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Identification
NameDihomo-γ-linolenic acid
Accession NumberDB00154  (NUTR00032)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, nutraceutical
Description

A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(8Z,11Z,14Z)-Icosatrienoic acidNot AvailableNot Available
(Z,Z,Z)-8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic acidNot AvailableNot Available
(Z,Z,Z)-8,11,14-IcosatrienoateNot AvailableNot Available
(Z,Z,Z)-8,11,14-Icosatrienoic acidNot AvailableNot Available
20:3, n-6,9,12 all-cisNot AvailableNot Available
8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic AcidNot AvailableNot Available
8c,11c,14c-eicosatrienoic acidNot AvailableNot Available
8c,11c,14c-EicosatriensaeureNot AvailableNot Available
all-cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acidNot AvailableNot Available
all-cis-8,11,14-icosatrienoic acidNot AvailableNot Available
all-cis-eicosa-8,11,14-trienoic acidNot AvailableNot Available
all-cis-Eicosa-8,11,14-triensaeureNot AvailableNot Available
all-cis-icosa-8,11,14-trienoic acidNot AvailableNot Available
C20:3, n-6,9,12 all-cisNot AvailableNot Available
cis,cis,cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acidNot AvailableNot Available
DGLANot AvailableNot Available
Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acidNot AvailableNot Available
eicosa-8Z,11Z,14Z-trienoic acidNot AvailableNot Available
gamma-Homolinolenic acidNot AvailableNot Available
Homo-gamma-linolenic acidNot AvailableNot Available
Homo-gamma-linolensaeureNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
Star GLAGNC
Tona-lean 1000 CLAAction Labs
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number1783-84-2
WeightAverage: 306.4828
Monoisotopic: 306.255880332
Chemical FormulaC20H34O2
InChI KeyHOBAELRKJCKHQD-QNEBEIHSSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H34O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-20(21)22/h6-7,9-10,12-13H,2-5,8,11,14-19H2,1H3,(H,21,22)/b7-6-,10-9-,13-12-
IUPAC Name
(8Z,11Z,14Z)-icosa-8,11,14-trienoic acid
SMILES
CCCCC\C=C/C\C=C/C\C=C/CCCCCCC(O)=O
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassLipids
ClassFatty Acids and Conjugates
SubclassStraight Chain Fatty Acids
Direct parentStraight Chain Fatty Acids
Alternative parentsUnsaturated Fatty Acids; Polyamines; Enolates; Carboxylic Acids
Substituentsenolate; polyamine; carboxylic acid; carboxylic acid derivative
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the straight chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with a straight aliphatic chain.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance
PharmacodynamicsDihomo gamma-linolenic acid or DHLA is an n-6 (omega-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid. It is comprised of 20 carbon atoms and three double bonds. DHLA is a byproduct of the 18 carbon gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). DHLA is then converted into prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). PGE1 inhibits platelet aggregation and also exerts a vasodilatory effect.
Mechanism of actionDHLA (or DGLA) is a precursor in the synthesis of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) as well as the series-3 prostaglandins. It also serves as a precursor in the synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). EPA is a precursor of the series-3 prostaglandins, the series-5 leukotrienes and the series-3 thromboxanes. These eicosanoids have anti-thrombogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. PGE1 inhibits platelet aggregation and has a vasodilation action. DHLA has also been shown to reduce the production/activity of tumor necrosis factor alpha.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9945
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9539
Caco-2 permeable + 0.8371
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.5962
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9487
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.8964
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.9272
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7643
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.8954
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.6678
CYP450 1A2 substrate Inhibitor 0.9107
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8972
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9545
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9467
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9295
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9349
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9674
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.6568
Biodegradation Ready biodegradable 0.811
Rat acute toxicity 1.3991 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9133
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.9103
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP6.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility7.71e-05 g/lALOGPS
logP7.24ALOGPS
logP6.95ChemAxon
logS-6.6ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)4.89ChemAxon
physiological charge-1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count1ChemAxon
polar surface area37.3ChemAxon
rotatable bond count15ChemAxon
refractivity98.84ChemAxon
polarizability39.01ChemAxon
number of rings0ChemAxon
bioavailability0ChemAxon
rule of fiveNoChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraMS/MS1D NMR2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

Hiroshi Kawashima, “Process for production of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and lipid containing same.” U.S. Patent US20010021522, issued September 13, 2001.

US20010021522
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG CompoundC03242
PubChem Compound5280581
PubChem Substance46508866
ChemSpider4444199
ChEBI53486
ChEMBL
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000806
PharmGKBPA164743249
HETLAX
PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/gam_0120.shtml
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(71 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 P23219 Details

References:

  1. Levin G, Duffin KL, Obukowicz MG, Hummert SL, Fujiwara H, Needleman P, Raz A: Differential metabolism of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid by cyclo-oxygenase-1 and cyclo-oxygenase-2: implications for cellular synthesis of prostaglandin E1 and prostaglandin E2. Biochem J. 2002 Jul 15;365(Pt 2):489-96. Pubmed
  2. Das UN: Can COX-2 inhibitor-induced increase in cardiovascular disease risk be modified by essential fatty acids? J Assoc Physicians India. 2005 Jul;53:623-7. Pubmed
  3. Das UN: COX-2 inhibitors and metabolism of essential fatty acids. Med Sci Monit. 2005 Jul;11(7):RA233-7. Epub 2005 Jun 29. Pubmed
  4. Thuresson ED, Malkowski MG, Lakkides KM, Rieke CJ, Mulichak AM, Ginell SL, Garavito RM, Smith WL: Mutational and X-ray crystallographic analysis of the interaction of dihomo-gamma -linolenic acid with prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases. J Biol Chem. 2001 Mar 30;276(13):10358-65. Epub 2000 Dec 19. Pubmed
  5. Malkowski MG, Thuresson ED, Lakkides KM, Rieke CJ, Micielli R, Smith WL, Garavito RM: Structure of eicosapentaenoic and linoleic acids in the cyclooxygenase site of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-1. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 5;276(40):37547-55. Epub 2001 Jul 27. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

2. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 P35354 Details

References:

  1. Das UN: Can COX-2 inhibitor-induced increase in cardiovascular disease risk be modified by essential fatty acids? J Assoc Physicians India. 2005 Jul;53:623-7. Pubmed
  2. Levin G, Duffin KL, Obukowicz MG, Hummert SL, Fujiwara H, Needleman P, Raz A: Differential metabolism of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid by cyclo-oxygenase-1 and cyclo-oxygenase-2: implications for cellular synthesis of prostaglandin E1 and prostaglandin E2. Biochem J. 2002 Jul 15;365(Pt 2):489-96. Pubmed
  3. Das UN: COX-2 inhibitors and metabolism of essential fatty acids. Med Sci Monit. 2005 Jul;11(7):RA233-7. Epub 2005 Jun 29. Pubmed
  4. Thuresson ED, Malkowski MG, Lakkides KM, Rieke CJ, Mulichak AM, Ginell SL, Garavito RM, Smith WL: Mutational and X-ray crystallographic analysis of the interaction of dihomo-gamma -linolenic acid with prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases. J Biol Chem. 2001 Mar 30;276(13):10358-65. Epub 2000 Dec 19. Pubmed

Carriers

1. Fatty acid-binding protein, brain

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Fatty acid-binding protein, brain O15540 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 24, 2013 13:31