Nootropic Agents

Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.
DrugDrug NameDrug Indication
DB00122CholineFor nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance
DB00382TacrineFor the palliative treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type.
DB00674GalantamineFor the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Has also been investigated in patients with mild cognitive impairment who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease.
DB00699NicergolineFor the treatment of senile dementia, migraines of vascular origin, transient ischemia, platelet hyper-aggregability, and macular degeneration.
DB00843DonepezilFor the palliative treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type.
DB01049Ergoloid mesylateFor use as an adjunct therapy for patients with dementia.
DB01202LevetiracetamUsed as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial onset seizures in adults and children 4 years of age and older with epilepsy.
DB04599AniracetamNot Available
DB08842AcetylcarnitineAcetylcarnitine is not approved for any indication in the United states and Canada, but it is approved and indicated in Italy for cerebrovascular disorders, mental function disorders, peripheral nerve disorders, diabetic neuropathy, and nutritional supplementation; Portugal for mental function disorders; Argentina for cerebral vasculopathy, nutritional supplementation, and peripheral neuropathy; Chile for dementia; Philippines for cerebrovascular disorders and mental function disorders; Australia for nutritional supplementation; and India for nutritional supplementation to increase sperm count. Acetylcarnitine also has several potential therapeutic indications for which it is still being investigated: in Norway, acetylcarnitine is in a phase IV trial for prophylactic treatment of migraines; in Italy acetylcarnitine is in a phase II trial for use in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, a phase III trial for alleviating fatigue in patients with chronic hepatitis C, and for use in patients with Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy; in the United States acetylcarnitine is in a phase II trial for the neurodegenerative disorder Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, a phase II and III trial for reducing peripheral neuropathy in cancer patients as an adjunct to chemotherapy, a phase I and II trial for treating patients in septic shock, a phase II trial for bipolar depression, a phase II trial to reduce oxidative stress in patients with Sickle Cell disease, a phase I and II trial for chronic fatigue syndrome, and a study for preventing nerve damage in HIV patients; in China acetylcarnitine is in a phase III trial for reducing peripheral neuropathy in cancer patients as an adjunct to chemotherapy; in the United Kingdom acetylcarnitine is being investigated for preventing nerve damage in HIV patients; and in Israel acetylcarnitine is being studied for the treatment of male infertility.
DB09210PiracetamFor the treatment of myoclonus (brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles).
DB11868EtiracetamNot Available
DB12131VinpocetineNot Available
DB12153CiticolineNot Available
DB13082NefiracetamNot Available
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00122CholineCholine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase Btarget
DB00122CholineAcetylcholinesterasetarget
DB00122CholineCholine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase Atarget
DB00122CholinePhospholipase D2target
DB00122CholineCholinesterasetarget
DB00122CholinePhospholipase D1target
DB00122CholinePhosphoethanolamine/phosphocholine phosphatasetarget
DB00122CholineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB00122CholineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB00122CholineSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB00122CholineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00122CholineSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB00122CholineCholine/ethanolaminephosphotransferase 1enzyme
DB00122CholineCholine transporter-like protein 1transporter
DB00122CholineCholine transporter-like protein 4transporter
DB00122CholineCholine transporter-like protein 2transporter
DB00122CholineCholine transporter-like protein 3transporter
DB00122CholineCholine/ethanolamine kinaseenzyme
DB00122CholineCholine O-acetyltransferaseenzyme
DB00122CholineCholine kinase alphaenzyme
DB00122CholineCholine dehydrogenase, mitochondrialenzyme
DB00122CholineHigh affinity choline transporter 1transporter
DB00122CholineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
DB00382TacrineAcetylcholinesterasetarget
DB00382TacrineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00382TacrineCholinesterasetarget
DB00382TacrineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00382TacrineLiver carboxylesterase 1target
DB00674GalantamineAcetylcholinesterasetarget
DB00674GalantamineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00674GalantamineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00674GalantamineAcetylcholine receptor subunit alphatarget
DB00674GalantamineAcetylcholine receptor subunit betatarget
DB00674GalantamineAcetylcholine receptor subunit deltatarget
DB00674GalantamineAcetylcholine receptor subunit gammatarget
DB00674GalantamineAcetylcholine receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB00674GalantamineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00674GalantamineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00674GalantamineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00674GalantamineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00674GalantamineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB00674GalantamineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
DB00674GalantamineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-9target
DB00674GalantamineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-10target
DB00674GalantamineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2target
DB00674GalantamineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-3target
DB00674GalantamineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-4target
DB00674GalantamineCholinesterasetarget
DB00699NicergolineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00699NicergolineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00843DonepezilAcetylcholinesterasetarget
DB00843Donepezil5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00843DonepezilCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00843DonepezilCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00843DonepezilCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01049Ergoloid mesylateSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1target
DB01049Ergoloid mesylateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01049Ergoloid mesylateAlpha-2 adrenergic receptorstarget
DB01049Ergoloid mesylateAlpha-1 adrenergic receptorstarget
DB01049Ergoloid mesylateSerotonin Receptorstarget
DB01049Ergoloid mesylateD(1A) dopamine receptortarget
DB01049Ergoloid mesylateD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB01049Ergoloid mesylateGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB01202LevetiracetamSynaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2Atarget
DB01202LevetiracetamMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01202LevetiracetamCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB01202LevetiracetamVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Btarget
DB04599Aniracetam5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB04599AniracetamD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB04599AniracetamGlutamate receptor 2target
DB04599AniracetamGlutamate receptor 3target
DB08842AcetylcarnitineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB08842AcetylcarnitineSolute carrier family 22 member 21transporter