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Identification
NameIsoflurane
Accession NumberDB00753  (APRD00212)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Vet Approved
DescriptionA stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1-chloro-2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether
Aerrane
Ethane
Forane
Forene
Isoflurane
Isoflurano
Isofluranum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Foraneinhalant1 mL/mLrespiratory (inhalation)Baxter Healthcare Corporation2011-08-08Not applicableUs
Foraneliquid100 %inhalationBaxter Corporation1996-12-31Not applicableCanada
Forane Liq Inhliquid100 %inhalationOhmeda Pharmaceutical Products, Division Of Boc Canada Limited1994-12-311996-09-26Canada
Isoflurane USPliquid100 %inhalationTechnilab Pharma Inc.1999-01-212008-08-05Canada
Isoflurane USPliquid99.9 %inhalation; oralAbbvie Corporation1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
Isoflurane USPliquid99.9 %inhalationHalocarbon Laboratories, A Division Of Halocarbon Products Corp.2004-11-03Not applicableCanada
Isoflurane USPliquid99.9 %inhalationFresenius Kabi Canada Ltd1997-11-14Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Isofluraneliquid1 mL/mLrespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2011-10-07Not applicableUs
Isofluraneliquid1 mL/mLrespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2013-11-13Not applicableUs
Terrellliquid1 mL/mLrespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2010-01-01Not applicableUs
Terrellliquid1 mL/mLrespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2012-03-21Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AerraneBaxter
ForeneAbbott
IsocaneLunan
IsoraneAbbott
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIICYS9AKD70P
CAS number26675-46-7
WeightAverage: 184.492
Monoisotopic: 183.971433418
Chemical FormulaC3H2ClF5O
InChI KeyInChIKey=PIWKPBJCKXDKJR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C3H2ClF5O/c4-1(3(7,8)9)10-2(5)6/h1-2H
IUPAC Name
2-chloro-2-(difluoromethoxy)-1,1,1-trifluoroethane
SMILES
FC(F)OC(Cl)C(F)(F)F
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as halomethanes. These are organic compounds in which at least one of the four hydrogen atoms of methane (CH4) are replaced by halogen atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganohalogen compounds
ClassAlkyl halides
Sub ClassHalomethanes
Direct ParentHalomethanes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Halomethane
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organochloride
  • Alkyl fluoride
  • Alkyl chloride
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.
PharmacodynamicsIsoflurane is a general inhalation anesthetic used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. It induces muscle relaxation and reduces pains sensitivity by altering tissue excitability. It does so by decreasing the extent of gap junction mediated cell-cell coupling and altering the activity of the channels that underlie the action potential.
Mechanism of actionIsoflurane induces a reduction in junctional conductance by decreasing gap junction channel opening times and increasing gap junction channel closing times. Isoflurane also activates calcium dependent ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum by increasing the fluidity of the lipid membrane. Also appears to bind the D subunit of ATP synthase and NADH dehydogenase. Isoflurane also binds to the GABA receptor, the large conductance Ca2+ activated potassium channel, the glutamate receptor and the glycine receptor.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Minimal

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityLC50=15300 ppm/3 hrs (inhalation by rat)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.994
Caco-2 permeable+0.6125
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8919
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9553
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9297
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9293
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8407
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7179
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5701
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8112
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9408
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5794
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9604
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8702
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.7574
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9642
Rat acute toxicity1.3804 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9576
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9032
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia critical care
  • Halocarbon products corp
  • Hospira inc
  • Marsam pharmaceuticals llc
  • Piramal critical care inc
  • Rhodia ltd
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Inhalantrespiratory (inhalation)1 mL/mL
Liquidinhalation100 %
Liquidinhalation99.9 %
Liquidinhalation; oral99.9 %
Liquidrespiratory (inhalation)1 mL/mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Forane liquid0.24USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point48-48.5U.S. Patent 3,535,388.
boiling point48.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility4470 mg/L (at 37 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.06HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.56 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.3ALOGPS
logP2.84ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area9.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity23.04 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.73 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (7.33 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0udi-9300000000-c134e176400bbe7073c2View in MoNA
References
Synthesis Reference

Leonid A. Rozov, Fernando Quiroz, Gerald G. Vernice, “Preparation of isoflurane.” U.S. Patent US5416244, issued March, 1973.

US5416244
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesN01AB06
AHFS Codes
  • 28:04.00
  • 28:04.92
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (99.6 KB)
MSDSDownload (37 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Acepromazine.
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Aceprometazine.
adipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with adipiplon.
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Agomelatine.
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Alfaxalone.
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Alfentanil.
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Isoflurane.
AmiodaroneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Amiodarone.
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Amisulpride.
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Amitriptyline.
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Amobarbital.
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Amoxapine.
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Amperozide.
AnagrelideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Anagrelide.
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Aripiprazole.
Arsenic trioxideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Arsenic trioxide.
ArtemetherIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Artemether.
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Articaine.
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Asenapine.
Atracurium besylateIsoflurane may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Azaperone.
AzelastineIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azelastine is combined with Isoflurane.
AzithromycinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Azithromycin.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Baclofen.
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Barbital.
BedaquilineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Bedaquiline.
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Benzocaine.
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Benzyl alcohol.
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Brexpiprazole.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Brimonidine.
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Bromazepam.
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Brompheniramine.
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Brotizolam.
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Isoflurane.
BuprenorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Buprenorphine.
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Isoflurane.
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Isoflurane.
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Butacaine.
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Butalbital.
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Butamben.
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Butethal.
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Isoflurane.
CarbamazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbamazepine is combined with Isoflurane.
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Carbinoxamine.
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Carfentanil.
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Carisoprodol.
CeritinibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ceritinib.
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Cetirizine.
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chloral hydrate.
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Isoflurane.
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chlormezanone.
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chloroprocaine.
ChloroquineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Chloroquine.
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chlorphenamine.
ChlorpromazineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Chlorpromazine.
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Isoflurane.
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chlorprothixene.
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chlorzoxazone.
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Isoflurane.
CiprofloxacinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ciprofloxacin.
CisaprideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Cisapride.
CitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Citalopram.
CitalopramThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.
ClarithromycinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Clarithromycin.
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clemastine.
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clidinium.
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clobazam.
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with clomethiazole.
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clomipramine.
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clonazepam.
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clonidine.
ClopidogrelThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Isoflurane.
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.
ClozapineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Clozapine.
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Isoflurane.
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Cocaine.
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Isoflurane.
CrizotinibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Crizotinib.
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Cyclizine.
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Cyclobenzaprine.
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Cyproheptadine.
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Isoflurane can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Isoflurane can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dantrolene.
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Isoflurane.
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dapoxetine.
deramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with deramciclane.
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Desflurane.
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Desipramine.
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Desloratadine.
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Detomidine.
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Isoflurane.
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dextromoramide.
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextropropoxyphene is combined with Isoflurane.
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dezocine.
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Diazepam.
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Difenoxin.
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dihydrocodeine.
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dihydroetorphine.
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dihydromorphine.
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dimenhydrinate.
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Diphenhydramine.
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Diphenoxylate.
DisopyramideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Disopyramide.
DisulfiramThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Disulfiram.
DofetilideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dofetilide.
DolasetronIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dolasetron.
DomperidoneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Domperidone.
DopamineIsoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Dopamine.
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Doramectin.
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Doxepin.
DoxorubicinThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.
DoxylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Doxylamine.
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with DPDPE.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.
DronedaroneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dronedarone.
DroperidolIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Droperidol.
DroperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Droperidol is combined with Isoflurane.
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Drotebanol.
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dyclonine is combined with Isoflurane.
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ecgonine.
ECGONINE METHYL ESTERThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with ECGONINE METHYL ESTER.
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Efavirenz.
EliglustatIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Eliglustat.
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Isoflurane.
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Entacapone.
EphedraEphedra may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Isoflurane.
EphedrineEphedrine may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Isoflurane.
EpinephrineIsoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Epinephrine.
ErythromycinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Erythromycin.
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Escitalopram.
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Estazolam.
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Isoflurane.
EthanolIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
EthanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethanol is combined with Isoflurane.
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Isoflurane.
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ethosuximide.
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ethotoin.
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ethyl carbamate.
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ethyl loflazepate.
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ethylmorphine.
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Etidocaine.
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Etifoxine.
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Etizolam.
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Isoflurane.
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Etoperidone.
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Etorphine.
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ezogabine.
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Felbamate.
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fencamfamine.
FenfluramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fenfluramine.
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fentanyl.
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fexofenadine.
FlecainideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Flecainide.
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Flibanserin.
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fludiazepam.
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Flunarizine.
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Flunitrazepam.
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fluoxetine.
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Flupentixol.
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Isoflurane.
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Isoflurane.
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fluspirilene.
Fluticasone PropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fluticasone Propionate.
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fluvoxamine.
FormoterolIsoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Formoterol.
FosphenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fosphenytoin.
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fospropofol.
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Gabapentin.
gabapentin enacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with gabapentin enacarbil.
Gadobenic acidIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Gadobenic acid.
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
GemifloxacinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Gemifloxacin.
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Glutethimide.
GoserelinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Goserelin.
GranisetronIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Granisetron.
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Guanfacine.
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Halazepam.
HaloperidolIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Haloperidol.
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Haloperidol is combined with Isoflurane.
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Halothane.
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Heroin.
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Hexobarbital.
HydrocodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Hydrocodone.
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Isoflurane.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.
HydroxyzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Hydroxyzine.
IbutilideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ibutilide.
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Iloperidone.
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Imipramine.
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Indalpine.
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.
IsoprenalineIsoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Isoprenaline.
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ketamine.
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ketazolam.
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ketobemidone.
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lamotrigine.
LenvatinibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lenvatinib.
LeuprolideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Leuprolide.
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levetiracetam.
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levobupivacaine.
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levocabastine.
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levocetirizine.
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levodopa.
LevofloxacinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Levofloxacin.
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levomethadyl Acetate.
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levomilnacipran.
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levorphanol.
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lidocaine is combined with Isoflurane.
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lithium.
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lofentanil.
LopinavirIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lopinavir.
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Loratadine.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Isoflurane.
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Isoflurane.
Lu AA21004The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lu AA21004.
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Isoflurane can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.
LumefantrineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lumefantrine.
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lurasidone.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.
Magnesium SulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Magnesium Sulfate.
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Maprotiline.
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Meclizine.
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Medetomidine.
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Melatonin.
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Melperone.
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Mepivacaine.
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Isoflurane.
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Mesoridazine.
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Metaxalone.
MethadoneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Methadone.
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadone is combined with Isoflurane.
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methadyl Acetate.
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methapyrilene.
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methaqualone.
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methocarbamol.
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Isoflurane.
MethotrimeprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methotrimeprazine.
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methoxyflurane.
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methsuximide.
MethylphenidateMethylphenidate may increase the hypertensive activities of Isoflurane.
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methylphenobarbital.
MetyrosineIsoflurane may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Isoflurane.
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Isoflurane.
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Milnacipran.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.
MirtazapineIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.
MirtazapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mirtazapine is combined with Isoflurane.
MivacuriumIsoflurane may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Mivacurium.
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Molindone.
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Isoflurane.
MoxifloxacinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Moxifloxacin.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nabilone.
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nalbuphine.
NevirapineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.
NicotineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Nicotine.
NilotinibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Nilotinib.
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nitrazepam.
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nitrous oxide.
NorepinephrineIsoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Norepinephrine.
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Normethadone.
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nortriptyline.
OfloxacinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ofloxacin.
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Olanzapine.
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Olopatadine.
OndansetronIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ondansetron.
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ondansetron is combined with Isoflurane.
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Opium.
OrphenadrineIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
OrphenadrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orphenadrine is combined with Isoflurane.
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Osanetant.
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Oxazepam.
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Oxprenolol.
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Oxybuprocaine.
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Isoflurane.
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Oxymorphone.
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Paliperidone.
PanobinostatIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Panobinostat.
ParaldehydeIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParaldehydeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paraldehyde is combined with Isoflurane.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Paroxetine.
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.
PazopanibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pazopanib.
PentamidineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pentamidine.
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Isoflurane.
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with Isoflurane.
PerampanelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Perampanel.
PerflutrenIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Perflutren.
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Perospirone.
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Perphenazine.
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Isoflurane.
PhenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Phenobarbital.
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Phenoxyethanol.
PhenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Phenytoin.
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Pimozide.
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Pipamperone.
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Pipotiazine.
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Pizotifen.
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Pomalidomide.
PramipexoleIsoflurane may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Pramocaine.
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Prazepam.
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Isoflurane.
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prilocaine is combined with Isoflurane.
PrimaquineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Primaquine.
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Primidone.
ProcainamideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Procainamide.
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Isoflurane.
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Isoflurane.
PromazineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Promazine.
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promazine is combined with Isoflurane.
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Promethazine.
PropafenoneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Propafenone.
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Proparacaine.
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Propofol.
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Propoxycaine.
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Protriptyline.
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with PSD502.
QuazepamThe serum concentration of Isoflurane can be increased when it is combined with Quazepam.
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Quazepam.
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Quetiapine.
QuinidineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
QuinineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinine.
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ramelteon.
RapacuroniumIsoflurane may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rapacuronium.
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Remifentanil.
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remoxipride is combined with Isoflurane.
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Isoflurane.
RifampicinThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Risperidone is combined with Isoflurane.
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Romifidine.
RopiniroleIsoflurane may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Isoflurane.
RotigotineIsoflurane may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Isoflurane.
S-EthylisothioureaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with S-Ethylisothiourea.
SaquinavirIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Saquinavir.
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Scopolamine.
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Isoflurane.
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Sertindole.
SertralineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Sertraline.
SertralineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Sevoflurane.
Sodium oxybateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Sodium oxybate.
SorafenibThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.
SotalolIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Sotalol.
StiripentolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Stiripentol.
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Isoflurane.
SulfisoxazoleIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Sulfisoxazole.
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulpiride is combined with Isoflurane.
SuvorexantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Suvorexant.
TapentadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tapentadol.
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tasimelteon.
TelavancinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Telavancin.
TelithromycinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Telithromycin.
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Isoflurane.
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tetrabenazine.
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tetracaine.
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tetrodotoxin.
ThalidomideIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thalidomide is combined with Isoflurane.
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Thiamylal.
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with Isoflurane.
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Isoflurane.
ThiotepaThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Thiotepa.
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Thiothixene.
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tiagabine.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tiletamine.
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tizanidine.
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tolcapone.
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Topiramate.
ToremifeneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Toremifene.
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Isoflurane.
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Isoflurane.
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Trazodone.
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Triazolam.
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Trifluoperazine.
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triflupromazine is combined with Isoflurane.
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Trimipramine.
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Triprolidine.
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Isoflurane.
VandetanibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Vandetanib.
VemurafenibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Vemurafenib.
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Vigabatrin.
VilazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Vilazodone.
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Vortioxetine.
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Xylazine.
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zaleplon.
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ziconotide.
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zimelidine.
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ziprasidone is combined with Isoflurane.
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zolazepam.
ZolpidemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolpidem is combined with Isoflurane.
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zonisamide.
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zopiclone.
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zotepine.
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zuclopenthixol.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By si...
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. McCracken ML, Borghese CM, Trudell JR, Harris RA: A transmembrane amino acid in the GABAA receptor beta2 subunit critical for the actions of alcohols and anesthetics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Dec;335(3):600-6. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.170472. Epub 2010 Sep 8. [PubMed:20826568 ]
  4. Seo K, Seino H, Yoshikawa H, Petrenko AB, Baba H, Fujiwara N, Someya G, Kawano Y, Maeda T, Matsuda M, Kanematsu T, Hirata M: Genetic reduction of GABA(A) receptor gamma2 subunit expression potentiates the immobilizing action of isoflurane. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Mar 12;472(1):1-4. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2010.01.031. Epub 2010 Jan 25. [PubMed:20097266 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular Weight:
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kosk-Kosicka D, Roszczynska G: Inhibition of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity by volatile anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 1993 Oct;79(4):774-80. [PubMed:8214757 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name:
GLRA1
Uniprot ID:
P23415
Molecular Weight:
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Grasshoff C, Antkowiak B: Effects of isoflurane and enflurane on GABAA and glycine receptors contribute equally to depressant actions on spinal ventral horn neurones in rats. Br J Anaesth. 2006 Nov;97(5):687-94. Epub 2006 Sep 13. [PubMed:16973644 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inacti...
Gene Name:
GRIA1
Uniprot ID:
P42261
Molecular Weight:
101505.245 Da
References
  1. Guo L, Wang Y: Glutamate stimulates glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 degradation by ubiquitin-proteasome system to regulate surface expression of GluR2. Neuroscience. 2007 Mar 2;145(1):100-9. Epub 2007 Jan 3. [PubMed:17207582 ]
  2. Dildy-Mayfield JE, Eger EI 2nd, Harris RA: Anesthetics produce subunit-selective actions on glutamate receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):1058-65. [PubMed:8786535 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel that mediates transmembrane potassium transport in excitable membranes, primarily in the brain and the central nervous system, but also in the kidney (PubMed:19903818). Contributes to the regulation of the membrane potential and nerve signaling, and prevents neuronal hyperexcitability (PubMed:17156368). Forms tetrameric potassium-selective channels through which ...
Gene Name:
KCNA1
Uniprot ID:
Q09470
Molecular Weight:
56465.01 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Matchett GA, Allard MW, Martin RD, Zhang JH: Neuroprotective effect of volatile anesthetic agents: molecular mechanisms. Neurol Res. 2009 Mar;31(2):128-34. doi: 10.1179/174313209X393546. [PubMed:19298752 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F(1) - containing the extramembraneous catalytic core, and F(0) - containing the membrane proton channel, linked toget...
Gene Name:
ATP5D
Uniprot ID:
P30049
Molecular Weight:
17489.755 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Titin binding
Specific Function:
Calmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes, ion channels, aquaporins and other proteins by Ca(2+). Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca(2+) complex are a number of protein kinases and phosphatases. Together with CCP110 and centrin, is involved in a genetic pathway that regulates the centrosome cycle and progression through cytokinesis.
Gene Name:
CALM1
Uniprot ID:
P62158
Molecular Weight:
16837.47 Da
References
  1. Fan RS, Jacamo RO, Jiang X, Sinnett-Smith J, Rozengurt E: G protein-coupled receptor activation rapidly stimulates focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation at Ser-843. Mediation by Ca2+, calmodulin, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jun 24;280(25):24212-20. Epub 2005 Apr 21. [PubMed:15845548 ]
  2. Bickler PE, Zhan X, Fahlman CS: Isoflurane preconditions hippocampal neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation: role of intracellular Ca2+ and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Anesthesiology. 2005 Sep;103(3):532-9. [PubMed:16129978 ]
  3. Sazonova OV, Blishchenko EY, Tolmazova AG, Khachin DP, Leontiev KV, Karelin AA, Ivanov VT: Stimulation of fibroblast proliferation by neokyotorphin requires Ca influx and activation of PKA, CaMK II and MAPK/ERK. FEBS J. 2007 Jan;274(2):474-84. [PubMed:17229152 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
positive allosteric modulator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1P14867 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2P47869 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3P34903 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4P48169 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5P31644 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6Q16445 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1P18505 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2P47870 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3P28472 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltaO14764 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilonP78334 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1Q8N1C3 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2P18507 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3Q99928 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit piO00591 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetaQ9UN88 Details
References
  1. ChEMBL Compound Report Card [Link]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND1
Uniprot ID:
P03886
Molecular Weight:
35660.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Hanley PJ, Ray J, Brandt U, Daut J: Halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane inhibit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of cardiac mitochondria. J Physiol. 2002 Nov 1;544(Pt 3):687-93. [PubMed:12411515 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Liu R, Eckenhoff RG: Weak polar interactions confer albumin binding site selectivity for haloether anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 2005 Apr;102(4):799-805. [PubMed:15791110 ]
  2. Sawas AH, Pentyala SN, Rebecchi MJ: Binding of volatile anesthetics to serum albumin: measurements of enthalpy and solvent contributions. Biochemistry. 2004 Oct 5;43(39):12675-85. [PubMed:15449957 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23