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Identification
NameHalothane
Accession NumberDB01159  (APRD00598, EXPT01754, DB02330)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Vet Approved
Description

A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. nitrous oxide is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1-Bromo-1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane
1,1,1-Trifluoro-2-bromo-2-chloroethane
1,1,1-Trifluoro-2-chloro-2-bromoethane
2-Bromo-2-Chloro-1,1,1-Trifluoroethane
2,2,2-Trifluoro-1-chloro-1-bromoethane
Bromochlorotrifluoroethane
Fluothane
Ftorotan
Halotano
Halothane
Halothanum
Narcotane
Phthorothanum
Rhodialothan
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Fluothane AnestheticliquidinhalationAyerst Laboratories1958-12-311996-09-10Canada
Fluothane Liq Inh 1000mg/gmliquid1 ginhalationWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.1994-12-311997-08-14Canada
Halothanesolution99.99 %inhalationBimeda Mtc Animal Health Inc1975-12-31Not applicableCanada
Halothane Liq 99.9%liquid99.9 %inhalationHalocarbon Laboratories, A Division Of Halocarbon Products Corp.1971-12-312010-06-14Canada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
FluothaneAyerst
HalotanJugoremedija
NarcotanZentiva
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
CategoriesNot Available
UNIIUQT9G45D1P
CAS number151-67-7
WeightAverage: 197.382
Monoisotopic: 195.890225001
Chemical FormulaC2HBrClF3
InChI KeyInChIKey=BCQZXOMGPXTTIC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C2HBrClF3/c3-1(4)2(5,6)7/h1H
IUPAC Name
2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane
SMILES
FC(F)(F)C(Cl)Br
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organofluorides. These are compounds containing a chemical bond between a carbon atom and a fluorine atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganohalogen compounds
ClassOrganofluorides
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentOrganofluorides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organofluoride
  • Organochloride
  • Organobromide
  • Alkyl halide
  • Alkyl fluoride
  • Alkyl chloride
  • Alkyl bromide
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia
PharmacodynamicsHalothane is a general inhalation anesthetic used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. It reduces the blood pressure and frequently decreases the pulse rate and depresses respiration. It induces muscle relaxation and reduces pains sensitivity by altering tissue excitability. It does so by decreasing the extent of gap junction mediated cell-cell coupling and altering the activity of the channels that underlie the action potential.
Mechanism of actionHalothane causes general anaethesia due to its actions on multiple ion channels, which ultimately depresses nerve conduction, breathing, cardiac contractility. Its immobilizing effects have been attributed to its binding to potassium channels in cholinergic neurons. Halothane's effect are also likely due to binding to NMDA and calcium channels, causing hyperpolarization.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Halothane is metabolized in the liver, primarily by CYP2E1, and to a lesser extent by CYP3A4 and CYP2A6.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Halothane
bromideDetails
Halothane
trifluoroacetic acidDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityToxic effects of halothane include malignant hyperthermia and hepatitis.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9895
Caco-2 permeable+0.6141
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.9007
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9628
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.945
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9183
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8374
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8031
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7086
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.6027
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7607
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.943
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6841
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9545
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8808
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.711
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9741
Rat acute toxicity1.7199 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9686
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9034
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Liquidinhalation
Liquidinhalation1 g
Solutioninhalation99.99 %
Liquidinhalation99.9 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Halothane liquid0.24USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point50-50.5U.S. Patents 2,849,502, 2,921,098, 2,959,624, 3,082,263.
boiling point50.2 °CPhysProp
water solubility4070 mg/L (at 25 °C)HORVATH,AL ET AL. (1999)
logP2.30HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-1.71ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.81 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.5ALOGPS
logP2.12ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity24.63 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (8.57 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-014j-2900000000-e961932e23eafc2cc0a5View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

U.S. Patents 2,849,502, 2,921,098, 2,959,624, 3,082,263.

General References
  1. Bovill JG: Inhalation anaesthesia: from diethyl ether to xenon. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2008;(182):121-42. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-74806-9_6. [PubMed:18175089 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN01AB01
AHFS Codes
  • 28:04.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (55.2 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Fosphenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Halothane.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Halothane.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
binder
General Function:
S100 protein binding
Specific Function:
pH-dependent, voltage-insensitive, background potassium channel protein. Rectification direction results from potassium ion concentration on either side of the membrane. Acts as an outward rectifier when external potassium concentration is low. When external potassium concentration is high, current is inward.
Gene Name:
KCNK3
Uniprot ID:
O14649
Molecular Weight:
43517.665 Da
References
  1. Lazarenko RM, Willcox SC, Shu S, Berg AP, Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Talley EM, Chen X, Bayliss DA: Motoneuronal TASK channels contribute to immobilizing effects of inhalational general anesthetics. J Neurosci. 2010 Jun 2;30(22):7691-704. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1655-10.2010. [PubMed:20519544 ]
  2. Pandit JJ, Buckler KJ: Halothane and sevoflurane exert different degrees of inhibition on carotid body glomus cell intracellular Ca2+ response to hypoxia. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;669:201-4. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-5692-7_40. [PubMed:20217349 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
binder
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
pH-dependent, voltage-insensitive, background potassium channel protein.
Gene Name:
KCNK9
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPC2
Molecular Weight:
42263.485 Da
References
  1. Lazarenko RM, Willcox SC, Shu S, Berg AP, Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Talley EM, Chen X, Bayliss DA: Motoneuronal TASK channels contribute to immobilizing effects of inhalational general anesthetics. J Neurosci. 2010 Jun 2;30(22):7691-704. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1655-10.2010. [PubMed:20519544 ]
  2. Pandit JJ, Buckler KJ: Halothane and sevoflurane exert different degrees of inhibition on carotid body glomus cell intracellular Ca2+ response to hypoxia. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;669:201-4. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-5692-7_40. [PubMed:20217349 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Potassium channel activated by both membrane depolarization or increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) that mediates export of K(+). It is also activated by the concentration of cytosolic Mg(2+). Its activation dampens the excitatory events that elevate the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and/or depolarize the cell membrane. It therefore contributes to repolarization of the membrane potential. Plays a key ...
Gene Name:
KCNMA1
Uniprot ID:
Q12791
Molecular Weight:
137558.115 Da
References
  1. Namba T, Ishii TM, Ikeda M, Hisano T, Itoh T, Hirota K, Adelman JP, Fukuda K: Inhibition of the human intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, hIK1, by volatile anesthetics. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Apr 28;395(2):95-101. [PubMed:10794813 ]
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May play a role in the development of dendritic spines. May play a role in PPP2CB-NMDAR mediated signaling mechanism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCU5
Molecular Weight:
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Perouansky M, Kirson ED, Yaari Y: Halothane blocks synaptic excitation of inhibitory interneurons. Anesthesiology. 1996 Dec;85(6):1431-8; discussion 29A. [PubMed:8968191 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Nmda glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.
Gene Name:
GRIN3B
Uniprot ID:
O60391
Molecular Weight:
112990.98 Da
References
  1. Perouansky M, Kirson ED, Yaari Y: Halothane blocks synaptic excitation of inhibitory interneurons. Anesthesiology. 1996 Dec;85(6):1431-8; discussion 29A. [PubMed:8968191 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels possesses high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Activation requires binding of agonist to both types of subunits.
Gene Name:
GRIN2A
Uniprot ID:
Q12879
Molecular Weight:
165281.215 Da
References
  1. Perouansky M, Kirson ED, Yaari Y: Halothane blocks synaptic excitation of inhibitory interneurons. Anesthesiology. 1996 Dec;85(6):1431-8; discussion 29A. [PubMed:8968191 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
allosteric modulator
General Function:
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name:
GLRA1
Uniprot ID:
P23415
Molecular Weight:
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Schofield CM, Trudell JR, Harrison NL: Alanine-scanning mutagenesis in the signature disulfide loop of the glycine receptor alpha 1 subunit: critical residues for activation and modulation. Biochemistry. 2004 Aug 10;43(31):10058-63. [PubMed:15287733 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other
General Function:
Photoreceptor activity
Specific Function:
Photoreceptor required for image-forming vision at low light intensity. Required for photoreceptor cell viability after birth. Light-induced isomerization of 11-cis to all-trans retinal triggers a conformational change leading to G-protein activation and release of all-trans retinal.
Gene Name:
RHO
Uniprot ID:
P08100
Molecular Weight:
38892.335 Da
References
  1. Ishizawa Y, Sharp R, Liebman PA, Eckenhoff RG: Halothane binding to a G protein coupled receptor in retinal membranes by photoaffinity labeling. Biochemistry. 2000 Jul 25;39(29):8497-502. [PubMed:10913255 ]
  2. Keller C, Grimm C, Wenzel A, Hafezi F, Reme C: Protective effect of halothane anesthesia on retinal light damage: inhibition of metabolic rhodopsin regeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001 Feb;42(2):476-80. [PubMed:11157886 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This potassium channel may be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion by glucose and/or neurotransmitters acting through G-protein-coupled receptors. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external ...
Gene Name:
KCNJ6
Uniprot ID:
P48051
Molecular Weight:
48450.96 Da
References
  1. Milovic S, Steinecker-Frohnwieser B, Schreibmayer W, Weigl LG: The sensitivity of G protein-activated K+ channels toward halothane is essentially determined by the C terminus. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 13;279(33):34240-9. Epub 2004 Jun 2. [PubMed:15175324 ]
  2. Hara K, Yamakura T, Sata T, Harris RA: The effects of anesthetics and ethanol on alpha2 adrenoceptor subtypes expressed with G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels in Xenopus oocytes. Anesth Analg. 2005 Nov;101(5):1381-8. [PubMed:16243998 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
G-protein activated inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This potassium channel is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward...
Gene Name:
KCNJ3
Uniprot ID:
P48549
Molecular Weight:
56602.84 Da
References
  1. Weigl LG, Schreibmayer W: G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels are targets for volatile anesthetics. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Aug;60(2):282-9. [PubMed:11455015 ]
  2. Yamakura T, Lewohl JM, Harris RA: Differential effects of general anesthetics on G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying and other potassium channels. Anesthesiology. 2001 Jul;95(1):144-53. [PubMed:11465552 ]
  3. Milovic S, Steinecker-Frohnwieser B, Schreibmayer W, Weigl LG: The sensitivity of G protein-activated K+ channels toward halothane is essentially determined by the C terminus. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 13;279(33):34240-9. Epub 2004 Jun 2. [PubMed:15175324 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND1
Uniprot ID:
P03886
Molecular Weight:
35660.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Hanley PJ, Ray J, Brandt U, Daut J: Halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane inhibit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of cardiac mitochondria. J Physiol. 2002 Nov 1;544(Pt 3):687-93. [PubMed:12411515 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Protein phosphatase binding
Specific Function:
Forms a voltage-independent potassium channel that is activated by intracellular calcium (PubMed:26148990). Activation is followed by membrane hyperpolarization which promotes calcium influx. Required for maximal calcium influx and proliferation during the reactivation of naive T-cells. The channel is blocked by clotrimazole and charybdotoxin but is insensitive to apamin (PubMed:17157250, PubMe...
Gene Name:
KCNN4
Uniprot ID:
O15554
Molecular Weight:
47695.12 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Namba T, Ishii TM, Ikeda M, Hisano T, Itoh T, Hirota K, Adelman JP, Fukuda K: Inhibition of the human intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, hIK1, by volatile anesthetics. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Apr 28;395(2):95-101. [PubMed:10794813 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F(1) - containing the extramembraneous catalytic core, and F(0) - containing the membrane proton channel, linked toget...
Gene Name:
ATP5D
Uniprot ID:
P30049
Molecular Weight:
17489.755 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular Weight:
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By si...
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GNG2
Uniprot ID:
P59768
Molecular Weight:
7850.03 Da
References
  1. Ishizawa Y, Sharp R, Liebman PA, Eckenhoff RG: Halothane binding to a G protein coupled receptor in retinal membranes by photoaffinity labeling. Biochemistry. 2000 Jul 25;39(29):8497-502. [PubMed:10913255 ]
  2. Zang WJ, Yu XJ, Zang YM: [Effect of halothane on the muscarinic potassium current of the heart]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2000 Apr;52(2):175-8. [PubMed:11961592 ]
  3. Yoshimura H, Jones KA, Perkins WJ, Warner DO: Dual effects of hexanol and halothane on the regulation of calcium sensitivity in airway smooth muscle. Anesthesiology. 2003 Apr;98(4):871-80. [PubMed:12657848 ]
  4. Streiff J, Jones K, Perkins WJ, Warner DO, Jones KA: Effect of halothane on the guanosine 5' triphosphate binding activity of G-protein alphai subunits. Anesthesiology. 2003 Jul;99(1):105-11. [PubMed:12826849 ]
  5. Milovic S, Steinecker-Frohnwieser B, Schreibmayer W, Weigl LG: The sensitivity of G protein-activated K+ channels toward halothane is essentially determined by the C terminus. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 13;279(33):34240-9. Epub 2004 Jun 2. [PubMed:15175324 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Vasopressin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for neuropeptide S (NPS) (PubMed:16790440). Promotes mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) stores (PubMed:16790440). Inhibits cell growth in response to NPS binding (PubMed:15947423). Involved in pathogenesis of asthma and other IgE-mediated diseases.
Gene Name:
NPSR1
Uniprot ID:
Q6W5P4
Molecular Weight:
42686.28 Da
References
  1. Ishizawa Y, Sharp R, Liebman PA, Eckenhoff RG: Halothane binding to a G protein coupled receptor in retinal membranes by photoaffinity labeling. Biochemistry. 2000 Jul 25;39(29):8497-502. [PubMed:10913255 ]
  2. Ishizawa Y, Pidikiti R, Liebman PA, Eckenhoff RG: G protein-coupled receptors as direct targets of inhaled anesthetics. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 May;61(5):945-52. [PubMed:11961111 ]
  3. Streiff J, Jones K, Perkins WJ, Warner DO, Jones KA: Effect of halothane on the guanosine 5' triphosphate binding activity of G-protein alphai subunits. Anesthesiology. 2003 Jul;99(1):105-11. [PubMed:12826849 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
positive allosteric modulator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1P14867 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2P47869 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3P34903 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4P48169 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5P31644 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6Q16445 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1P18505 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2P47870 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3P28472 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltaO14764 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilonP78334 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1Q8N1C3 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2P18507 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3Q99928 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit piO00591 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetaQ9UN88 Details
References
  1. ChEMBL Compound Report Card [Link]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Restrepo JG, Garcia-Martin E, Martinez C, Agundez JA: Polymorphic drug metabolism in anaesthesia. Curr Drug Metab. 2009 Mar;10(3):236-46. [PubMed:19442086 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  3. Spracklin DK, Hankins DC, Fisher JM, Thummel KE, Kharasch ED: Cytochrome P450 2E1 is the principal catalyst of human oxidative halothane metabolism in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Apr;281(1):400-11. [PubMed:9103523 ]
  4. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Restrepo JG, Garcia-Martin E, Martinez C, Agundez JA: Polymorphic drug metabolism in anaesthesia. Curr Drug Metab. 2009 Mar;10(3):236-46. [PubMed:19442086 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular Weight:
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Restrepo JG, Garcia-Martin E, Martinez C, Agundez JA: Polymorphic drug metabolism in anaesthesia. Curr Drug Metab. 2009 Mar;10(3):236-46. [PubMed:19442086 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Sawas AH, Pentyala SN, Rebecchi MJ: Binding of volatile anesthetics to serum albumin: measurements of enthalpy and solvent contributions. Biochemistry. 2004 Oct 5;43(39):12675-85. [PubMed:15449957 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23