Identification
NamePropoxyphene napsylate
Accession NumberDB09396
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Propoxyphene is a centrally acting narcotic analgesic agent.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Dextropropoxyphene napsilate
External IDs Not Available
Product Ingredients Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Darvon-NTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralStat Rx USA2009-09-25Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Propoxyphene and AcetaminophenTablet, film coatedOralAltura Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-01-012017-05-09Us
Propoxyphene Napsylate and AcetaminophenTablet, film coatedOralApotheca, Inc.2009-01-01Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII38M219L1OJ
CAS numberNot Available
WeightAverage: 565.73
Monoisotopic: 565.249809154
Chemical FormulaC32H39NO6S
InChI KeyGBKONKCASNNUQD-VGHSCWAPSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C22H29NO2.C10H8O3S.H2O/c1-5-21(24)25-22(18(2)17-23(3)4,20-14-10-7-11-15-20)16-19-12-8-6-9-13-19;11-14(12,13)10-6-5-8-3-1-2-4-9(8)7-10;/h6-15,18H,5,16-17H2,1-4H3;1-7H,(H,11,12,13);1H2/t18-,22+;;/m1../s1
IUPAC Name
(2S,3R)-4-(dimethylamino)-3-methyl-1,2-diphenylbutan-2-yl propanoate naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid hydrate
SMILES
O.OS(=O)(=O)C1=CC2=CC=CC=C2C=C1.CCC(=O)O[[email protected]@](CC1=CC=CC=C1)([[email protected]](C)CN(C)C)C1=CC=CC=C1
Pharmacology
Indication

Propoxyphene is a centrally acting opiate analgesic. It is indicated for the relief of mild to moderate pain

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Propoxyphene, a synthetic opiate agonist, is structurally similar to methadone. Its general pharmacologic properties are those of the opiates as a group. It binds to the opiate receptors and leads to a decrease of the perception of pain stimuli. Propoxyphene possesses little to no antitussive activity and no antipyretic action. Norpropoxyphene (NP) is a major metabolite of propoxyphene (P), a relatively weak mu-opioid receptor agonist. Toxic blood concentrations ranging from 3 to 180 miromol/L have been reported and the accumulation of NP in cardiac tissue leads to naloxone-insensitive cardiotoxicity.

Mechanism of action

Propoxyphene acts as a weak agonist at OP1, OP2, and OP3 opiate receptors within the central nervous system (CNS). Propoxyphene primarily affects OP3 receptors, which are coupled with G-protein receptors and function as modulators, both positive and negative, of synaptic transmission via G-proteins that activate effector proteins. Binding of the opiate stimulates the exchange of GTP for GDP on the G-protein complex. As the effector system is adenylate cyclase and cAMP located at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, opioids decrease intracellular cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Subsequently, the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine, and noradrenaline is inhibited. Opioids such as propoxyphene also inhibit the release of vasopressin, somatostatin, insulin, and glucagon. Opioids close N-type voltage-operated calcium channels (OP2-receptor agonist) and open calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels (OP3 and OP1 receptor agonist). This results in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability.

TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Mu-type opioid receptorProteinyes
agonist
HumanP35372 details
Kappa-type opioid receptorProteinyes
agonist
HumanP41145 details
Delta-type opioid receptorProteinyes
agonist
HumanP41143 details
Related Articles
Absorption

Peak plasma concentrations of propoxyphene are reached in 2 to 2.5 h. After a 65-mg oral dose of propoxyphene hydrochloride, peak plasma levels of 0.05 to 0.1 μg/mL for propoxyphene and 0.1 to 0.2 μg/mL for norpropoxyphene (major metabolite) are achieved. Repeated doses of propoxyphene at 6 h intervals lead to increasing plasma concentrations, with a plateau after the ninth dose at 48 h.

Volume of distribution

16 L/kg.

Protein binding

80% bound to proteins

Metabolism

Propoxyphene undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism by intestinal and hepatic enzymes. The major route of metabolism is CYP3A4 mediated N-demethylation to norpropoxyphene, which is excreted by the kidneys. Ring hydroxylation and glucuronide formation are minor metabolic pathways.

Route of elimination

In 48 h, approximately 20 to 25% of the administered dose of propoxyphene is excreted via the urine

Half life

6 to 12 hours

Clearance

The renal clearance rate of propoxyphene is 2.6 L/min.

Toxicity

Risk of overdose may include respiratory depression and hypotension

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Not Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions Not Available
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Ulens C, Daenens P, Tytgat J: Norpropoxyphene-induced cardiotoxicity is associated with changes in ion-selectivity and gating of HERG currents. Cardiovasc Res. 1999 Dec;44(3):568-78. [PubMed:10690289 ]
  2. Tyers MB: A classification of opiate receptors that mediate antinociception in animals. Br J Pharmacol. 1980 Jul;69(3):503-12. [PubMed:6249436 ]
  3. FDA data [Link]
  4. Drug Information [Link]
  5. Drugs.com [Link]
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Clinical Trials
Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4TerminatedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mg/1
TabletOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00419 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.06ALOGPS
logP4.9ChemAxon
logS-4.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.52ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area29.54 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity102.88 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability38.54 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET featuresNot Available
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as stilbenes. These are organic compounds containing a 1,2-diphenylethylene moiety. Stilbenes (C6-C2-C6 ) are derived from the common phenylpropene (C6-C3) skeleton building block. The introduction of one or more hydroxyl groups to a phenyl ring lead to stilbenoids.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassStilbenes
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentStilbenes
Alternative Parents2-naphthalene sulfonates / 2-naphthalene sulfonic acids and derivatives / Phenylbutylamines / Benzyloxycarbonyls / 1-sulfo,2-unsubstituted aromatic compounds / Phenylpropanes / Aralkylamines / Sulfonyls / Organosulfonic acids / Carboxylic acid esters
Substituents2-naphthalene sulfonate / Naphthalene sulfonic acid or derivatives / 2-naphthalene sulfonic acid or derivatives / Naphthalene sulfonate / Stilbene / Phenylbutylamine / Benzyloxycarbonyl / Naphthalene / Arylsulfonic acid or derivatives / 1-sulfo,2-unsubstituted aromatic compound
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptorshydrate (CHEBI:51179 )

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone. Agonist binding to the receptor induces coupling to an inactive GDP-bound heterotrimeric G-protein complex and subsequent exchange of GDP for GTP in the G-protein alpha subunit leading to dissociati...
Gene Name:
OPRM1
Uniprot ID:
P35372
Uniprot Name:
Mu-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight:
44778.855 Da
References
  1. Ulens C, Daenens P, Tytgat J: Norpropoxyphene-induced cardiotoxicity is associated with changes in ion-selectivity and gating of HERG currents. Cardiovasc Res. 1999 Dec;44(3):568-78. [PubMed:10690289 ]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  3. Tyers MB: A classification of opiate receptors that mediate antinociception in animals. Br J Pharmacol. 1980 Jul;69(3):503-12. [PubMed:6249436 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled opioid receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous alpha-neoendorphins and dynorphins, but has low affinity for beta-endorphins. Also functions as receptor for various synthetic opioids and for the psychoactive diterpene salvinorin A. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates th...
Gene Name:
OPRK1
Uniprot ID:
P41145
Uniprot Name:
Kappa-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight:
42644.665 Da
References
  1. Neil A: Affinities of some common opioid analgesics towards four binding sites in mouse brain. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1984 Nov;328(1):24-9. [PubMed:6151117 ]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling leads to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. Inhibits neurot...
Gene Name:
OPRD1
Uniprot ID:
P41143
Uniprot Name:
Delta-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight:
40368.235 Da
References
  1. Neil A: Affinities of some common opioid analgesics towards four binding sites in mouse brain. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1984 Nov;328(1):24-9. [PubMed:6151117 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Uniprot Name:
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Uniprot Name:
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Uniprot Name:
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Uniprot Name:
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Uniprot Name:
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight:
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Drug created on November 30, 2015 12:10 / Updated on September 01, 2017 12:05