Acute Agitation

Also known as: Agitation / Excitement abnormal / Feeling agitated / Agitated

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00543AmoxapineAmoxapine, the N-demethylated derivative of the antipsychotic agent loxapine, is a dibenzoxazepine-derivative tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). TCAs are structurally similar to phenothiazines. They contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, amoxapine does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, amoxapine exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. In addition, TCAs down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. See toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects. Amoxapine may be used to treat neurotic and reactive depressive disorders, endogenous and psychotic depression, and mixed symptoms of depression and anxiety or agitation.
DB01238AripiprazoleAripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic orally indicated for treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar I, major depressive disorder, irritability associated with autism, and Tourette's[Label]. It is also indicated as an injection for agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar mania[Label]. Aripiprazole exerts its effects through agonism of dopaminic and 5-HT1A receptors and antagonism of alpha adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors[Label,A4393]. Aripiprazole was given FDA approval on November 15, 2002[L6136].
DB00450DroperidolA butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of haloperidol. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as fentanyl to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
DB00186LorazepamLorazepam is a short-acting and rapidly cleared benzodiazepine used commonly as a sedative and anxiolytic.[A957] It was developed by DJ Richards, presented and marketed initially by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals in the USA in 1977. The first historic FDA label approval is reported in 1985 by the company Mutual Pharm.[L5095]
DB00408LoxapineAn antipsychotic agent used in schizophrenia. [PubChem]
DB00334OlanzapineOlanzapine is a thienobenzodiazepine classified as an atypical or second-generation antipsychotic agent.[A176996] The second-generation antipsychotics were introduced in the 90s and quickly widespread due to the presumed higher efficacy, less extrapyramidal side effects and fewer drug-drug interactions.[A177011] Olanzapine presents a very close resemblance to [clozapine] and it only differs by two additional methyl groups and the absence of a chloride moiety.[T554] It was obtained by the research of Eli Lilly and approved to be marketed in the US in 1996.[T548]
DB00457PrazosinPrazosin, also known as _Minipress_, is a drug used to treat hypertension. Prazosin is marketed by _Pfizer_ and was initially approved by the FDA in 1988 [L5828]. It belongs to the class of drugs known as alpha-1 antagonists [FDA label], [A176630]. Recently, many studies have evaluated the benefits of this drug in controlling the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated nightmares [A176618, A176621, A176624].
DB00734RisperidoneSchizophrenia and various mood disorders are thought to be caused by an excess of dopaminergic D2 and serotonergic 5-HT2A activity, resulting in overactivity of central mesolimbic pathways and mesocortical pathways, respectively [L1212, L1213]. Risperidone inhibits dopaminergic D2 receptors and serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors in the brain. It is also said to block histamine receptors, and other neural receptors which are currently being studied [L1213, A1115]. Risperidone binds with a very high affinity to 5-HT2A receptors, approximately 10-20 fold greater than the drug's binding affinity to D2 receptors [L1212, L1213, A1115].
DB00831TrifluoperazineA phenothiazine with actions similar to chlorpromazine. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
DB00246ZiprasidoneZiprasidone (marketed as Geodon, Zeldox) is an atypical antipsychotic and gained FDA approval in 2001. Ziprasidone is Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for the treatment of schizophrenia. It may also be used to treat Bipolar I disorder as monotherapy for the acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes, or as adjunctive therapy along with lithium or valproate for maintenance. The intramuscular injection of ziprasidone is approved for acute agitation in schizophrenia. [FDA Label]
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00543AmoxapineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00543AmoxapineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00543AmoxapineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00543AmoxapineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00543AmoxapineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00543AmoxapineD(1A) dopamine receptortarget
DB00543AmoxapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00543AmoxapineGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00543AmoxapineAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00543AmoxapineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00543Amoxapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00543Amoxapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00543Amoxapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6target
DB00543Amoxapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7target
DB00543AmoxapineD(3) dopamine receptortarget
DB00543AmoxapineD(4) dopamine receptortarget
DB00543AmoxapineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00543AmoxapineAlpha-1 adrenergic receptorstarget
DB00543AmoxapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptortarget
DB00543Amoxapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Btarget
DB00543Amoxapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB00543Amoxapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00543Amoxapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Btarget
DB00543AmoxapineAlpha-2 adrenergic receptorstarget
DB00543AmoxapineHistamine H4 receptortarget
DB00543AmoxapineGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00543AmoxapineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB01238AripiprazoleD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB01238Aripiprazole5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB01238Aripiprazole5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB01238AripiprazoleCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01238AripiprazoleCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01238Aripiprazole5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Btarget
DB01238Aripiprazole5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Dtarget
DB01238Aripiprazole5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Etarget
DB01238AripiprazoleD(1A) dopamine receptortarget
DB01238AripiprazoleD(1B) dopamine receptortarget
DB01238AripiprazoleD(3) dopamine receptortarget
DB01238AripiprazoleD(4) dopamine receptortarget
DB01238Aripiprazole5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB01238Aripiprazole5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB01238Aripiprazole5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6target
DB01238Aripiprazole5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7target
DB01238AripiprazoleHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB01238AripiprazoleAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01238AripiprazoleAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB01238AripiprazoleAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01238AripiprazoleAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB01238AripiprazoleAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB01238AripiprazoleMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB01238AripiprazoleMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB01238AripiprazoleMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB01238AripiprazoleMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB01238AripiprazoleMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB01238AripiprazoleCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB01238AripiprazoleCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB01238AripiprazoleSerum albumincarrier
DB00450DroperidolD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00450DroperidolAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00186LorazepamTranslocator proteintarget
DB00186LorazepamUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15enzyme
DB00186LorazepamGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00186LorazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00408LoxapineD(1A) dopamine receptortarget
DB00408LoxapineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00408Loxapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00408Loxapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00408Loxapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00408Loxapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Btarget
DB00408Loxapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Dtarget
DB00408Loxapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Etarget
DB00408Loxapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB00408Loxapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 5Atarget
DB00408Loxapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6target
DB00408Loxapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7target
DB00408LoxapineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00408LoxapineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00408LoxapineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00408LoxapineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00408LoxapineAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB00408LoxapineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00408LoxapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00408LoxapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00408LoxapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00408LoxapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB00408LoxapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB00408LoxapineD(1) dopamine receptortarget
DB00408LoxapineD(3) dopamine receptortarget
DB00408LoxapineD(4) dopamine receptortarget
DB00408LoxapineD(1B) dopamine receptortarget
DB00408LoxapineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00408LoxapineHistamine H2 receptortarget
DB00408LoxapineHistamine H4 receptortarget
DB00408LoxapineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00408LoxapineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00408LoxapineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB00334OlanzapineD(1A) dopamine receptortarget
DB00334OlanzapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00334OlanzapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00334Olanzapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00334OlanzapineD(4) dopamine receptortarget
DB00334OlanzapineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00334OlanzapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB00334OlanzapineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00334OlanzapineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00334Olanzapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00334OlanzapineD(3) dopamine receptortarget
DB00334OlanzapineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00334OlanzapineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00334Olanzapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB00334Olanzapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6target
DB00334OlanzapineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00334OlanzapineD(1B) dopamine receptortarget
DB00334OlanzapineSerum albumincarrier
DB00334OlanzapineAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00334OlanzapineDimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 3enzyme
DB00334OlanzapineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00334OlanzapineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00334OlanzapineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00334OlanzapineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00334OlanzapineD(1) dopamine receptortarget
DB00334OlanzapineBeta adrenergic receptortarget
DB00334Olanzapine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1target
DB00334OlanzapineGABA-A receptor (benzodiazepine site)target
DB00334OlanzapineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00334OlanzapineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4enzyme
DB00457PrazosinAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00457PrazosinAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00457PrazosinAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB00457PrazosinPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
DB00457PrazosinAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00457PrazosinSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB00457PrazosinSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB00457PrazosinMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00457PrazosinATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00457PrazosinAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00457PrazosinAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00457PrazosinAlpha-1 adrenergic receptorstarget
DB00734RisperidoneHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00734RisperidoneD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00734RisperidoneAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00734Risperidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00734RisperidoneAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00734RisperidoneCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00734RisperidoneD(1A) dopamine receptortarget
DB00734RisperidoneAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00734RisperidoneAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00734RisperidoneAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB00734Risperidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00734Risperidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Dtarget
DB00734Risperidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00734RisperidoneD(3) dopamine receptortarget
DB00734RisperidoneD(4) dopamine receptortarget
DB00734RisperidoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00734RisperidoneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00734RisperidoneCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00734Risperidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7target
DB00734RisperidoneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00831TrifluoperazineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00831TrifluoperazineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00831TrifluoperazineNeuron-specific vesicular protein calcyontarget
DB00831TrifluoperazineXanthine dehydrogenase/oxidaseenzyme
DB00831TrifluoperazineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4enzyme
DB00831TrifluoperazineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00831TrifluoperazineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00831TrifluoperazineCalmodulintarget
DB00831TrifluoperazineTroponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac musclestarget
DB00831TrifluoperazineProtein S100-A4target
DB00246ZiprasidoneAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00246ZiprasidoneD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00246Ziprasidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00246ZiprasidoneD(3) dopamine receptortarget
DB00246Ziprasidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00246Ziprasidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Dtarget
DB00246ZiprasidoneHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00246Ziprasidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00246ZiprasidoneD(4) dopamine receptortarget
DB00246Ziprasidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7target
DB00246ZiprasidoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00246ZiprasidoneAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00246ZiprasidoneAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00246ZiprasidoneAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00246ZiprasidoneAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB00246ZiprasidoneD(1A) dopamine receptortarget
DB00246ZiprasidoneD(1B) dopamine receptortarget
DB00246ZiprasidoneMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00246ZiprasidoneMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00246ZiprasidoneMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00246ZiprasidoneMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB00246ZiprasidoneMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB00246Ziprasidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Btarget
DB00246Ziprasidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Etarget
DB00246Ziprasidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB00246Ziprasidone5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6target
DB00246ZiprasidoneAldehyde oxidaseenzyme
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00334Olanzapine1Completed1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine2Completed1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine2Unknown Status1
DB00514Dextromethorphan2Completed1
DB00502Haloperidol2Completed1
DB01356Lithium cation2Recruiting1
DB04870Oleoyl-estrone2Recruiting1
DB00908Quinidine2Completed1
DB00316Acetaminophen2 / 3Completed1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine2 / 3Recruiting1
DB00502Haloperidol2 / 3Completed1
DB00295Morphine2 / 3Completed1
DB00486Nabilone2 / 3Completed1
DB00230Pregabalin2 / 3Completed1
DB09153Sodium chloride2 / 3Recruiting1
DB00391Sulpiride2 / 3Completed1
DB11121Chloroxylenol3Completed1
DB00215Citalopram3Completed1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine3Completed1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine3Recruiting1
DB00502Haloperidol3Completed1
DB00186Lorazepam3Completed1
DB00334Olanzapine3Completed1
DB01224Quetiapine3Terminated1
DB00313Valproic Acid3Terminated1
DB06216Asenapine4Completed1
DB00245Benzatropine4Completed1
DB01156Bupropion4Recruiting1
DB11121Chloroxylenol4Completed1
DB00477Chlorpromazine4Recruiting1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine4Completed2
DB00633Dexmedetomidine4Recruiting1
DB00633Dexmedetomidine4Unknown Status2
DB00829Diazepam4Recruiting1
DB01175Escitalopram4Completed1
DB00813Fentanyl4Recruiting1
DB00502Haloperidol4Completed2
DB00502Haloperidol4Recruiting2
DB00502Haloperidol4Withdrawn1
DB01221Ketamine4Withdrawn1
DB00186Lorazepam4Completed1
DB00653Magnesium sulfate4Unknown Status1
DB00745Modafinil4Recruiting1
DB00334Olanzapine4Recruiting1
DB01069Promethazine4Recruiting1
DB00818Propofol4Recruiting1
DB01224Quetiapine4Completed1
DB00899Remifentanil4Completed1
DB00899Remifentanil4Unknown Status1
DB00734Risperidone4Completed3
DB00734Risperidone4Terminated1
DB00296Ropivacaine4Completed1
DB01236Sevoflurane4Completed1
DB09153Sodium chloride4Completed1
DB09153Sodium chloride4Unknown Status1
DB00656Trazodone4Terminated1
DB00246Ziprasidone4Withdrawn1
DB00315Zolmitriptan4Recruiting1
DB00611ButorphanolNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00633DexmedetomidineNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00813FentanylNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00502HaloperidolNot AvailableTerminated1
DB00502HaloperidolNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00683MidazolamNot AvailableUnknown Status1
DB00334OlanzapineNot AvailableTerminated1