cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D

Details

Name
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D
Synonyms
  • 3.1.4.53
  • DPDE3
  • PDE43
Gene Name
PDE4D
Organism
Humans
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0002560|cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D
MEAEGSSAPARAGSGEGSDSAGGATLKAPKHLWRHEQHHQYPLRQPQFRLLHPHHHLPPP
PPPSPQPQPQCPLQPPPPPPLPPPPPPPGAARGRYASSGATGRVRHRGYSDTERYLYCRA
MDRTSYAVETGHRPGLKKSRMSWPSSFQGLRRFDVDNGTSAGRSPLDPMTSPGSGLILQA
NFVHSQRRESFLYRSDSDYDLSPKSMSRNSSIASDIHGDDLIVTPFAQVLASLRTVRNNF
AALTNLQDRAPSKRSPMCNQPSINKATITEEAYQKLASETLEELDWCLDQLETLQTRHSV
SEMASNKFKRMLNRELTHLSEMSRSGNQVSEFISNTFLDKQHEVEIPSPTQKEKEKKKRP
MSQISGVKKLMHSSSLTNSSIPRFGVKTEQEDVLAKELEDVNKWGLHVFRIAELSGNRPL
TVIMHTIFQERDLLKTFKIPVDTLITYLMTLEDHYHADVAYHNNIHAADVVQSTHVLLST
PALEAVFTDLEILAAIFASAIHDVDHPGVSNQFLINTNSELALMYNDSSVLENHHLAVGF
KLLQEENCDIFQNLTKKQRQSLRKMVIDIVLATDMSKHMNLLADLKTMVETKKVTSSGVL
LLDNYSDRIQVLQNMVHCADLSNPTKPLQLYRQWTDRIMEEFFRQGDRERERGMEISPMC
DKHNASVEKSQVGFIDYIVHPLWETWADLVHPDAQDILDTLEDNREWYQSTIPQSPSPAP
DDPEEGRQGQTEKFQFELTLEEDGESDTEKDSGSQVEEDTSCSDSKTLCTQDSESTEIPL
DEQVEEEAVGEEEESQPEACVIDDRSPDT
Number of residues
809
Molecular Weight
91114.1
Theoretical pI
5.25
GO Classification
Functions
3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase activity / 3',5'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity / ATPase binding / beta-2 adrenergic receptor binding / cAMP binding / drug binding / enzyme binding / ion channel binding / metal ion binding / scaffold protein binding / ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Processes
adrenergic receptor signaling pathway / adrenergic receptor signaling pathway involved in positive regulation of heart rate / aging / cAMP catabolic process / cAMP-mediated signaling / cellular protein complex assembly / cellular response to cAMP / cellular response to epinephrine stimulus / cellular response to lipopolysaccharide / establishment of endothelial barrier / lung development / memory / multicellular organism growth / negative regulation of heart contraction / negative regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation / negative regulation of relaxation of cardiac muscle / neutrophil chemotaxis / positive regulation of interferon-gamma production / positive regulation of interleukin-2 production / positive regulation of interleukin-5 production / positive regulation of smooth muscle cell migration / positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation / regulation of cAMP metabolic process / regulation of cardiac muscle cell contraction / regulation of cell communication by electrical coupling involved in cardiac conduction / regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway / regulation of heart rate / regulation of protein kinase A signaling / regulation of receptor activity / regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol by sarcoplasmic reticulum / regulation of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity / smooth muscle contraction / T cell receptor signaling pathway
Components
apical plasma membrane / calcium channel complex / centrosome / cytosol / Golgi apparatus / membrane / myofibril / voltage-gated calcium channel complex
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
Not Available
Cellular Location
Apical cell membrane
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0020514|cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D)
ATGGAGGCAGAGGGCAGCAGCGCGCCGGCCCGGGCGGGCAGCGGAGAGGGCAGCGACAGC
GCCGGCGGGGCCACGCTCAAAGCCCCCAAGCATCTCTGGAGGCACGAGCAGCACCACCAG
TACCCGCTCCGGCAGCCCCAGTTCCGCCTCCTGCATCCCCATCACCACCTGCCCCCGCCG
CCGCCACCCTCGCCCCAGCCCCAGCCCCAGTGTCCGCTACAGCCGCCGCCGCCGCCCCCC
CTGCCGCCGCCCCCGCCGCCGCCCGGGGCTGCCCGCGGCCGCTACGCCTCGAGCGGGGCC
ACCGGCCGCGTCCGGCATCGCGGCTACTCGGACACCGAGCGCTACCTGTACTGTCGCGCC
ATGGACCGCACCTCCTACGCGGTGGAGACCGGCCACCGGCCCGGCCTGAAGAAATCCAGG
ATGTCCTGGCCCTCCTCGTTCCAGGGACTCAGGCGTTTTGATGTGGACAATGGCACATCT
GCGGGACGGAGTCCCTTGGATCCCATGACCAGCCCAGGATCCGGGCTAATTCTCCAAGCA
AATTTTGTCCACAGTCAACGACGGGAGTCCTTCCTGTATCGATCCGACAGCGATTATGAC
CTCTCTCCAAAGTCTATGTCCCGGAACTCCTCCATTGCCAGTGATATACACGGAGATGAC
TTGATTGTGACTCCATTTGCTCAGGTCTTGGCCAGTCTGCGAACTGTACGAAACAACTTT
GCTGCATTAACTAATTTGCAAGATCGAGCACCTAGCAAAAGATCACCCATGTGCAACCAA
CCATCCATCAACAAAGCCACCATAACAGAGGAGGCCTACCAGAAACTGGCCAGCGAGACC
CTGGAGGAGCTGGACTGGTGTCTGGACCAGCTAGAGACCCTACAGACCAGGCACTCCGTC
AGTGAGATGGCCTCCAACAAGTTTAAAAGGATGCTTAATCGGGAGCTCACCCATCTCTCT
GAAATGAGTCGGTCTGGAAATCAAGTGTCAGAGTTTATATCAAACACATTCTTAGATAAG
CAACATGAAGTGGAAATTCCTTCTCCAACTCAGAAGGAAAAGGAGAAAAAGAAAAGACCA
ATGTCTCAGATCAGTGGAGTCAAGAAATTGATGCACAGCTCTAGTCTGACTAATTCAAGT
ATCCCAAGGTTTGGAGTTAAAACTGAACAAGAAGATGTCCTTGCCAAGGAACTAGAAGAT
GTGAACAAATGGGGTCTTCATGTTTTCAGAATAGCAGAGTTGTCTGGTAACCGGCCCTTG
ACTGTTATCATGCACACCATTTTTCAGGAACGGGATTTATTAAAAACATTTAAAATTCCA
GTAGATACTTTAATTACATATCTTATGACTCTCGAAGACCATTACCATGCTGATGTGGCC
TATCACAACAATATCCATGCTGCAGATGTTGTCCAGTCTACTCATGTGCTATTATCTACA
CCTGCTTTGGAGGCTGTGTTTACAGATTTGGAGATTCTTGCAGCAATTTTTGCCAGTGCA
ATACATGATGTAGATCATCCTGGTGTGTCCAATCAATTTCTGATCAATACAAACTCTGAA
CTTGCCTTGATGTACAATGATTCCTCAGTCTTAGAGAACCATCATTTGGCTGTGGGCTTT
AAATTGCTTCAGGAAGAAAACTGTGACATTTTCCAGAATTTGACCAAAAAACAAAGACAA
TCTTTAAGGAAAATGGTCATTGACATCGTACTTGCAACAGATATGTCAAAACACATGAAT
CTACTGGCTGATTTGAAGACTATGGTTGAAACTAAGAAAGTGACAAGCTCTGGAGTTCTT
CTTCTTGATAATTATTCCGATAGGATTCAGGTTCTTCAGAATATGGTGCACTGTGCAGAT
CTGAGCAACCCAACAAAGCCTCTCCAGCTGTACCGCCAGTGGACGGACCGGATAATGGAG
GAGTTCTTCCGCCAAGGAGACCGAGAGAGGGAACGTGGCATGGAGATAAGCCCCATGTGT
GACAAGCACAATGCTTCCGTGGAAAAATCACAGGTGGGCTTCATAGACTATATTGTTCAT
CCCCTCTGGGAGACATGGGCAGACCTCGTCCACCCTGACGCCCAGGATATTTTGGACACT
TTGGAGGACAATCGTGAATGGTACCAGAGCACAATCCCTCAGAGCCCCTCTCCTGCACCT
GATGACCCAGAGGAGGGCCGGCAGGGTCAAACTGAGAAATTCCAGTTTGAACTAACTTTA
GAGGAAGATGGTGAGTCAGACACGGAAAAGGACAGTGGCAGTCAAGTGGAAGAAGACACT
AGCTGCAGTGACTCCAAGACTCTTTGTACTCAAGACTCAGAGTCTACTGAAATTCCCCTT
GATGAACAGGTTGAAGAGGAGGCAGTAGGGGAAGAAGAGGAAAGCCAGCCTGAAGCCTGT
GTCATAGATGATCGTTCTCCTGACACGTAA
Chromosome Location
5
Locus
5q12
External Identifiers
ResourceLink
UniProtKB IDQ08499
UniProtKB Entry NamePDE4D_HUMAN
GenBank Protein ID347130
GenBank Gene IDL20970
GenAtlas IDPDE4D
HGNC IDHGNC:8783
General References
  1. Bolger G, Michaeli T, Martins T, St John T, Steiner B, Rodgers L, Riggs M, Wigler M, Ferguson K: A family of human phosphodiesterases homologous to the dunce learning and memory gene product of Drosophila melanogaster are potential targets for antidepressant drugs. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Oct;13(10):6558-71. [PubMed:8413254]
  2. Nemoz G, Zhang R, Sette C, Conti M: Identification of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase variants from the PDE4D gene expressed in human peripheral mononuclear cells. FEBS Lett. 1996 Apr 8;384(1):97-102. [PubMed:8797812]
  3. Baecker PA, Obernolte R, Bach C, Yee C, Shelton ER: Isolation of a cDNA encoding a human rolipram-sensitive cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE IVD). Gene. 1994 Jan 28;138(1-2):253-6. [PubMed:8125310]
  4. Bolger GB, Erdogan S, Jones RE, Loughney K, Scotland G, Hoffmann R, Wilkinson I, Farrell C, Houslay MD: Characterization of five different proteins produced by alternatively spliced mRNAs from the human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE4D gene. Biochem J. 1997 Dec 1;328 ( Pt 2):539-48. [PubMed:9371713]
  5. Miro X, Casacuberta JM, Gutierrez-Lopez MD, de Landazuri MO, Puigdomenech P: Phosphodiesterases 4D and 7A splice variants in the response of HUVEC cells to TNF-alpha(1). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Aug 2;274(2):415-21. [PubMed:10913353]
  6. Wang D, Deng C, Bugaj-Gaweda B, Kwan M, Gunwaldsen C, Leonard C, Xin X, Hu Y, Unterbeck A, De Vivo M: Cloning and characterization of novel PDE4D isoforms PDE4D6 and PDE4D7. Cell Signal. 2003 Sep;15(9):883-91. [PubMed:12834813]
  7. Gretarsdottir S, Thorleifsson G, Reynisdottir ST, Manolescu A, Jonsdottir S, Jonsdottir T, Gudmundsdottir T, Bjarnadottir SM, Einarsson OB, Gudjonsdottir HM, Hawkins M, Gudmundsson G, Gudmundsdottir H, Andrason H, Gudmundsdottir AS, Sigurdardottir M, Chou TT, Nahmias J, Goss S, Sveinbjornsdottir S, Valdimarsson EM, Jakobsson F, Agnarsson U, Gudnason V, Thorgeirsson G, Fingerle J, Gurney M, Gudbjartsson D, Frigge ML, Kong A, Stefansson K, Gulcher JR: The gene encoding phosphodiesterase 4D confers risk of ischemic stroke. Nat Genet. 2003 Oct;35(2):131-8. Epub 2003 Sep 21. [PubMed:14517540]
  8. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334]
  9. Bolger GB, McCahill A, Yarwood SJ, Steele MR, Warwicker J, Houslay MD: Delineation of RAID1, the RACK1 interaction domain located within the unique N-terminal region of the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, PDE4D5. BMC Biochem. 2002 Aug 23;3:24. [PubMed:12193273]
  10. Bolger GB, McCahill A, Huston E, Cheung YF, McSorley T, Baillie GS, Houslay MD: The unique amino-terminal region of the PDE4D5 cAMP phosphodiesterase isoform confers preferential interaction with beta-arrestins. J Biol Chem. 2003 Dec 5;278(49):49230-8. Epub 2003 Sep 18. [PubMed:14500724]
  11. Richter W, Conti M: The oligomerization state determines regulatory properties and inhibitor sensitivity of type 4 cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jul 16;279(29):30338-48. Epub 2004 May 6. [PubMed:15131123]
  12. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M: Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks. Cell. 2006 Nov 3;127(3):635-48. [PubMed:17081983]
  13. Rosand J, Bayley N, Rost N, de Bakker PI: Many hypotheses but no replication for the association between PDE4D and stroke. Nat Genet. 2006 Oct;38(10):1091-2; author reply 1092-3. [PubMed:17006457]
  14. Lee JH, Richter W, Namkung W, Kim KH, Kim E, Conti M, Lee MG: Dynamic regulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator by competitive interactions of molecular adaptors. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 6;282(14):10414-22. Epub 2007 Jan 23. [PubMed:17244609]
  15. Zahedi RP, Lewandrowski U, Wiesner J, Wortelkamp S, Moebius J, Schutz C, Walter U, Gambaryan S, Sickmann A: Phosphoproteome of resting human platelets. J Proteome Res. 2008 Feb;7(2):526-34. Epub 2007 Dec 19. [PubMed:18088087]
  16. Dephoure N, Zhou C, Villen J, Beausoleil SA, Bakalarski CE, Elledge SJ, Gygi SP: A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Aug 5;105(31):10762-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0805139105. Epub 2008 Jul 31. [PubMed:18669648]
  17. Li X, Vadrevu S, Dunlop A, Day J, Advant N, Troeger J, Klussmann E, Jaffrey E, Hay RT, Adams DR, Houslay MD, Baillie GS: Selective SUMO modification of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase-4D5 (PDE4D5) regulates the functional consequences of phosphorylation by PKA and ERK. Biochem J. 2010 Apr 28;428(1):55-65. doi: 10.1042/BJ20091672. [PubMed:20196770]
  18. Olsen JV, Vermeulen M, Santamaria A, Kumar C, Miller ML, Jensen LJ, Gnad F, Cox J, Jensen TS, Nigg EA, Brunak S, Mann M: Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis. Sci Signal. 2010 Jan 12;3(104):ra3. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.2000475. [PubMed:20068231]
  19. Rigbolt KT, Prokhorova TA, Akimov V, Henningsen J, Johansen PT, Kratchmarova I, Kassem M, Mann M, Olsen JV, Blagoev B: System-wide temporal characterization of the proteome and phosphoproteome of human embryonic stem cell differentiation. Sci Signal. 2011 Mar 15;4(164):rs3. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.2001570. [PubMed:21406692]
  20. Lee ME, Markowitz J, Lee JO, Lee H: Crystal structure of phosphodiesterase 4D and inhibitor complex(1). FEBS Lett. 2002 Oct 23;530(1-3):53-8. [PubMed:12387865]
  21. Huai Q, Colicelli J, Ke H: The crystal structure of AMP-bound PDE4 suggests a mechanism for phosphodiesterase catalysis. Biochemistry. 2003 Nov 18;42(45):13220-6. [PubMed:14609333]
  22. Huai Q, Wang H, Sun Y, Kim HY, Liu Y, Ke H: Three-dimensional structures of PDE4D in complex with roliprams and implication on inhibitor selectivity. Structure. 2003 Jul;11(7):865-73. [PubMed:12842049]
  23. Huai Q, Liu Y, Francis SH, Corbin JD, Ke H: Crystal structures of phosphodiesterases 4 and 5 in complex with inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine suggest a conformation determinant of inhibitor selectivity. J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 26;279(13):13095-101. Epub 2003 Dec 10. [PubMed:14668322]
  24. Xu RX, Rocque WJ, Lambert MH, Vanderwall DE, Luther MA, Nolte RT: Crystal structures of the catalytic domain of phosphodiesterase 4B complexed with AMP, 8-Br-AMP, and rolipram. J Mol Biol. 2004 Mar 19;337(2):355-65. [PubMed:15003452]
  25. Zhang KY, Card GL, Suzuki Y, Artis DR, Fong D, Gillette S, Hsieh D, Neiman J, West BL, Zhang C, Milburn MV, Kim SH, Schlessinger J, Bollag G: A glutamine switch mechanism for nucleotide selectivity by phosphodiesterases. Mol Cell. 2004 Jul 23;15(2):279-86. [PubMed:15260978]
  26. Card GL, England BP, Suzuki Y, Fong D, Powell B, Lee B, Luu C, Tabrizizad M, Gillette S, Ibrahim PN, Artis DR, Bollag G, Milburn MV, Kim SH, Schlessinger J, Zhang KY: Structural basis for the activity of drugs that inhibit phosphodiesterases. Structure. 2004 Dec;12(12):2233-47. [PubMed:15576036]
  27. Card GL, Blasdel L, England BP, Zhang C, Suzuki Y, Gillette S, Fong D, Ibrahim PN, Artis DR, Bollag G, Milburn MV, Kim SH, Schlessinger J, Zhang KY: A family of phosphodiesterase inhibitors discovered by cocrystallography and scaffold-based drug design. Nat Biotechnol. 2005 Feb;23(2):201-7. Epub 2005 Jan 30. [PubMed:15685167]
  28. Huai Q, Sun Y, Wang H, Macdonald D, Aspiotis R, Robinson H, Huang Z, Ke H: Enantiomer discrimination illustrated by the high resolution crystal structures of type 4 phosphodiesterase. J Med Chem. 2006 Mar 23;49(6):1867-73. [PubMed:16539372]
  29. Wang H, Peng MS, Chen Y, Geng J, Robinson H, Houslay MD, Cai J, Ke H: Structures of the four subfamilies of phosphodiesterase-4 provide insight into the selectivity of their inhibitors. Biochem J. 2007 Dec 1;408(2):193-201. [PubMed:17727341]
  30. Smith KJ, Baillie GS, Hyde EI, Li X, Houslay TM, McCahill A, Dunlop AJ, Bolger GB, Klussmann E, Adams DR, Houslay MD: 1H NMR structural and functional characterisation of a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase-4D5 (PDE4D5) N-terminal region peptide that disrupts PDE4D5 interaction with the signalling scaffold proteins, beta-arrestin and RACK1. Cell Signal. 2007 Dec;19(12):2612-24. Epub 2007 Sep 1. [PubMed:17900862]
  31. Wang H, Robinson H, Ke H: The molecular basis for different recognition of substrates by phosphodiesterase families 4 and 10. J Mol Biol. 2007 Aug 10;371(2):302-7. Epub 2007 May 26. [PubMed:17582435]
  32. Michot C, Le Goff C, Goldenberg A, Abhyankar A, Klein C, Kinning E, Guerrot AM, Flahaut P, Duncombe A, Baujat G, Lyonnet S, Thalassinos C, Nitschke P, Casanova JL, Le Merrer M, Munnich A, Cormier-Daire V: Exome sequencing identifies PDE4D mutations as another cause of acrodysostosis. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Apr 6;90(4):740-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.03.003. Epub 2012 Mar 29. [PubMed:22464250]
  33. Lee H, Graham JM Jr, Rimoin DL, Lachman RS, Krejci P, Tompson SW, Nelson SF, Krakow D, Cohn DH: Exome sequencing identifies PDE4D mutations in acrodysostosis. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Apr 6;90(4):746-51. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.03.004. Epub 2012 Mar 29. [PubMed:22464252]
  34. Linglart A, Fryssira H, Hiort O, Holterhus PM, Perez de Nanclares G, Argente J, Heinrichs C, Kuechler A, Mantovani G, Leheup B, Wicart P, Chassot V, Schmidt D, Rubio-Cabezas O, Richter-Unruh A, Berrade S, Pereda A, Boros E, Munoz-Calvo MT, Castori M, Gunes Y, Bertrand G, Bougneres P, Clauser E, Silve C: PRKAR1A and PDE4D mutations cause acrodysostosis but two distinct syndromes with or without GPCR-signaling hormone resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec;97(12):E2328-38. doi: 10.1210/jc.2012-2326. Epub 2012 Oct 5. [PubMed:23043190]
  35. Lynch DC, Dyment DA, Huang L, Nikkel SM, Lacombe D, Campeau PM, Lee B, Bacino CA, Michaud JL, Bernier FP, Parboosingh JS, Innes AM: Identification of novel mutations confirms PDE4D as a major gene causing acrodysostosis. Hum Mutat. 2013 Jan;34(1):97-102. doi: 10.1002/humu.22222. Epub 2012 Nov 9. [PubMed:23033274]

Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB00131Adenosine phosphateapproved, investigational, nutraceuticalunknownproduct ofDetails
DB01954RolipraminvestigationalunknownDetails
DB026762-[3-(2-Hydroxy-1,1-Dihydroxymethyl-Ethylamino)-Propylamino]-2-Hydroxymethyl-Propane-1,3-DiolexperimentalunknownDetails
DB03849CilomilastinvestigationalyesinhibitorDetails
DB00651DyphyllineapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB01656RoflumilastapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB05219Crisaboroleapproved, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB05298TetomilastinvestigationalunknownDetails
DB03606(S)-RolipramexperimentalunknownDetails
DB04149(R)-RolipramexperimentalunknownDetails
DB05676Apremilastapproved, investigationalyesantagonistDetails
DB06246ExisulindinvestigationalunknownDetails
DB01791PiclamilastexperimentalunknownDetails
DB01088Iloprostapproved, investigationalunknowninducerDetails
DB06842(4R)-4-(3-butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)imidazolidin-2-oneexperimentalunknownDetails
DB070513,5-DIMETHYL-1-PHENYL-1H-PYRAZOLE-4-CARBOXYLIC ACID ETHYL ESTERexperimentalunknownDetails
DB044691-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-3,5-Dimethyl-1h-Pyrazole-4-Carboxylic Acid Ethyl EsterexperimentalunknownDetails
DB031831-(4-Aminophenyl)-3,5-Dimethyl-1h-Pyrazole-4-Carboxylic Acid Ethyl EsterexperimentalunknownDetails
DB019593,5-Dimethyl-1-(3-Nitrophenyl)-1h-Pyrazole-4-Carboxylic Acid Ethyl EsterexperimentalunknownDetails
DB042713,5-Dimethyl-1h-Pyrazole-4-Carboxylic Acid Ethyl EsterexperimentalunknownDetails
DB079543-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB082994-[8-(3-nitrophenyl)-1,7-naphthyridin-6-yl]benzoic acidexperimentalunknownDetails
DB02918ZardaverineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB05266IbudilastinvestigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB00201CaffeineapprovedunknowninhibitorDetails
DB09283TrapidilexperimentalyesinhibitorDetails