Lipoprotein lipase

Details

Name
Lipoprotein lipase
Synonyms
  • 3.1.1.34
  • LIPD
  • LPL
Gene Name
LPL
Organism
Humans
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0020455|Lipoprotein lipase
MESKALLVLTLAVWLQSLTASRGGVAAADQRRDFIDIESKFALRTPEDTAEDTCHLIPGV
AESVATCHFNHSSKTFMVIHGWTVTGMYESWVPKLVAALYKREPDSNVIVVDWLSRAQEH
YPVSAGYTKLVGQDVARFINWMEEEFNYPLDNVHLLGYSLGAHAAGIAGSLTNKKVNRIT
GLDPAGPNFEYAEAPSRLSPDDADFVDVLHTFTRGSPGRSIGIQKPVGHVDIYPNGGTFQ
PGCNIGEAIRVIAERGLGDVDQLVKCSHERSIHLFIDSLLNEENPSKAYRCSSKEAFEKG
LCLSCRKNRCNNLGYEINKVRAKRSSKMYLKTRSQMPYKVFHYQVKIHFSGTESETHTNQ
AFEISLYGTVAESENIPFTLPEVSTNKTYSFLIYTEVDIGELLMLKLKWKSDSYFSWSDW
WSSPGFAIQKIRVKAGETQKKVIFCSREKVSHLQKGKAPAVFVKCHDKSLNKKSG
Number of residues
475
Molecular Weight
53162.07
Theoretical pI
8.26
GO Classification
Functions
apolipoprotein binding / heparin binding / lipoprotein lipase activity / phospholipase activity / receptor binding / triglyceride binding / triglyceride lipase activity
Processes
chylomicron remodeling / fatty acid biosynthetic process / lipoprotein metabolic process / phospholipid metabolic process / phototransduction, visible light / positive regulation of cholesterol storage / positive regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation / positive regulation of sequestering of triglyceride / response to cold / response to drug / response to glucose / retinoid metabolic process / small molecule metabolic process / triglyceride biosynthetic process / triglyceride catabolic process / triglyceride homeostasis / triglyceride metabolic process / very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling
Components
anchored component of membrane / cell surface / chylomicron / extracellular exosome / extracellular matrix / extracellular region / extracellular space / plasma membrane / very-low-density lipoprotein particle
General Function
Triglyceride lipase activity
Specific Function
The primary function of this lipase is the hydrolysis of triglycerides of circulating chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Binding to heparin sulfate proteogylcans at the cell surface is vital to the function. The apolipoprotein, APOC2, acts as a coactivator of LPL activity in the presence of lipids on the luminal surface of vascular endothelium (By similarity).
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
Not Available
Cellular Location
Cell membrane
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0020456|Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)
ATGGAGAGCAAAGCCCTGCTCGTGCTGACTCTGGCCGTGTGGCTCCAGAGTCTGACCGCC
TCCCGCGGAGGGGTGGCCGCCGCCGACCAAAGAAGAGATTTTATCGACATCGAAAGTAAA
TTTGCCCTAAGGACCCCTGAAGACACAGCTGAGGACACTTGCCACCTCATTCCCGGAGTA
GCAGAGTCCGTGGCTACCTGTCATTTCAATCACAGCAGCAAAACCTTCATGGTGATCCAT
GGCTGGACGGTAACAGGAATGTATGAGAGTTGGGTGCCAAAACTTGTGGCCGCCCTGTAC
AAGAGAGAACCAGACTCCAATGTCATTGTGGTGGACTGGCTGTCACGGGCTCAGGAGCAT
TACCCAGTGTCCGCGGGCTACACCAAACTGGTGGGACAGGATGTGGCCCGGTTTATCAAC
TGGATGGAGGAGGAGTTTAACTACCCTCTGGACAATGTCCATCTCTTGGGATACAGCCTT
GGAGCCCATGCTGCTGGCATTGCAGGAAGTCTGACCAATAAGAAAGTCAACAGAATTACT
GGCCTCGATCCAGCTGGACCTAACTTTGAGTATGCAGAAGCCCCGAGTCGTCTTTCTCCT
GATGATGCAGATTTTGTAGACGTCTTACACACATTCACCAGAGGGTCCCCTGGTCGAAGC
ATTGGAATCCAGAAACCAGTTGGGCATGTTGACATTTACCCGAATGGAGGTACTTTTCAG
CCAGGATGTAACATTGGAGAAGCTATCCGCGTGATTGCAGAGAGAGGACTTGGAGATGTG
GACCAGCTAGTGAAGTGCTCCCACGAGCGCTCCATTCATCTCTTCATCGACTCTCTGTTG
AATGAAGAAAATCCAAGTAAGGCCTACAGGTGCAGTTCCAAGGAAGCCTTTGAGAAAGGG
CTCTGCTTGAGTTGTAGAAAGAACCGCTGCAACAATCTGGGCTATGAGATCAATAAAGTC
AGAGCCAAAAGAAGCAGCAAAATGTACCTGAAGACTCGTTCTCAGATGCCCTACAAAGTC
TTCCATTACCAAGTAAAGATTCATTTTTCTGGGACTGAGAGTGAAACCCATACCAATCAG
GCCTTTGAGATTTCTCTGTATGGCACCGTGGCCGAGAGTGAGAACATCCCATTCACTCTG
CCTGAAGTTTCCACAAATAAGACCTACTCCTTCCTAATTTACACAGAGGTAGATATTGGA
GAACTACTCATGTTGAAGCTCAAATGGAAGAGTGATTCATACTTTAGCTGGTCAGACTGG
TGGAGCAGTCCCGGCTTCGCCATTCAGAAGATCAGAGTAAAAGCAGGAGAGACTCAGAAA
AAGGTGATCTTCTGTTCTAGGGAGAAAGTGTCTCATTTGCAGAAAGGAAAGGCACCTGCG
GTATTTGTGAAATGCCATGACAAGTCTCTGAATAAGAAGTCAGGCTGA
Chromosome Location
8
Locus
8p22
External Identifiers
ResourceLink
UniProtKB IDP06858
UniProtKB Entry NameLIPL_HUMAN
GenBank Protein ID307138
GenBank Gene IDM15856
GenAtlas IDLPL
HGNC IDHGNC:6677
General References
  1. Wion KL, Kirchgessner TG, Lusis AJ, Schotz MC, Lawn RM: Human lipoprotein lipase complementary DNA sequence. Science. 1987 Mar 27;235(4796):1638-41. [PubMed:3823907]
  2. Gotoda T, Senda M, Gamou T, Furuichi Y, Oka K: Nucleotide sequence of human cDNA coding for a lipoprotein lipase (LPL) cloned from placental cDNA library. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Mar 25;17(6):2351. [PubMed:2701938]
  3. Takagi A, Ikeda Y, Yamamoto A: DNA sequence of lipoprotein lipase cDNA cloned from human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Nov 11;18(21):6436. [PubMed:2243796]
  4. Chuat JC, Raisonnier A, Etienne J, Galibert F: The lipoprotein lipase-encoding human gene: sequence from intron-6 to intron-9 and presence in intron-7 of a 40-million-year-old Alu sequence. Gene. 1992 Jan 15;110(2):257-61. [PubMed:1537564]
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  7. Enerback S, Ohlsson BG, Samuelsson L, Bjursell G: Characterization of the human lipoprotein lipase (LPL) promoter: evidence of two cis-regulatory regions, LP-alpha and LP-beta, of importance for the differentiation-linked induction of the LPL gene during adipogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 1992 Oct;12(10):4622-33. [PubMed:1406652]
  8. Zechner R: Rapid and simple isolation procedure for lipoprotein lipase from human milk. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 May 1;1044(1):20-5. [PubMed:2340307]
  9. Lutz EP, Merkel M, Kako Y, Melford K, Radner H, Breslow JL, Bensadoun A, Goldberg IJ: Heparin-binding defective lipoprotein lipase is unstable and causes abnormalities in lipid delivery to tissues. J Clin Invest. 2001 May;107(9):1183-92. [PubMed:11342582]
  10. Gin P, Beigneux AP, Davies B, Young MF, Ryan RO, Bensadoun A, Fong LG, Young SG: Normal binding of lipoprotein lipase, chylomicrons, and apo-AV to GPIHBP1 containing a G56R amino acid substitution. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Dec;1771(12):1464-8. Epub 2007 Oct 22. [PubMed:17997385]
  11. Picariello G, Ferranti P, Mamone G, Roepstorff P, Addeo F: Identification of N-linked glycoproteins in human milk by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Proteomics. 2008 Sep;8(18):3833-47. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200701057. [PubMed:18780401]
  12. van Tilbeurgh H, Roussel A, Lalouel JM, Cambillau C: Lipoprotein lipase. Molecular model based on the pancreatic lipase x-ray structure: consequences for heparin binding and catalysis. J Biol Chem. 1994 Feb 11;269(6):4626-33. [PubMed:8308035]
  13. Hata A, Emi M, Luc G, Basdevant A, Gambert P, Iverius PH, Lalouel JM: Compound heterozygote for lipoprotein lipase deficiency: Ser----Thr244 and transition in 3' splice site of intron 2 (AG----AA) in the lipoprotein lipase gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1990 Oct;47(4):721-6. [PubMed:2121025]
  14. Emi M, Wilson DE, Iverius PH, Wu L, Hata A, Hegele R, Williams RR, Lalouel JM: Missense mutation (Gly----Glu188) of human lipoprotein lipase imparting functional deficiency. J Biol Chem. 1990 Apr 5;265(10):5910-6. [PubMed:1969408]
  15. Monsalve MV, Henderson H, Roederer G, Julien P, Deeb S, Kastelein JJ, Peritz L, Devlin R, Bruin T, Murthy MR, et al.: A missense mutation at codon 188 of the human lipoprotein lipase gene is a frequent cause of lipoprotein lipase deficiency in persons of different ancestries. J Clin Invest. 1990 Sep;86(3):728-34. [PubMed:1975597]
  16. Beg OU, Meng MS, Skarlatos SI, Previato L, Brunzell JD, Brewer HB Jr, Fojo SS: Lipoprotein lipaseBethesda: a single amino acid substitution (Ala-176----Thr) leads to abnormal heparin binding and loss of enzymic activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 May;87(9):3474-8. [PubMed:2110364]
  17. Dichek HL, Fojo SS, Beg OU, Skarlatos SI, Brunzell JD, Cutler GB Jr, Brewer HB Jr: Identification of two separate allelic mutations in the lipoprotein lipase gene of a patient with the familial hyperchylomicronemia syndrome. J Biol Chem. 1991 Jan 5;266(1):473-7. [PubMed:1702428]
  18. Faustinella F, Chang A, Van Biervliet JP, Rosseneu M, Vinaimont N, Smith LC, Chen SH, Chan L: Catalytic triad residue mutation (Asp156----Gly) causing familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency. Co-inheritance with a nonsense mutation (Ser447----Ter) in a Turkish family. J Biol Chem. 1991 Aug 5;266(22):14418-24. [PubMed:1907278]
  19. Ameis D, Kobayashi J, Davis RC, Ben-Zeev O, Malloy MJ, Kane JP, Lee G, Wong H, Havel RJ, Schotz MC: Familial chylomicronemia (type I hyperlipoproteinemia) due to a single missense mutation in the lipoprotein lipase gene. J Clin Invest. 1991 Apr;87(4):1165-70. [PubMed:2010533]
  20. Henderson HE, Ma Y, Hassan MF, Monsalve MV, Marais AD, Winkler F, Gubernator K, Peterson J, Brunzell JD, Hayden MR: Amino acid substitution (Ile194----Thr) in exon 5 of the lipoprotein lipase gene causes lipoprotein lipase deficiency in three unrelated probands. Support for a multicentric origin. J Clin Invest. 1991 Jun;87(6):2005-11. [PubMed:1674945]
  21. Gotoda T, Yamada N, Kawamura M, Kozaki K, Mori N, Ishibashi S, Shimano H, Takaku F, Yazaki Y, Furuichi Y, et al.: Heterogeneous mutations in the human lipoprotein lipase gene in patients with familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency. J Clin Invest. 1991 Dec;88(6):1856-64. [PubMed:1752947]
  22. Ma Y, Henderson HE, Murthy V, Roederer G, Monsalve MV, Clarke LA, Normand T, Julien P, Gagne C, Lambert M, et al.: A mutation in the human lipoprotein lipase gene as the most common cause of familial chylomicronemia in French Canadians. N Engl J Med. 1991 Jun 20;324(25):1761-6. [PubMed:2038366]
  23. Ishimura-Oka K, Faustinella F, Kihara S, Smith LC, Oka K, Chan L: A missense mutation (Trp86----Arg) in exon 3 of the lipoprotein lipase gene: a cause of familial chylomicronemia. Am J Hum Genet. 1992 Jun;50(6):1275-80. [PubMed:1598907]
  24. Bruin T, Kastelein JJ, Van Diermen DE, Ma Y, Henderson HE, Stuyt PM, Stalenhoef AF, Sturk A, Brunzell JD, Hayden MR: A missense mutation Pro157 Arg in lipoprotein lipase (LPLNijmegen) resulting in loss of catalytic activity. Eur J Biochem. 1992 Sep 1;208(2):267-72. [PubMed:1521525]
  25. Ma Y, Wilson BI, Bijvoet S, Henderson HE, Cramb E, Roederer G, Ven Murthy MR, Julien P, Bakker HD, Kastelein JJ, et al.: A missense mutation (Asp250----Asn) in exon 6 of the human lipoprotein lipase gene causes chylomicronemia in patients of different ancestries. Genomics. 1992 Jul;13(3):649-53. [PubMed:1639392]
  26. Ma YH, Bruin T, Tuzgol S, Wilson BI, Roederer G, Liu MS, Davignon J, Kastelein JJ, Brunzell JD, Hayden MR: Two naturally occurring mutations at the first and second bases of codon aspartic acid 156 in the proposed catalytic triad of human lipoprotein lipase. In vivo evidence that aspartic acid 156 is essential for catalysis. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jan 25;267(3):1918-23. [PubMed:1730727]
  27. Emmerich J, Beg OU, Peterson J, Previato L, Brunzell JD, Brewer HB Jr, Santamarina-Fojo S: Human lipoprotein lipase. Analysis of the catalytic triad by site-directed mutagenesis of Ser-132, Asp-156, and His-241. J Biol Chem. 1992 Feb 25;267(6):4161-5. [PubMed:1371284]
  28. Hata A, Ridinger DN, Sutherland SD, Emi M, Kwong LK, Shuhua J, Lubbers A, Guy-Grand B, Basdevant A, Iverius PH, et al.: Missense mutations in exon 5 of the human lipoprotein lipase gene. Inactivation correlates with loss of dimerization. J Biol Chem. 1992 Oct 5;267(28):20132-9. [PubMed:1400331]
  29. Ishimura-Oka K, Semenkovich CF, Faustinella F, Goldberg IJ, Shachter N, Smith LC, Coleman T, Hide WA, Brown WV, Oka K, et al.: A missense (Asp250----Asn) mutation in the lipoprotein lipase gene in two unrelated families with familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency. J Lipid Res. 1992 May;33(5):745-54. [PubMed:1619366]
  30. Reina M, Brunzell JD, Deeb SS: Molecular basis of familial chylomicronemia: mutations in the lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein C-II genes. J Lipid Res. 1992 Dec;33(12):1823-32. [PubMed:1479292]
  31. Kobayashi J, Sasaki N, Tashiro J, Inadera H, Saito Y, Yoshida S: A missense mutation (Ala334-->Thr) in exon 7 of the lipoprotein lipase gene in a case with type I hyperlipidemia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993 Mar 31;191(3):1046-54. [PubMed:8096693]
  32. Haubenwallner S, Horl G, Shachter NS, Presta E, Fried SK, Hofler G, Kostner GM, Breslow JL, Zechner R: A novel missense mutation in the gene for lipoprotein lipase resulting in a highly conservative amino acid substitution (Asp180-->Glu) causes familial chylomicronemia (type I hyperlipoproteinemia). Genomics. 1993 Nov;18(2):392-6. [PubMed:8288243]
  33. Ma Y, Liu MS, Ginzinger D, Frohlich J, Brunzell JD, Hayden MR: Gene-environment interaction in the conversion of a mild-to-severe phenotype in a patient homozygous for a Ser172-->Cys mutation in the lipoprotein lipase gene. J Clin Invest. 1993 May;91(5):1953-8. [PubMed:8486765]
  34. Wilson DE, Hata A, Kwong LK, Lingam A, Shuhua J, Ridinger DN, Yeager C, Kaltenborn KC, Iverius PH, Lalouel JM: Mutations in exon 3 of the lipoprotein lipase gene segregating in a family with hypertriglyceridemia, pancreatitis, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. J Clin Invest. 1993 Jul;92(1):203-11. [PubMed:8325986]
  35. Bruin T, Tuzgol S, van Diermen DE, Hoogerbrugge-van der Linden N, Brunzell JD, Hayden MR, Kastelein JJ: Recurrent pancreatitis and chylomicronemia in an extended Dutch kindred is caused by a Gly154-->Ser substitution in lipoprotein lipase. J Lipid Res. 1993 Dec;34(12):2109-19. [PubMed:8301230]
  36. Pepe G, Chimienti G, Resta F, Di Perna V, Tarricone C, Lovecchio M, Colacicco AM, Capurso A: A new Italian case of lipoprotein lipase deficiency: a Leu365- > Val change resulting in loss of enzyme activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Mar 15;199(2):570-6. [PubMed:8135797]
  37. Kobayashi J, Inadera H, Fujita Y, Talley G, Morisaki N, Yoshida S, Saito Y, Fojo SS, Brewer HB Jr: A naturally occurring mutation at the second base of codon asparagine 43 in the proposed N-linked glycosylation site of human lipoprotein lipase: in vivo evidence that asparagine 43 is essential for catalysis and secretion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Nov 30;205(1):506-15. [PubMed:7999071]
  38. Ma Y, Liu MS, Chitayat D, Bruin T, Beisiegel U, Benlian P, Foubert L, De Gennes JL, Funke H, Forsythe I, et al.: Recurrent missense mutations at the first and second base of codon Arg243 in human lipoprotein lipase in patients of different ancestries. Hum Mutat. 1994;3(1):52-8. [PubMed:7906986]
  39. Bruin T, Tuzgol S, Mulder WJ, van den Ende AE, Jansen H, Hayden MR, Kastelein JJ: A compound heterozygote for lipoprotein lipase deficiency, Val69-->Leu and Gly188-->Glu: correlation between in vitro LPL activity and clinical expression. J Lipid Res. 1994 Mar;35(3):438-45. [PubMed:7912254]
  40. Ma Y, Ooi TC, Liu MS, Zhang H, McPherson R, Edwards AL, Forsythe IJ, Frohlich J, Brunzell JD, Hayden MR: High frequency of mutations in the human lipoprotein lipase gene in pregnancy-induced chylomicronemia: possible association with apolipoprotein E2 isoform. J Lipid Res. 1994 Jun;35(6):1066-75. [PubMed:8077845]
  41. Previato L, Guardamagna O, Dugi KA, Ronan R, Talley GD, Santamarina-Fojo S, Brewer HB Jr: A novel missense mutation in the C-terminal domain of lipoprotein lipase (Glu410-->Val) leads to enzyme inactivation and familial chylomicronemia. J Lipid Res. 1994 Sep;35(9):1552-60. [PubMed:7806969]
  42. Reymer PW, Gagne E, Groenemeyer BE, Zhang H, Forsyth I, Jansen H, Seidell JC, Kromhout D, Lie KE, Kastelein J, et al.: A lipoprotein lipase mutation (Asn291Ser) is associated with reduced HDL cholesterol levels in premature atherosclerosis. Nat Genet. 1995 May;10(1):28-34. [PubMed:7647785]
  43. Henderson HE, Hassan F, Marais D, Hayden MR: A new mutation destroying disulphide bridging in the C-terminal domain of lipoprotein lipase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Oct 3;227(1):189-94. [PubMed:8858123]
  44. de Bruin TW, Mailly F, van Barlingen HH, Fisher R, Castro Cabezas M, Talmud P, Dallinga-Thie GM, Humphries SE: Lipoprotein lipase gene mutations D9N and N291S in four pedigrees with familial combined hyperlipidaemia. Eur J Clin Invest. 1996 Aug;26(8):631-9. [PubMed:8872057]
  45. Wiebusch H, Funke H, Bruin T, Bucher H, von Eckardstein A, Kastelein JJ, Assmann G: Compound heterozygosity for a known (D250N) and a novel (E410K) missense mutation in the C-terminal domain of lipoprotein lipase causes familial chylomicronemia. Hum Mutat. 1996;8(4):381-3. [PubMed:8956048]
  46. Wiebusch H, Funke H, Santer R, Richter W, Assmann G: A novel missense (E163G) mutation in the catalytic subunit of lipoprotein lipase causes familial chylomicronemia. Hum Mutat. 1996;8(4):392. [PubMed:8956052]
  47. Rouis M, Lohse P, Dugi KA, Lohse P, Beg OU, Ronan R, Talley GD, Brunzell JD, Santamarina-Fojo S: Homozygosity for two point mutations in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in a patient with familial LPL deficiency: LPL(Asp9-->Asn, Tyr262-->His). J Lipid Res. 1996 Mar;37(3):651-61. [PubMed:8728326]
  48. Benlian P, De Gennes JL, Foubert L, Zhang H, Gagne SE, Hayden M: Premature atherosclerosis in patients with familial chylomicronemia caused by mutations in the lipoprotein lipase gene. N Engl J Med. 1996 Sep 19;335(12):848-54. [PubMed:8778602]
  49. Foubert L, Bruin T, De Gennes JL, Ehrenborg E, Furioli J, Kastelein J, Benlian P, Hayden M: A single Ser259Arg mutation in the gene for lipoprotein lipase causes chylomicronemia in Moroccans of Berber ancestry. Hum Mutat. 1997;10(3):179-85. [PubMed:9298816]
  50. Mailly F, Palmen J, Muller DP, Gibbs T, Lloyd J, Brunzell J, Durrington P, Mitropoulos K, Betteridge J, Watts G, Lithell H, Angelico F, Humphries SE, Talmud PJ: Familial lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency: a catalogue of LPL gene mutations identified in 20 patients from the UK, Sweden, and Italy. Hum Mutat. 1997;10(6):465-73. [PubMed:9401010]
  51. Foubert L, De Gennes JL, Lagarde JP, Ehrenborg E, Raisonnier A, Girardet JP, Hayden MR, Benlian P: Assessment of French patients with LPL deficiency for French Canadian mutations. J Med Genet. 1997 Aug;34(8):672-5. [PubMed:9279761]
  52. Henderson HE, Bijvoet SM, Mannens MA, Bruin T, Erkelens DW, Hayden MR, Kastelein JJ: Ile225Thr loop mutation in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene is a de novo event. Am J Med Genet. 1998 Jul 24;78(4):313-6. [PubMed:9714430]
  53. Henderson H, Leisegang F, Hassan F, Hayden M, Marais D: A novel Glu421Lys substitution in the lipoprotein lipase gene in pregnancy-induced hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis. Clin Chim Acta. 1998 Jan 12;269(1):1-12. [PubMed:9498099]
  54. Evans D, Wendt D, Ahle S, Guerra A, Beisiegel U: Compound heterozygosity for a new (S259G) and a previously described (G188E) mutation in lipoprotein lipase (LpL) as a cause of chylomicronemia. Mutations in brief no. 183. Online. Hum Mutat. 1998;12(3):217. [PubMed:10660334]
  55. Zhang Q, Liu Y, Liu BW, Fan P, Cavanna J, Galton DJ: Common genetic variants of lipoprotein lipase and apolipoproteins AI-CIII that relate to coronary artery disease: a study in Chinese and European subjects. Mol Genet Metab. 1998 Jul;64(3):177-83. [PubMed:9719626]
  56. Nickerson DA, Taylor SL, Weiss KM, Clark AG, Hutchinson RG, Stengard J, Salomaa V, Vartiainen E, Boerwinkle E, Sing CF: DNA sequence diversity in a 9.7-kb region of the human lipoprotein lipase gene. Nat Genet. 1998 Jul;19(3):233-40. [PubMed:9662394]
  57. Cargill M, Altshuler D, Ireland J, Sklar P, Ardlie K, Patil N, Shaw N, Lane CR, Lim EP, Kalyanaraman N, Nemesh J, Ziaugra L, Friedland L, Rolfe A, Warrington J, Lipshutz R, Daley GQ, Lander ES: Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes. Nat Genet. 1999 Jul;22(3):231-8. [PubMed:10391209]
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Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB06439Tyloxapolapproved, investigationalyesinhibitorDetails
DB13928Semaglutideapproved, investigationalnoinhibitorDetails
DB09568Omega-3-carboxylic acidsapproved, investigationalyesstimulatorDetails
DB13751Glycyrrhizic acidapproved, experimentalyesinducerDetails