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Identification
NameHalothane
Accession NumberDB01159  (APRD00598, DB02330, EXPT01754)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. nitrous oxide is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
1-Bromo-1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethaneNot AvailableNot Available
1,1,1-Trifluoro-2-bromo-2-chloroethaneNot AvailableNot Available
1,1,1-Trifluoro-2-chloro-2-bromoethaneNot AvailableNot Available
2-Bromo-2-Chloro-1,1,1-TrifluoroethaneNot AvailableNot Available
2,2,2-Trifluoro-1-chloro-1-bromoethaneNot AvailableNot Available
BromochlorotrifluoroethaneNot AvailableNot Available
FluothaneNot AvailableNot Available
FtorotanRussianNot Available
HalotanoSpanishINN
HalothaneNot AvailableNot Available
HalothanumLatinINN
NarcotaneNot AvailableNot Available
PhthorothanumNot AvailableNot Available
RhodialothanNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
FluothaneAyerst
HalotanJugoremedija
NarcotanZentiva
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number151-67-7
WeightAverage: 197.382
Monoisotopic: 195.890225001
Chemical FormulaC2HBrClF3
InChI KeyBCQZXOMGPXTTIC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C2HBrClF3/c3-1(4)2(5,6)7/h1H
IUPAC Name
2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane
SMILES
FC(F)(F)C(Cl)Br
Mass Specshow(8.57 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassOrganonitrogen Compounds
ClassAmines
SubclassPolyamines
Direct parentPolyamines
Alternative parentsOrganofluorides; Organochlorides; Organobromides; Alkyl Fluorides; Alkyl Chlorides; Alkyl Bromides
Substituentsorganofluoride; organochloride; organobromide; organohalogen; alkyl halide; alkyl fluoride; alkyl chloride; alkyl bromide
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the polyamines. These are compounds containing more than one amine group.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia
PharmacodynamicsHalothane is a general inhalation anesthetic used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. It reduces the blood pressure and frequently decreases the pulse rate and depresses respiration. It induces muscle relaxation and reduces pains sensitivity by altering tissue excitability. It does so by decreasing the extent of gap junction mediated cell-cell coupling and altering the activity of the channels that underlie the action potential.
Mechanism of actionHalothane causes general anaethesia due to its actions on multiple ion channels, which ultimately depresses nerve conduction, breathing, cardiac contractility. Its immobilizing effects have been attributed to its binding to potassium channels in cholinergic neurons. Halothane's effect are also likely due to binding to NMDA and calcium channels, causing hyperpolarization.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Halothane is metabolized in the liver, primarily by CYP2E1, and to a lesser extent by CYP3A4 and CYP2A6.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Halothane
bromideDetails
Halothane
trifluoroacetic acidDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityToxic effects of halothane include malignant hyperthermia and hepatitis.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 1.0
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9895
Caco-2 permeable + 0.6141
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.9007
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9628
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.945
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.9183
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8374
CYP450 2D6 substrate Substrate 0.8031
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.7086
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.6027
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.7607
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.943
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.6841
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9545
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.8808
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9132
Carcinogenicity Carcinogens 0.711
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9741
Rat acute toxicity 1.7199 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9686
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.9034
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Wyeth ayerst laboratories
  • Bh chemicals inc
  • Halocarbon laboratories div halocarbon products corp
  • Hospira inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)
SolutionRespiratory (inhalation)
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Halothane liquid0.24USDml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Stateliquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point50-50.5U.S. Patents 2,849,502, 2,921,098, 2,959,624, 3,082,263.
boiling point50.2 °CPhysProp
water solubility4070 mg/L (at 25 °C)HORVATH,AL ET AL. (1999)
logP2.30HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-1.71ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility3.81e+00 g/lALOGPS
logP2.5ALOGPS
logP2.12ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count0ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area0ChemAxon
rotatable bond count1ChemAxon
refractivity24.63ChemAxon
polarizability9.78ChemAxon
number of rings0ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

U.S. Patents 2,849,502, 2,921,098, 2,959,624, 3,082,263.

General Reference
  1. Bovill JG: Inhalation anaesthesia: from diethyl ether to xenon. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2008;(182):121-42. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00542
KEGG CompoundC07515
PubChem Compound3562
PubChem Substance46506589
ChemSpider3441
ChEBI5615
ChEMBLCHEMBL931
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000692
PharmGKBPA449845
IUPHAR2401
Guide to Pharmacology2401
HETHLT
Drug Product Database589187
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic2/halothane.htm
WikipediaHalothane
ATC CodesN01AB01
AHFS Codes
  • 28:04.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(55.2 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AminophyllineIncreased risk of cardiac arrhythmia
LabetalolMonitor arterial pressure closely
OxtriphyllineIncreased risk of cardiac arrhythmia
TheophyllineIncreased risk of cardiac arrhythmia
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Potassium channel subfamily K member 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Potassium channel subfamily K member 3 O14649 Details

References:

  1. Lazarenko RM, Willcox SC, Shu S, Berg AP, Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Talley EM, Chen X, Bayliss DA: Motoneuronal TASK channels contribute to immobilizing effects of inhalational general anesthetics. J Neurosci. 2010 Jun 2;30(22):7691-704. Pubmed
  2. Pandit JJ, Buckler KJ: Halothane and sevoflurane exert different degrees of inhibition on carotid body glomus cell intracellular Ca2+ response to hypoxia. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;669:201-4. Pubmed

2. Potassium channel subfamily K member 9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Potassium channel subfamily K member 9 Q9NPC2 Details

References:

  1. Lazarenko RM, Willcox SC, Shu S, Berg AP, Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Talley EM, Chen X, Bayliss DA: Motoneuronal TASK channels contribute to immobilizing effects of inhalational general anesthetics. J Neurosci. 2010 Jun 2;30(22):7691-704. Pubmed
  2. Pandit JJ, Buckler KJ: Halothane and sevoflurane exert different degrees of inhibition on carotid body glomus cell intracellular Ca2+ response to hypoxia. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;669:201-4. Pubmed

3. Calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1 Q12791 Details

References:

  1. Namba T, Ishii TM, Ikeda M, Hisano T, Itoh T, Hirota K, Adelman JP, Fukuda K: Inhibition of the human intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, hIK1, by volatile anesthetics. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Apr 28;395(2):95-101. Pubmed
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

4. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A Q8TCU5 Details

References:

  1. Perouansky M, Kirson ED, Yaari Y: Halothane blocks synaptic excitation of inhibitory interneurons. Anesthesiology. 1996 Dec;85(6):1431-8; discussion 29A. Pubmed

5. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3B O60391 Details

References:

  1. Perouansky M, Kirson ED, Yaari Y: Halothane blocks synaptic excitation of inhibitory interneurons. Anesthesiology. 1996 Dec;85(6):1431-8; discussion 29A. Pubmed

6. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A Q12879 Details

References:

  1. Perouansky M, Kirson ED, Yaari Y: Halothane blocks synaptic excitation of inhibitory interneurons. Anesthesiology. 1996 Dec;85(6):1431-8; discussion 29A. Pubmed

7. Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1 P23415 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Schofield CM, Trudell JR, Harrison NL: Alanine-scanning mutagenesis in the signature disulfide loop of the glycine receptor alpha 1 subunit: critical residues for activation and modulation. Biochemistry. 2004 Aug 10;43(31):10058-63. Pubmed

8. Rhodopsin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: other

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Rhodopsin P08100 Details

References:

  1. Ishizawa Y, Sharp R, Liebman PA, Eckenhoff RG: Halothane binding to a G protein coupled receptor in retinal membranes by photoaffinity labeling. Biochemistry. 2000 Jul 25;39(29):8497-502. Pubmed
  2. Keller C, Grimm C, Wenzel A, Hafezi F, Reme C: Protective effect of halothane anesthesia on retinal light damage: inhibition of metabolic rhodopsin regeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001 Feb;42(2):476-80. Pubmed

9. G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 P48051 Details

References:

  1. Milovic S, Steinecker-Frohnwieser B, Schreibmayer W, Weigl LG: The sensitivity of G protein-activated K+ channels toward halothane is essentially determined by the C terminus. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 13;279(33):34240-9. Epub 2004 Jun 2. Pubmed
  2. Hara K, Yamakura T, Sata T, Harris RA: The effects of anesthetics and ethanol on alpha2 adrenoceptor subtypes expressed with G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels in Xenopus oocytes. Anesth Analg. 2005 Nov;101(5):1381-8. Pubmed

10. G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 1 P48549 Details

References:

  1. Weigl LG, Schreibmayer W: G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels are targets for volatile anesthetics. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Aug;60(2):282-9. Pubmed
  2. Yamakura T, Lewohl JM, Harris RA: Differential effects of general anesthetics on G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying and other potassium channels. Anesthesiology. 2001 Jul;95(1):144-53. Pubmed
  3. Milovic S, Steinecker-Frohnwieser B, Schreibmayer W, Weigl LG: The sensitivity of G protein-activated K+ channels toward halothane is essentially determined by the C terminus. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 13;279(33):34240-9. Epub 2004 Jun 2. Pubmed

11. NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1 P03886 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Hanley PJ, Ray J, Brandt U, Daut J: Halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane inhibit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of cardiac mitochondria. J Physiol. 2002 Nov 1;544(Pt 3):687-93. Pubmed

12. Intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 4 O15554 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Namba T, Ishii TM, Ikeda M, Hisano T, Itoh T, Hirota K, Adelman JP, Fukuda K: Inhibition of the human intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, hIK1, by volatile anesthetics. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Apr 28;395(2):95-101. Pubmed

13. ATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: other/unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
ATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrial P30049 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

14. Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: other/unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1 P98194 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

15. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: other/unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1 P14867 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

16. Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: other/unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2 P59768 Details

References:

  1. Ishizawa Y, Sharp R, Liebman PA, Eckenhoff RG: Halothane binding to a G protein coupled receptor in retinal membranes by photoaffinity labeling. Biochemistry. 2000 Jul 25;39(29):8497-502. Pubmed
  2. Zang WJ, Yu XJ, Zang YM: [Effect of halothane on the muscarinic potassium current of the heart] Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2000 Apr;52(2):175-8. Pubmed
  3. Yoshimura H, Jones KA, Perkins WJ, Warner DOh4. : Dual effects of hexanol and halothane on the regulation of calcium sensitivity in airway smooth muscle. Anesthesiology. 2003 Apr;98(4):871-80. Pubmed
  4. Streiff J, Jones K, Perkins WJ, Warner DO, Jones KA: Effect of halothane on the guanosine 5’ triphosphate binding activity of G-protein alphai subunits. Anesthesiology. 2003 Jul;99(1):105-11. Pubmed
  5. Milovic S, Steinecker-Frohnwieser B, Schreibmayer W, Weigl LG: The sensitivity of G protein-activated K+ channels toward halothane is essentially determined by the C terminus. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 13;279(33):34240-9. Epub 2004 Jun 2. Pubmed

17. Neuropeptide S receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: other/unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuropeptide S receptor Q6W5P4 Details

References:

  1. Ishizawa Y, Sharp R, Liebman PA, Eckenhoff RG: Halothane binding to a G protein coupled receptor in retinal membranes by photoaffinity labeling. Biochemistry. 2000 Jul 25;39(29):8497-502. Pubmed
  2. Ishizawa Y, Pidikiti R, Liebman PA, Eckenhoff RG: G protein-coupled receptors as direct targets of inhaled anesthetics. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 May;61(5):945-52. Pubmed
  3. Streiff J, Jones K, Perkins WJ, Warner DO, Jones KA: Effect of halothane on the guanosine 5’ triphosphate binding activity of G-protein alphai subunits. Anesthesiology. 2003 Jul;99(1):105-11. Pubmed

18. GABA-A receptor (anion channel)

Kind: protein group

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: positive allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1 P14867 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2 P47869 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3 P34903 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 P48169 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5 P31644 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6 Q16445 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1 P18505 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2 P47870 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3 P28472 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta O14764 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon P78334 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1 Q8N1C3 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2 P18507 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3 Q99928 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi O00591 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta Q9UN88 Details

References:

  1. ChEMBL Compound Report Card (Accessed December 2013)

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2E1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2E1 P05181 Details

References:

  1. Restrepo JG, Garcia-Martin E, Martinez C, Agundez JA: Polymorphic drug metabolism in anaesthesia. Curr Drug Metab. 2009 Mar;10(3):236-46. Pubmed
  2. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  4. Spracklin DK, Hankins DC, Fisher JM, Thummel KE, Kharasch ED: Cytochrome P450 2E1 is the principal catalyst of human oxidative halothane metabolism in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Apr;281(1):400-11. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Restrepo JG, Garcia-Martin E, Martinez C, Agundez JA: Polymorphic drug metabolism in anaesthesia. Curr Drug Metab. 2009 Mar;10(3):236-46. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 2A6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2A6 P11509 Details

References:

  1. Restrepo JG, Garcia-Martin E, Martinez C, Agundez JA: Polymorphic drug metabolism in anaesthesia. Curr Drug Metab. 2009 Mar;10(3):236-46. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

4. Cytochrome P450 2B6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

5. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

6. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Carriers

1. Serum albumin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serum albumin P02768 Details

References:

  1. Sawas AH, Pentyala SN, Rebecchi MJ: Binding of volatile anesthetics to serum albumin: measurements of enthalpy and solvent contributions. Biochemistry. 2004 Oct 5;43(39):12675-85. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 25, 2014 17:11