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Identification
NameDihomo-gamma-linolenic acid
Accession NumberDB00154  (NUTR00032)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(8Z,11Z,14Z)-Icosatrienoic acid
(Z,Z,Z)-8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic acid
(Z,Z,Z)-8,11,14-Icosatrienoate
(Z,Z,Z)-8,11,14-Icosatrienoic acid
20:3, n-6,9,12 all-cis
8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic Acid
8c,11c,14c-eicosatrienoic acid
8c,11c,14c-Eicosatriensaeure
all-cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid
all-cis-8,11,14-icosatrienoic acid
all-cis-eicosa-8,11,14-trienoic acid
all-cis-Eicosa-8,11,14-triensaeure
all-cis-icosa-8,11,14-trienoic acid
C20:3, n-6,9,12 all-cis
cis,cis,cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid
DGLA
Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid
eicosa-8Z,11Z,14Z-trienoic acid
gamma-Homolinolenic acid
Homo-gamma-linolenic acid
Homo-gamma-linolensaeure
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
Star GLAGNC
Tona-lean 1000 CLAAction Labs
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIFC398RK06S
CAS number1783-84-2
WeightAverage: 306.4828
Monoisotopic: 306.255880332
Chemical FormulaC20H34O2
InChI KeyInChIKey=HOBAELRKJCKHQD-QNEBEIHSSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H34O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-20(21)22/h6-7,9-10,12-13H,2-5,8,11,14-19H2,1H3,(H,21,22)/b7-6-,10-9-,13-12-
IUPAC Name
(8Z,11Z,14Z)-icosa-8,11,14-trienoic acid
SMILES
CCCCC\C=C/C\C=C/C\C=C/CCCCCCC(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as long-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 13 and 21 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentLong-chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Long-chain fatty acid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance
PharmacodynamicsDihomo gamma-linolenic acid or DHLA is an n-6 (omega-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid. It is comprised of 20 carbon atoms and three double bonds. DHLA is a byproduct of the 18 carbon gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). DHLA is then converted into prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). PGE1 inhibits platelet aggregation and also exerts a vasodilatory effect.
Mechanism of actionDHLA (or DGLA) is a precursor in the synthesis of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) as well as the series-3 prostaglandins. It also serves as a precursor in the synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). EPA is a precursor of the series-3 prostaglandins, the series-5 leukotrienes and the series-3 thromboxanes. These eicosanoids have anti-thrombogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. PGE1 inhibits platelet aggregation and has a vasodilation action. DHLA has also been shown to reduce the production/activity of tumor necrosis factor alpha.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Alpha Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid MetabolismMetabolicSMP00018
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9945
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9539
Caco-2 permeable+0.8371
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5962
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9487
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8964
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9272
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7643
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8954
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6678
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8972
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9545
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9467
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9295
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9349
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9674
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6568
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.811
Rat acute toxicity1.3991 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9133
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9103
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP6.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.71e-05 mg/mLALOGPS
logP7.24ALOGPS
logP6.95ChemAxon
logS-6.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.89ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count15ChemAxon
Refractivity98.84 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability39.01 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-136z000000-38de24f5141b8fd24471View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-zs11000000-ea3e83fc76a5e8bf96a0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-z900000000-2b1245d775cb6a9290a7View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Hiroshi Kawashima, “Process for production of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and lipid containing same.” U.S. Patent US20010021522, issued September 13, 2001.

US20010021522
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (71 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and brain, and in pathological conditions, such as in cancer. PTGS2 is responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Up-regulation of PTGS2 is also associated with increased cell adhesion, p...
Gene Name:
PTGS2
Uniprot ID:
P35354
Molecular Weight:
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Das UN: Can COX-2 inhibitor-induced increase in cardiovascular disease risk be modified by essential fatty acids? J Assoc Physicians India. 2005 Jul;53:623-7. [PubMed:16190133 ]
  2. Levin G, Duffin KL, Obukowicz MG, Hummert SL, Fujiwara H, Needleman P, Raz A: Differential metabolism of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid by cyclo-oxygenase-1 and cyclo-oxygenase-2: implications for cellular synthesis of prostaglandin E1 and prostaglandin E2. Biochem J. 2002 Jul 15;365(Pt 2):489-96. [PubMed:11939906 ]
  3. Das UN: COX-2 inhibitors and metabolism of essential fatty acids. Med Sci Monit. 2005 Jul;11(7):RA233-7. Epub 2005 Jun 29. [PubMed:15990700 ]
  4. Thuresson ED, Malkowski MG, Lakkides KM, Rieke CJ, Mulichak AM, Ginell SL, Garavito RM, Smith WL: Mutational and X-ray crystallographic analysis of the interaction of dihomo-gamma -linolenic acid with prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases. J Biol Chem. 2001 Mar 30;276(13):10358-65. Epub 2000 Dec 19. [PubMed:11121413 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the gener...
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular Weight:
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Levin G, Duffin KL, Obukowicz MG, Hummert SL, Fujiwara H, Needleman P, Raz A: Differential metabolism of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid by cyclo-oxygenase-1 and cyclo-oxygenase-2: implications for cellular synthesis of prostaglandin E1 and prostaglandin E2. Biochem J. 2002 Jul 15;365(Pt 2):489-96. [PubMed:11939906 ]
  2. Das UN: Can COX-2 inhibitor-induced increase in cardiovascular disease risk be modified by essential fatty acids? J Assoc Physicians India. 2005 Jul;53:623-7. [PubMed:16190133 ]
  3. Das UN: COX-2 inhibitors and metabolism of essential fatty acids. Med Sci Monit. 2005 Jul;11(7):RA233-7. Epub 2005 Jun 29. [PubMed:15990700 ]
  4. Thuresson ED, Malkowski MG, Lakkides KM, Rieke CJ, Mulichak AM, Ginell SL, Garavito RM, Smith WL: Mutational and X-ray crystallographic analysis of the interaction of dihomo-gamma -linolenic acid with prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases. J Biol Chem. 2001 Mar 30;276(13):10358-65. Epub 2000 Dec 19. [PubMed:11121413 ]
  5. Malkowski MG, Thuresson ED, Lakkides KM, Rieke CJ, Micielli R, Smith WL, Garavito RM: Structure of eicosapentaenoic and linoleic acids in the cyclooxygenase site of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-1. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 5;276(40):37547-55. Epub 2001 Jul 27. [PubMed:11477109 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
B-FABP could be involved in the transport of a so far unknown hydrophobic ligand with potential morphogenic activity during CNS development. It is required for the establishment of the radial glial fiber system in developing brain, a system that is necessary for the migration of immature neurons to establish cortical layers (By similarity).
Gene Name:
FABP7
Uniprot ID:
O15540
Molecular Weight:
14888.855 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on February 26, 2015 09:19