Coccidioides immitis spherule

Identification

Name
Coccidioides immitis spherule
Accession Number
DB11294
Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved
Biologic Classification
Allergenics
Allergen Extract
Description

Coccidioides immitis spherule is a skin test antigen indicated to detect delayed-type hypersensitivity to Coccidioides immitis in individuals with a history of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis.

Synonyms
Not Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
SpherusolInjection, solution12.7 ug/1mLIntradermalNielsen Biosciences, Inc.2011-07-29Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Categories
UNII
ITY7G7Q744
CAS number
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated to detect delayed-type hypersensitivity to Coccidioides immitis in individuals with a history of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Use in 18-64 year old patients. A positive result occurs if 48h after administration if the diameter of the induration is >5mm.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Illicit cellular immune response if patient has been exposed to Coccidiodes immitis.

Mechanism of action

Delayed type hypersensitivity reaction begin with the C.immitis antigen is presented to CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes by antigen presenting cells. This causes the secretion of interleukins and other lymphokines from macrophage cells. The release of effector molecules causes blood vessels to become permeable and allows fibrinogen to escape into the surrounding tissue where it is converted to fibrin. The deposition of fibrin and the movement of T-cells and monocytes in the extracellular spaces cause the tissue to become indurated. The induration is usually detectable in 18 hours and peaks at 48 hours.

TargetActionsOrganism
UHLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-2 alpha chain
binder
Humans
UHLA-DR
binder
Humans
UHLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-3 alpha chainNot AvailableHumans
UHLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-27 alpha chainNot AvailableHumans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Absorption

Not absorbed. Given intradermally for local effect.

Volume of distribution

Not absorbed systemically.

Protein binding

Not absorbed systemically.

Metabolism

Not metabolized.

Route of elimination

Eliminated via cellular immune response.

Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Systemic hypersensitivity reaction may be life threatening.

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Brown J, Benedict K, Park BJ, Thompson GR. Coccidioidomycosis: epidemiology. Clinical Epidemiology. 2013;5:185-197. doi:10.2147/CLEP.S34434. Janeway CA Jr, Travers P, Walport M, et al. Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. 5th edition. New York: Garland Science; 2001. The major histocompatibility complex and its functions. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK27156/

General References
  1. Wieczorek M, Abualrous ET, Sticht J, Alvaro-Benito M, Stolzenberg S, Noe F, Freund C: Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I and MHC Class II Proteins: Conformational Plasticity in Antigen Presentation. Front Immunol. 2017 Mar 17;8:292. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00292. eCollection 2017. [PubMed:28367149]
  2. Spherusol Monograph [Link]
External Links
PubChem Substance
347911178
RxNav
1549330

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionIntradermal12.7 ug/1mL
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

1. HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-2 alpha chain
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
References
  1. Wieczorek M, Abualrous ET, Sticht J, Alvaro-Benito M, Stolzenberg S, Noe F, Freund C: Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I and MHC Class II Proteins: Conformational Plasticity in Antigen Presentation. Front Immunol. 2017 Mar 17;8:292. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00292. eCollection 2017. [PubMed:28367149]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides, autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments. In addition to APCs, other cells of the gastrointestinal tract, such as epithelial cells, express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APCs, which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL, leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). The removal of CLIP is facilitated by HLA-DM via direct binding to the alpha-beta-CLIP complex so that CLIP is released. HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. The MHC II molecule bound to a peptide is then transported to the cell membrane surface. In B-cells, the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. Primary dendritic cells (DCs) also to express HLA-DO. Lysosomal microenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules, increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading.
Specific Function
Mhc class ii protein complex binding

Components:
References
  1. Wieczorek M, Abualrous ET, Sticht J, Alvaro-Benito M, Stolzenberg S, Noe F, Freund C: Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I and MHC Class II Proteins: Conformational Plasticity in Antigen Presentation. Front Immunol. 2017 Mar 17;8:292. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00292. eCollection 2017. [PubMed:28367149]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Tap binding
Specific Function
Involved in the presentation of foreign antigens to the immune system.
Gene Name
HLA-A
Uniprot ID
P04439
Uniprot Name
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-3 alpha chain
Molecular Weight
40840.41 Da
References
  1. Wieczorek M, Abualrous ET, Sticht J, Alvaro-Benito M, Stolzenberg S, Noe F, Freund C: Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I and MHC Class II Proteins: Conformational Plasticity in Antigen Presentation. Front Immunol. 2017 Mar 17;8:292. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00292. eCollection 2017. [PubMed:28367149]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peptide antigen binding
Specific Function
Involved in the presentation of foreign antigens to the immune system.
Gene Name
HLA-B
Uniprot ID
P01889
Uniprot Name
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-27 alpha chain
Molecular Weight
40427.835 Da
References
  1. Wieczorek M, Abualrous ET, Sticht J, Alvaro-Benito M, Stolzenberg S, Noe F, Freund C: Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I and MHC Class II Proteins: Conformational Plasticity in Antigen Presentation. Front Immunol. 2017 Mar 17;8:292. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00292. eCollection 2017. [PubMed:28367149]

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:52 / Updated on June 12, 2020 10:53

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