|DB00051||Adalimumab||Adalimumab is a subcutaneously administered biological disease modifier for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic debilitating diseases mediated by tumor necrosis factor [A39984], [A39999]. It was originally launched by Abbvie in the U.S. and approved in 2002 by the FDA [A39983]. This drug is frequently known as _Humira_. It is produced by recombinant DNA technology using a mammalian cell expression system. This drug is available in a prefilled syringe form and convenient pen form for subcutaneous self-administered doses [A39983]. A new biosimilar to adalimumab, named _adalimumab-adaz_, was approved by the FDA on October 31, 2018. This biosimilar is known as _Hyrimoz_, and is a trademark of Novartis AG [L4799].|
|DB05676||Apremilast||Apremilast is a novel, orally available small molecule inhibitor of type-4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE-4). It is indicated in the treatment of active psoriatic arthritis in adults (approved by the FDA in March 2014) and moderate to severe plaque psoriasis (approved by the FDA in September 2014). PDE-4 is a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-specific phosphodiesterase that is predominantly located in inflammatory cells. By inhibiting PDE-4, apremilast increases intracellular levels of cAMP and thereby inhibits the production of multiple proinflammatory mediators including PDE-4, TNF-alpha, interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma, leukotrienes, and nitric oxide synthase. By targeting a central component of the inflammatory signaling cascade rather than a single inflammatory marker, PDE-4 inhibition may restore the homeostatic balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signalling.|
|DB11776||Brodalumab||Brodalumab has been used in trials studying the treatment of Asthma, Psoriasis, Crohn's Disease, Psoriatic Arthritis, and Rheumatoid Arthritis. Brodalumab was FDA approved in February, 2017 as Siliq for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.|
|DB01013||Clobetasol propionate||A derivative of prednisolone with high glucocorticoid activity and low mineralocorticoid activity. Absorbed through the skin faster than fluocinonide, it is used topically in treatment of psoriasis but may cause marked adrenocortical suppression.|
|DB11834||Guselkumab||Guselkumab is a human immunoglobulin G1 lambda (IgG1λ) monoclonal antibody that selectively blocks interleukin-23. IL-23 is an inflammatory cytokine that activates the CD4+ T-helper (Th17) cell pathway to mediate the inflammatory cascade that induces psoriatic plaque formation [A20357]. In clinical trials, guselkumab demonstrated improved skin clearance and symptomatic improvements in dermatological manifestations of psoriasis.
Developed by Janssen, the subcutenous injection form of guselkumab was approved in July 2017 under the market name Tremfya for the treatment of adult patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.|
|DB11569||Ixekizumab||Ixekizumab is a humanized immunoglobulin G subclass 4 (IgG4) monoclonal antibody (mAb) against interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and prevents it from interacting with the IL-17A receptor. As IL-17A is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in inflammation and immune responses, blocking its effect is beneficial for use in inflammatory conditions. In particular, IL-17A has been found to be implicated in a variety of autoimmune diseases including Rheumatoid Arthritis and plaque psoriasis.
Ixekizumab is produced by recombinant DNA technology in a recombinant mammalian cell line and purified using standard technology for bioprocessing. Ixekizumab is comprised of two identical light chain polypeptides of 219 amino acids each and two identical heavy chain polypeptides of 445 amino acids each, and has a molecular weight of 146,158 Daltons for the protein backbone of the molecule. It is indicated for the treatment of adults with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis who are candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy.|
|DB09029||Secukinumab||Secukinumab (Cosentyx) is a human monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of uveitis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis. Secukinumab is an interleukin-17A (IL-17A) inhibitor marketed by Novartis. IL-17 is a group of proinflammatory cytokines released by cells of the immune system and and exist in higher levels in many immune conditions associated with chronic inflammation. By targeting IL-17A, secukinumab has shown excellent efficacy in psoriasis by normalizing skin histology and was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration on January 21, 2015 to treat adults with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. |
|DB05679||Ustekinumab||Ustekinumab, is a human immunosuppressive drug developed by the biotechnology company Centocor. It is a laboratory-manufactured, monoclonal antibody directed against interleukins IL-12 and IL-23. Since 2009, ustekinumab has been approved in US, Canada, and Europe for the treatment of plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. In September 2016, Janssen announced that the FDA approved the medication for the treatment of moderate-severe Crohn's disease.|