYQDLEPLILTIEESIQHNSSFKPE
RKLEYGNVDEAFKVVDQILEGEIHMGGQEHFYMETQSMLVVPKGEDQEMDVYVSTQFPKY
IQDIVASTLKLPANKVMCHVRRVGGAFGGKVLKTGIIAAVTAFAANKHGRAVRCVLERGE
DMLITGGRHPYLGKYKAGFMNDGRILALDMEHYSNAGASLDESLFVIEMGLLKMDNAYKF
PNLRCRGWACRTNLPSNTAFRGFGFPQAALITESCITEVAAKCGLSPEKVRIINMYKEID
QTPYKQEINAKNLIQCWRECMAMSSYSLRKVAVEKFNAENYWKKKGLAMVPLKFPVGLGS
RAAGQAAALVHIYLDGSVLVTHGGIEMGQGVHTKMIQVVSRELRMPMSNVHLRGTSTETV
PNANISGGSVVADLNGLAVKDACQTLLKRLEPIISKNPKGTWKDWAQTAFDESINLSAVG
YFRGYESDMNWEKGEGQPFEYFVYGAACSEVEIDCLTGDHKNIRTDIVMDVGCSINPAID
IGQIEGAFIQGMGLYTIEELNYSPQGILHTRGPDQYKIPAICDMPTELHIALLPPSQNSN
TLYSSKGLGESGVFLGCSVFFAIHDAVSAARQERGLHGPLTLNSPLTPEKIRMACEDKFT
KMIPRDEPGSYVPWNVPI
Number of residues
1338
Molecular Weight
147916.735
Theoretical pI
7.17
GO Classification
Functions
2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding / aldehyde oxidase activity / electron carrier activity / flavin adenine dinucleotide binding / iron ion binding / molybdopterin cofactor binding / NAD binding / oxidoreductase activity, acting on CH-OH group of donors / xanthine dehydrogenase activity
Processes
inflammatory response / reactive oxygen species metabolic process / small molecule metabolic process / vitamin B6 metabolic process / vitamin metabolic process / water-soluble vitamin metabolic process
Components
cytoplasm / cytosol / extracellular exosome
General Function
Xanthine dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Oxidase with broad substrate specificity, oxidizing aromatic azaheterocycles, such as N1-methylnicotinamide and N-methylphthalazinium, as well as aldehydes, such as benzaldehyde, retinal, pyridoxal, and vanillin. Plays a key role in the metabolism of xenobiotics and drugs containing aromatic azaheterocyclic substituents. Participates in the bioactivation of prodrugs such as famciclovir, catalyzing the oxidation step from 6-deoxypenciclovir to penciclovir, which is a potent antiviral agent. Is probably involved in the regulation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis. May be a prominent source of superoxide generation via the one-electron reduction of molecular oxygen. Also may catalyze nitric oxide (NO) production via the reduction of nitrite to NO with NADH or aldehyde as electron donor. May play a role in adipogenesis.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
Not Available
Cellular Location
Cytoplasm
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0017136|Aldehyde oxidase (AOX1)
ATGGACCGGGCGTCCGAGCTGCTCTTCTACGTGAACGGCCGCAAGGTGATAGAAAAAAAT
GTCGATCCTGAAACAATGCTGTTGCCTTATTTGAGGAAGAAGCTTCGACTCACAGGAACT
AAGTATGGCTGTGGAGGAGGAGGCTGTGGTGCTTGTACAGTGATGATATCACGATACAAC
CCCATCACCAAGAGGATAAGGCATCACCCAGCCAATGCCTGTCTGATTCCCATCTGTTCT
CTGTATGGTGCTGCCGTCACCACAGTAGAAGGCATAGGAAGCACCCACACCAGAATTCAT
CCTGTTCAGGAGAGGATTGCCAAGTGTCATGGCACCCAGTGTGGCTTCTGCACACCTGGG
ATGGTGATGTCCATCTACACGCTGCTCAGGAACCACCCAGAGCCCACTCTGGATCAGTTA
ACTGATGCCCTTGGTGGTAACCTGTGCCGTTGCACTGGATACAGGCCCATAATTGATGCA
TGCAAGACTTTCTGTAAAACTTCGGGCTGCTGTCAAAGTAAAGAAAATGGGGTTTGCTGT
TTGGATCAAGGAATCAATGGATTGCCAGAATTTGAGGAAGGAAGTAAGACAAGTCCAAAA
CTCTTCGCAGAAGAGGAGTTTCTGCCATTGGATCCAACCCAGGAACTGATATTTCCTCCT
GAGCTAATGATAATGGCTGAGAAACAGTCGCAAAGGACCAGGGTGTTTGGCAGTGAGAGA
ATGATGTGGTTTTCCCCCGTGACCCTGAAGGAACTGCTGGAATTTAAATTCAAGTATCCC
CAGGCTCCTGTTATCATGGGAAACACCTCTGTGGGGCCTGAAGTGAAATTTAAAGGCGTC
TTTCACCCAGTTATAATTTCTCCTGATAGAATTGAAGAACTGAGTGTTGTAAACCATGCA
TATAATGGACTCACCCTTGGTGCTGGTCTCAGCCTAGCCCAGGTGAAGGACATTTTGGCT
GATGTAGTCCAGAAGCTTCCAGAGGAGAAGACACAGATGTACCATGCTCTCCTGAAGCAT
TTGGGAACTCTGGCTGGGTCCCAGATCAGGAACATGGCTTCTTTAGGGGGACACATCATT
AGCAGGCATCCAGATTCAGATCTGAATCCCATCCTGGCTGTGGGTAACTGTACCCTCAAC
TTGCTATCAAAAGAAGGAAAACGACAGATTCCTTTAAATGAGCAATTCCTCAGCAAGTGC
CCTAATGCAGATCTTAAGCCTCAAGAAATCTTGGTCTCAGTGAACATCCCCTACTCAAGG
AAGTGGGAATTTGTGTCAGCCTTCCGACAAGCCCAGCGACAGGAGAATGCGCTAGCGATA
GTCAATTCAGGAATGAGAGTCTTTTTTGGAGAAGGGGATGGCATTATTAGAGAGTTATGC
ATCTCATATGGAGGCGTTGGTCCAGCCACCATCTGTGCCAAGAATTCCTGCCAGAAACTC
ATTGGAAGGCACTGGAACGAACAGATGCTGGATATAGCCTGCAGGCTTATTCTGAATGAA
GTCTCCCTTTTGGGCTCGGCGCCAGGTGGGAAAGTGGAGTTCAAGAGGACTCTCATCATC
AGCTTCCTCTTCAAGTTCTACCTGGAAGTGTCACAGATTTTGAAAAAGATGGATCCAGTT
CACTATCCTAGCCTTGCAGACAAGTATGAAAGTGCTTTAGAAGATCTTCATTCCAAACAT
CACTGCAGTACATTAAAGTACCAGAATATAGGCCCAAAGCAGCATCCTGAAGACCCAATT
GGCCACCCCATCATGCATCTGTCTGGTGTGAAGCATGCCACGGGGGAGGCCATCTACTGT
GATGACATGCCTCTGGTGGACCAGGAACTTTTCTTGACTTTTGTGACTAGTTCAAGAGCT
CATGCTAAGATTGTGTCTATTGATCTGTCAGAAGCTCTCAGCATGCCCGGTGTGGTGGAC
ATCATGACAGCAGAACATCTTAGTGACGTCAACTCCTTCTGCTTTTTTACTGAAGCTGAG
AAATTTCTGGCGACAGATAAGGTGTTCTGTGTGGGTCAGCTTGTCTGTGCTGTGCTTGCC
GATTCTGAGGTTCAGGCAAAGCGAGCTGCTAAGCGAGTGAAGATTGTCTATCAAGACTTG
GAGCCGCTGATACTAACAATTGAGGAAAGTATACAACACAACTCCTCCTTCAAGCCAGAA
AGGAAACTGGAATATGGAAATGTTGACGAAGCATTTAAAGTGGTTGATCAAATTCTTGAA
GGTGAAATACATATGGGAGGTCAAGAACATTTTTATATGGAAACCCAAAGCATGCTTGTC
GTTCCCAAGGGAGAGGATCAAGAAATGGATGTCTACGTGTCCACACAGTTTCCCAAATAT
ATACAGGACATTGTTGCCTCAACCTTGAAGCTCCCAGCTAACAAGGTCATGTGCCATGTA
AGGCGTGTTGGTGGAGCGTTTGGAGGGAAGGTGTTAAAAACCGGAATCATTGCAGCCGTC
ACTGCATTTGCCGCAAACAAACATGGCCGTGCAGTTCGCTGTGTTCTGGAACGAGGAGAA
GACATGTTAATAACTGGAGGCCGCCATCCTTACCTTGGAAAGTACAAAGCTGGATTCATG
AACGATGGCAGAATCTTGGCCCTGGACATGGAGCATTACAGCAATGCAGGCGCCTCCTTG
GATGAATCATTATTCGTGATAGAAATGGGACTTCTGAAAATGGACAATGCTTACAAGTTT
CCCAATCTCCGCTGCCGGGGTTGGGCATGCAGAACCAACCTTCCATCCAACACAGCTTTT
CGTGGGTTTGGCTTTCCTCAGGCAGCGCTGATCACCGAATCTTGTATCACGGAAGTTGCA
GCCAAATGTGGACTATCCCCTGAGAAGGTGCGAATCATAAACATGTACAAGGAAATTGAT
CAAACACCCTACAAACAAGAGATCAATGCCAAGAACCTAATCCAGTGTTGGAGAGAATGT
ATGGCCATGTCTTCCTACTCCTTGAGGAAAGTTGCTGTGGAAAAGTTCAATGCAGAGAAT
TATTGGAAGAAGAAAGGACTGGCCATGGTCCCCCTGAAGTTTCCTGTTGGCCTTGGCTCA
CGTGCTGCTGGTCAGGCTGCTGCCTTGGTTCACATTTATCTTGATGGCTCTGTGCTGGTC
ACTCACGGTGGAATTGAAATGGGGCAGGGGGTCCACACTAAAATGATTCAGGTGGTCAGC
CGTGAATTAAGAATGCCAATGTCGAATGTCCACCTGCGTGGAACAAGCACAGAAACTGTC
CCTAATGCAAATATCTCTGGAGGTTCTGTGGTGGCAGATCTCAACGGTTTGGCAGTAAAG
GATGCCTGTCAAACTCTTCTAAAACGCCTCGAACCCATCATCAGCAAGAATCCTAAAGGA
ACTTGGAAAGACTGGGCACAGACTGCTTTTGATGAAAGCATTAACCTTTCAGCTGTTGGA
TACTTCAGAGGTTATGAGTCAGACATGAACTGGGAGAAAGGCGAAGGCCAGCCCTTCGAA
TACTTTGTTTATGGAGCTGCCTGTTCCGAGGTTGAAATAGACTGCCTGACGGGGGATCAT
AAGAACATCAGAACAGACATTGTCATGGATGTTGGCTGCAGTATAAATCCAGCCATTGAC
ATAGGCCAGATTGAAGGTGCATTTATTCAAGGCATGGGACTTTATACAATAGAGGAACTG
AATTATTCTCCCCAGGGCATTCTGCACACTCGTGGTCCAGACCAATATAAAATCCCTGCC
ATCTGTGACATGCCCACGGAGTTGCACATTGCTTTGTTGCCTCCTTCTCAAAACTCAAAT
ACTCTTTATTCATCTAAGGGTCTGGGAGAGTCGGGGGTGTTCCTGGGGTGTTCCGTGTTT
TTCGCTATCCATGACGCAGTGAGTGCAGCACGACAGGAGAGAGGCCTGCATGGACCCTTG
ACCCTTAATAGTCCACTGACCCCGGAGAAGATTAGGATGGCCTGTGAAGACAAGTTCACA
AAAATGATTCCGAGAGATGAACCTGGATCCTACGTTCCTTGGAATGTACCCATCTGA
Chromosome Location
2
Locus
2q33
External Identifiers
ResourceLink
UniProtKB IDQ06278
UniProtKB Entry NameAOXA_HUMAN
GenBank Protein ID438656
GenBank Gene IDL11005
HGNC IDHGNC:553
General References
  1. Wright RM, Vaitaitis GM, Wilson CM, Repine TB, Terada LS, Repine JE: cDNA cloning, characterization, and tissue-specific expression of human xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Nov 15;90(22):10690-4. [PubMed:8248161]
  2. Ichida K, Matsumura T, Sakuma R, Hosoya T, Nishino T: Mutation of human molybdenum cofactor sulfurase gene is responsible for classical xanthinuria type II. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Apr 20;282(5):1194-200. [PubMed:11302742]
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  4. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334]
  5. Beedham C, Critchley DJ, Rance DJ: Substrate specificity of human liver aldehyde oxidase toward substituted quinazolines and phthalazines: a comparison with hepatic enzyme from guinea pig, rabbit, and baboon. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1995 Jun 1;319(2):481-90. [PubMed:7786031]
  6. Rashidi MR, Smith JA, Clarke SE, Beedham C: In vitro oxidation of famciclovir and 6-deoxypenciclovir by aldehyde oxidase from human, guinea pig, rabbit, and rat liver. Drug Metab Dispos. 1997 Jul;25(7):805-13. [PubMed:9224775]
  7. Neumeier M, Weigert J, Schaffler A, Weiss TS, Schmidl C, Buttner R, Bollheimer C, Aslanidis C, Scholmerich J, Buechler C: Aldehyde oxidase 1 is highly abundant in hepatic steatosis and is downregulated by adiponectin and fenofibric acid in hepatocytes in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Nov 24;350(3):731-5. Epub 2006 Sep 27. [PubMed:17022944]
  8. Garattini E, Fratelli M, Terao M: Mammalian aldehyde oxidases: genetics, evolution and biochemistry. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008 Apr;65(7-8):1019-48. [PubMed:18066686]
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  11. Hutzler JM, Yang YS, Albaugh D, Fullenwider CL, Schmenk J, Fisher MB: Characterization of aldehyde oxidase enzyme activity in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2012 Feb;40(2):267-75. doi: 10.1124/dmd.111.042861. Epub 2011 Oct 26. [PubMed:22031625]
  12. Strelevitz TJ, Orozco CC, Obach RS: Hydralazine as a selective probe inactivator of aldehyde oxidase in human hepatocytes: estimation of the contribution of aldehyde oxidase to metabolic clearance. Drug Metab Dispos. 2012 Jul;40(7):1441-8. doi: 10.1124/dmd.112.045195. Epub 2012 Apr 20. [PubMed:22522748]
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  14. Barr JT, Jones JP: Evidence for substrate-dependent inhibition profiles for human liver aldehyde oxidase. Drug Metab Dispos. 2013 Jan;41(1):24-9. doi: 10.1124/dmd.112.048546. Epub 2012 Sep 20. [PubMed:22996261]
  15. Fu C, Di L, Han X, Soderstrom C, Snyder M, Troutman MD, Obach RS, Zhang H: Aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1) in human liver cytosols: quantitative characterization of AOX1 expression level and activity relationship. Drug Metab Dispos. 2013 Oct;41(10):1797-804. doi: 10.1124/dmd.113.053082. Epub 2013 Jul 15. [PubMed:23857892]
  16. Bian Y, Song C, Cheng K, Dong M, Wang F, Huang J, Sun D, Wang L, Ye M, Zou H: An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome. J Proteomics. 2014 Jan 16;96:253-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2013.11.014. Epub 2013 Nov 22. [PubMed:24275569]
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Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB00426Famciclovirapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00484BrimonidineapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00563MethotrexateapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00157NADHapproved, nutraceuticalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00170Menadioneapproved, nutraceuticalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00481Raloxifeneapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00909Zonisamideapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00962Zaleplonapproved, illicit, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00437AllopurinolapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00339Pyrazinamideapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB03516EniluracilinvestigationalunknownDetails
DB04827Urethaneapproved, withdrawnunknownsubstrateDetails
DB00513Aminocaproic acidapproved, investigationalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB01033MercaptopurineapprovedunknownsubstrateDetails
DB08840N-methylnicotinamideexperimentalunknownsubstrateDetails
DB09078Lenvatinibapproved, investigationalnosubstrateDetails
DB09054IdelalisibapprovednosubstrateDetails
DB00246ZiprasidoneapprovedyessubstrateDetails