You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameAdenosine monophosphate
Accession NumberDB00131  (NUTR00011, EXPT00512)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
DescriptionAdenylic acid. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
5'-Adenosine monophosphate
5'-Adenylic acid
5'-AMP
5'-O-Phosphonoadenosine
Adenosine 5'-(dihydrogen phosphate)
Adenosine 5'-monophosphate
Adenosine 5'-phosphate
ADENOSINE monophosphate
Adenosine phosphate
Adenosine-5'-Monophosphate
Adenosine-5'-monophosphoric acid
Adenosine-5'p
Adenosini phosphas
Adenylate
Adenylic acid
Ado5'p
AMP
Fosfato de adenosina
PAdo
Phosaden
Phosphaden
Phosphate d'adenosine
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
My-B-DenNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII415SHH325A
CAS number61-19-8
WeightAverage: 347.2212
Monoisotopic: 347.063084339
Chemical FormulaC10H14N5O7P
InChI KeyInChIKey=UDMBCSSLTHHNCD-KQYNXXCUSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H14N5O7P/c11-8-5-9(13-2-12-8)15(3-14-5)10-7(17)6(16)4(22-10)1-21-23(18,19)20/h2-4,6-7,10,16-17H,1H2,(H2,11,12,13)(H2,18,19,20)/t4-,6-,7-,10-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}phosphonic acid
SMILES
NC1=C2N=CN([C@@H]3O[[email protected]](COP(O)(O)=O)[C@@H](O)[[email protected]]3O)C2=NC=N1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purine ribonucleoside monophosphates. These are nucleotides consisting of a purine base linked to a ribose to which one monophosphate group is attached.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
ClassPurine nucleotides
Sub ClassPurine ribonucleotides
Direct ParentPurine ribonucleoside monophosphates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Purine ribonucleoside monophosphate
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Pyrimidine
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Organic phosphate
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Monosaccharide
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Oxolane
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-diol
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance
PharmacodynamicsAdenosine monophosphate, also known as 5'-adenylic acid and abbreviated AMP, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside adenosine. AMP consists of the phosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase adenine. AMP is used as a dietary supplement to boost immune activity, and is also used as a substitute sweetener to aid in the maintenance of a low-calorie diet.
Mechanism of actionNucleotides such as Adenosine-5'-Monophosphate affect a number of immune functions, including the reversal of malnutrition and starvation-induced immunosuppression, the enhancement of T-cell maturation and function, the enhancement of natural killer cell activity, the improvement of delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity, helping resistance to such infectious agents as Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and finally the modulation of T-cell responses toward type 1 CD4 helper lymphocytes or Th1 cells. Studies have shown that mice fed a nucleotide-free diet have both impaired humoral and cellular immune responses. The addition of dietary nucleotides normalizes both types of responses. RNA, a delivery form of nucleotides, and ribonucleotides were used in these studies. The mechanism of the immune-enhancing activity of nucleic acids/nucleotides is not clear.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Butyrate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00073
Phenylacetate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00126
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00167
HistidinemiaDiseaseSMP00191
HypoacetylaspartiaDiseaseSMP00192
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00203
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00210
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00212
S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) Hydrolase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00214
Glycine N-methyltransferase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00222
Non Ketotic HyperglycinemiaDiseaseSMP00223
Clarithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00248
Erythromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00250
Roxithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00251
Kanamycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00255
Neomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00256
Clomocycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00262
Primary Hyperoxaluria Type IDiseaseSMP00352
ArgininemiaDiseaseSMP00357
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00429
Ethanol DegradationMetabolicSMP00449
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00484
Malonyl-coa decarboxylase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00502
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)DiseaseSMP00535
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeDiseaseSMP00536
Long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCAD)DiseaseSMP00539
Paromomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00714
Rolitetracycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00726
Chloramphenicol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00729
Citrullinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00001
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.6115
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9402
Caco-2 permeable-0.7398
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6874
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9111
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9852
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.947
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.848
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8331
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5462
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9078
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9419
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.921
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9293
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9296
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9633
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8718
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9239
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9793
Rat acute toxicity2.0220 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.976
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8625
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Adenosine-5 monophosphate19.74USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point195 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility1E+004 mg/L (at 20 °C)BEILSTEIN
logP-3.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.31 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.1ALOGPS
logP-4.8ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.23ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.97ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count10ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area186.07 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity74.07 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability30 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-014i-0974000000-7ce25c09f93913b81e9bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-014i-0975000000-8175538459abaf92d36fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-052b-0209001000-f6c3cf706bb3b839d180View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-053s-0395300000-e2a342872025e6e960aeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-2b9fb262817de641a5cdView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-053r-0007920000-ee7bab39079e225a1b07View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0109000000-52331e416cbdd8218b97View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-3900000000-ddc799b6e2bb5d5ac9a6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-68d6660e0cfbfb8f02adView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-27f73c3a0a9566986a0eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03dm-0007009001-639c5cafae90b10dfc5fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03di-0290000000-e0b5612abd24736e70daView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0039210000-3e5b716531d739ca25d9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0009000000-9232b7438abb1f6256b6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0007-2109007000-3e1cf347bd9e054b9368View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0006-0002009000-b840e6edcca65562937bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03di-0190000000-948ec97ae442eda212cbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0009000000-bd1c10704f289141803aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0002-0109000000-433eab5bd833cd92f290View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-000b-0709000000-fa268a51905a453bc6f5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-002b-9104000000-bc358c1d8c03290fc49dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Shigehiro Kataoka, Ayako Nasu, Nobuyuki Yamaji, Motohiko Kato, “Process for preparation of N.sup.6 -substituted 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate and salt thereof.” U.S. Patent US4751293, issued July, 1984.

US4751293
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (73.8 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
activator
General Function:
Protein kinase activity
Specific Function:
Non-catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK a...
Gene Name:
PRKAB1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y478
Molecular Weight:
30382.085 Da
References
  1. Richter EA, Kiens B, Wojtaszewski JF: [5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and lifestyle-mediated diseases]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2006 Feb 27;168(9):896-900. [PubMed:16513051 ]
  2. Neurath KM, Keough MP, Mikkelsen T, Claffey KP: AMP-dependent protein kinase alpha 2 isoform promotes hypoxia-induced VEGF expression in human glioblastoma. Glia. 2006 May;53(7):733-43. [PubMed:16518831 ]
  3. McGee SL, Hargreaves M: Exercise and skeletal muscle glucose transporter 4 expression: molecular mechanisms. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006 Apr;33(4):395-9. [PubMed:16620308 ]
  4. Whitehead JP, Richards AA, Hickman IJ, Macdonald GA, Prins JB: Adiponectin--a key adipokine in the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2006 May;8(3):264-80. [PubMed:16634986 ]
  5. Ruderman NB, Saha AK: Metabolic syndrome: adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and malonyl coenzyme A. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Feb;14 Suppl 1:25S-33S. [PubMed:16642960 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
product of
General Function:
Atp binding
Specific Function:
Important for maintaining normal body temperature during fasting and for energy homeostasis. Essential for energy expenditure under ketogenic conditions (By similarity). Converts acetate to acetyl-CoA so that it can be used for oxidation through the tricarboxylic cycle to produce ATP and CO(2).
Gene Name:
ACSS1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NUB1
Molecular Weight:
74856.1 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
product of
General Function:
Atp binding
Specific Function:
Activates acetate so that it can be used for lipid synthesis or for energy generation.
Gene Name:
ACSS2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NR19
Molecular Weight:
78579.11 Da
References
  1. Ingram-Smith C, Smith KS: AMP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetases in Archaea show unexpected diversity in substrate utilization. Archaea. 2007 May;2(2):95-107. [PubMed:17350930 ]
  2. Linne U, Schafer A, Stubbs MT, Marahiel MA: Aminoacyl-coenzyme A synthesis catalyzed by adenylation domains. FEBS Lett. 2007 Mar 6;581(5):905-10. Epub 2007 Feb 7. [PubMed:17303131 ]
  3. Ingram-Smith C, Woods BI, Smith KS: Characterization of the acyl substrate binding pocket of acetyl-CoA synthetase. Biochemistry. 2006 Sep 26;45(38):11482-90. [PubMed:16981708 ]
  4. Reger AS, Carney JM, Gulick AM: Biochemical and crystallographic analysis of substrate binding and conformational changes in acetyl-CoA synthetase. Biochemistry. 2007 Jun 5;46(22):6536-46. Epub 2007 May 12. [PubMed:17497934 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
activator
General Function:
Tau-protein kinase activity
Specific Function:
Catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts ...
Gene Name:
PRKAA1
Uniprot ID:
Q13131
Molecular Weight:
64008.64 Da
References
  1. Mayes MA, Laforest MF, Guillemette C, Gilchrist RB, Richard FJ: Adenosine 5'-monophosphate kinase-activated protein kinase (PRKA) activators delay meiotic resumption in porcine oocytes. Biol Reprod. 2007 Apr;76(4):589-97. Epub 2006 Dec 13. [PubMed:17167165 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
activator
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Non-catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK a...
Gene Name:
PRKAB2
Uniprot ID:
O43741
Molecular Weight:
30301.985 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
product of
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of the signaling molecule cAMP in response to G-protein signaling. Mediates responses to increased cellular Ca(2+)/calmodulin levels (By similarity). May be involved in regulatory processes in the central nervous system. May play a role in memory and learning. Plays a role in the regulation of the circadian rhythm of daytime contrast sensitivity probably by modulating th...
Gene Name:
ADCY1
Uniprot ID:
Q08828
Molecular Weight:
123438.85 Da
References
  1. Yang ZF, Sun Y, Li CZ, Wang HW, Wang XJ, Zheng YQ, Liu K, Liu YM: Reduced sinoatrial cAMP content plays a role in postnatal heart rate slowing in the rabbit. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006 Aug;33(8):757-62. [PubMed:16895552 ]
  2. Nicol X, Bennis M, Ishikawa Y, Chan GC, Reperant J, Storm DR, Gaspar P: Role of the calcium modulated cyclases in the development of the retinal projections. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Dec;24(12):3401-14. [PubMed:17229090 ]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
product of
General Function:
Long-chain fatty acid-coa ligase activity
Specific Function:
Activation of long-chain fatty acids for both synthesis of cellular lipids, and degradation via beta-oxidation. Preferentially uses palmitoleate, oleate and linoleate.
Gene Name:
ACSL1
Uniprot ID:
P33121
Molecular Weight:
77942.685 Da
References
  1. Ingram-Smith C, Woods BI, Smith KS: Characterization of the acyl substrate binding pocket of acetyl-CoA synthetase. Biochemistry. 2006 Sep 26;45(38):11482-90. [PubMed:16981708 ]
  2. Ingram-Smith C, Smith KS: AMP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetases in Archaea show unexpected diversity in substrate utilization. Archaea. 2007 May;2(2):95-107. [PubMed:17350930 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
activator
General Function:
Transcriptional activator activity, rna polymerase ii transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Phosphorylation-dependent transcription factor that stimulates transcription upon binding to the DNA cAMP response element (CRE), a sequence present in many viral and cellular promoters. Transcription activation is enhanced by the TORC coactivators which act independently of Ser-133 phosphorylation. Involved in different cellular processes including the synchronization of circadian rhythmicity ...
Gene Name:
CREB1
Uniprot ID:
P16220
Molecular Weight:
36687.86 Da
References
  1. Ulfhammer E, Larsson P, Karlsson L, Hrafnkelsdottir T, Bokarewa M, Tarkowski A, Jern S: TNF-alpha mediated suppression of tissue type plasminogen activator expression in vascular endothelial cells is NF-kappaB- and p38 MAPK-dependent. J Thromb Haemost. 2006 Aug;4(8):1781-9. [PubMed:16879221 ]
  2. Saha B, Singh SK, Sarkar C, Bera R, Ratha J, Tobin DJ, Bhadra R: Activation of the Mitf promoter by lipid-stimulated activation of p38-stress signalling to CREB. Pigment Cell Res. 2006 Dec;19(6):595-605. [PubMed:17083486 ]
  3. Kozinn J, Mao L, Arora A, Yang L, Fibuch EE, Wang JQ: Inhibition of glutamatergic activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases in hippocampal neurons by the intravenous anesthetic propofol. Anesthesiology. 2006 Dec;105(6):1182-91. [PubMed:17122581 ]
  4. Perlis RH, Purcell S, Fagerness J, Cusin C, Yamaki L, Fava M, Smoller JW: Clinical and genetic dissection of anger expression and CREB1 polymorphisms in major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Sep 1;62(5):536-40. Epub 2007 Feb 14. [PubMed:17300755 ]
  5. Brenhouse HC, Howe ML, Stellar JR: Differential activation of cAMP response element binding protein in discrete nucleus accumbens subregions during early and late cocaine sensitization. Behav Neurosci. 2007 Feb;121(1):212-7. [PubMed:17324065 ]
9. DNA
Kind
Nucleotide
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
component of
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kostylina G, Simon D, Fey MF, Yousefi S, Simon HU: Neutrophil apoptosis mediated by nicotinic acid receptors (GPR109A). Cell Death Differ. 2008 Jan;15(1):134-42. Epub 2007 Oct 12. [PubMed:17932499 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
product of
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Proto-oncogene with serine/threonine kinase activity involved in cell survival and cell proliferation and thus providing a selective advantage in tumorigenesis. Exerts its oncogenic activity through: the regulation of MYC transcriptional activity, the regulation of cell cycle progression and by phosphorylation and inhibition of proapoptotic proteins (BAD, MAP3K5, FOXO3). Phosphorylation of MYC ...
Gene Name:
PIM1
Uniprot ID:
P11309
Molecular Weight:
45411.905 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
product of
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes. May be involved in mediating central nervous system effects of therapeutic agents ranging from antidepressants to antiasthmatic and anti-inflammatory agents.
Gene Name:
PDE4B
Uniprot ID:
Q07343
Molecular Weight:
83342.695 Da
References
  1. Siuciak JA, Chapin DS, McCarthy SA, Martin AN: Antipsychotic profile of rolipram: efficacy in rats and reduced sensitivity in mice deficient in the phosphodiesterase-4B (PDE4B) enzyme. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Jun;192(3):415-24. Epub 2007 Mar 2. [PubMed:17333137 ]
  2. Porteous DJ, Thomson P, Brandon NJ, Millar JK: The genetics and biology of DISC1--an emerging role in psychosis and cognition. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Jul 15;60(2):123-31. [PubMed:16843095 ]
  3. Terrin A, Di Benedetto G, Pertegato V, Cheung YF, Baillie G, Lynch MJ, Elvassore N, Prinz A, Herberg FW, Houslay MD, Zaccolo M: PGE(1) stimulation of HEK293 cells generates multiple contiguous domains with different [cAMP]: role of compartmentalized phosphodiesterases. J Cell Biol. 2006 Nov 6;175(3):441-51. [PubMed:17088426 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
activator
General Function:
Vitamin binding
Specific Function:
Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties.
Gene Name:
PYGL
Uniprot ID:
P06737
Molecular Weight:
97147.82 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
product of
General Function:
Protein kinase c binding
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes purine nucleotide phosphoramidates with a single phosphate group, including adenosine 5'monophosphoramidate (AMP-NH2), adenosine 5'monophosphomorpholidate (AMP-morpholidate) and guanosine 5'monophosphomorpholidate (GMP-morpholidate). Hydrolyzes lysyl-AMP (AMP-N-epsilon-(N-alpha-acetyl lysine methyl ester)) generated by lysine tRNA ligase, as well as Met-AMP, His-AMP and Asp-AMP, lysy...
Gene Name:
HINT1
Uniprot ID:
P49773
Molecular Weight:
13801.815 Da
References
  1. Chou TF, Tikh IB, Horta BA, Ghosh B, De Alencastro RB, Wagner CR: Engineered monomeric human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 hydrolyzes fluorogenic acyl-adenylate and lysyl-tRNA synthetase-generated lysyl-adenylate. J Biol Chem. 2007 May 18;282(20):15137-47. Epub 2007 Mar 2. [PubMed:17337452 ]
  2. Chou TF, Wagner CR: Lysyl-tRNA synthetase-generated lysyl-adenylate is a substrate for histidine triad nucleotide binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 16;282(7):4719-27. Epub 2006 Dec 8. [PubMed:17158446 ]
  3. Chou TF, Baraniak J, Kaczmarek R, Zhou X, Cheng J, Ghosh B, Wagner CR: Phosphoramidate pronucleotides: a comparison of the phosphoramidase substrate specificity of human and Escherichia coli histidine triad nucleotide binding proteins. Mol Pharm. 2007 Mar-Apr;4(2):208-17. Epub 2007 Jan 12. [PubMed:17217311 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
product of
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name:
PDE4D
Uniprot ID:
Q08499
Molecular Weight:
91114.1 Da
References
  1. Terrin A, Di Benedetto G, Pertegato V, Cheung YF, Baillie G, Lynch MJ, Elvassore N, Prinz A, Herberg FW, Houslay MD, Zaccolo M: PGE(1) stimulation of HEK293 cells generates multiple contiguous domains with different [cAMP]: role of compartmentalized phosphodiesterases. J Cell Biol. 2006 Nov 6;175(3):441-51. [PubMed:17088426 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonistinhibitory allosteric modulator
General Function:
Monosaccharide binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate in the presence of divalent cations, acting as a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis. Plays a role in regulating glucose sensing and insulin secretion of pancreatic beta-cells. Appears to modulate glycerol gluconeogenesis in liver. Important regulator of appetite and adiposity; increased expression of the protein ...
Gene Name:
FBP1
Uniprot ID:
P09467
Molecular Weight:
36842.145 Da
References
  1. Xue Y, Huang S, Liang JY, Zhang Y, Lipscomb WN: Crystal structure of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase complexed with fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, AMP, and Zn2+ at 2.0-A resolution: aspects of synergism between inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Dec 20;91(26):12482-6. [PubMed:7809062 ]
  2. Hebeisen P, Kuhn B, Kohler P, Gubler M, Huber W, Kitas E, Schott B, Benz J, Joseph C, Ruf A: Allosteric FBPase inhibitors gain 10(5) times in potency when simultaneously binding two neighboring AMP sites. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Aug 15;18(16):4708-12. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.06.103. Epub 2008 Jul 5. [PubMed:18650089 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
product of
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
ATP dependent phosphorylation of adenosine and other related nucleoside analogs to monophosphate derivatives. Serves as a potential regulator of concentrations of extracellular adenosine and intracellular adenine nucleotides.
Gene Name:
ADK
Uniprot ID:
P55263
Molecular Weight:
40545.075 Da
References
  1. Park J, Gupta RS: Adenosine kinase and ribokinase--the RK family of proteins. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008 Sep;65(18):2875-96. doi: 10.1007/s00018-008-8123-1. [PubMed:18560757 ]
  2. Leoncini R, Vannoni D, Santoro A, Giglioni S, Carli R, Marinello E: Adenosine kinase from rat liver: new biochemical properties. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2006;25(9-11):1107-12. [PubMed:17065073 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
AMP deaminase plays a critical role in energy metabolism.
Gene Name:
AMPD1
Uniprot ID:
P23109
Molecular Weight:
90218.455 Da
References
  1. Hanisch F, Hellsten Y, Zierz S: Ecto- and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidases in normal and AMP deaminase-deficient human skeletal muscle. Biol Chem. 2006 Jan;387(1):53-8. [PubMed:16497164 ]
  2. Palecz D, Jaszczuk E, Gabryelak T: In vitro study of AMP-deaminase from fish (Cyprinus carpio) treated with hydrolyzable tannins. Acta Biol Hung. 2006 Mar;57(1):49-56. [PubMed:16646524 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Amp binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes a salvage reaction resulting in the formation of AMP, that is energically less costly than de novo synthesis.
Gene Name:
APRT
Uniprot ID:
P07741
Molecular Weight:
19607.535 Da
References
  1. Barrett C, Alley J, Pulido JC, Spurling H, Li P, Parsons T, Mallender WD, Bembenek ME: Configuration of a scintillation proximity assay for the activity assessment of recombinant human adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2006 Dec;4(6):661-9. [PubMed:17199504 ]
Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23