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Identification
NameSevoflurane
Accession NumberDB01236  (APRD00219)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Vet Approved
Description

Sevoflurane (2,2,2-trifluoro-1-[trifluoromethyl]ethyl fluoromethyl ether), also called fluoromethyl, is a sweet-smelling, non-flammable, highly fluorinated methyl isopropyl ether used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. Together with desflurane, it is replacing isoflurane and halothane in modern anesthesiology. [Wikipedia]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-(fluoromethoxy)propane
Sevofluran
Sevoflurane
Sevoflurano
Sevofluranum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Sevofluraneliquid99.97 %inhalationBaxter Corporation2007-04-11Not applicableCanada
Sevorane AFliquid99.97 %inhalationAbbvie Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Sojourn Sevofluraneliquid99.97 %inhalationPiramal Critical Care Inc2009-11-18Not applicableCanada
Ultaneliquid250 mL/250mLrespiratory (inhalation)Abb Vie Inc.1995-06-07Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Sevofluraneliquid250 mL/250mLrespiratory (inhalation)Baxter Healthcare Corporation2011-10-18Not applicableUs
Sevofluraneliquid250 mL/250mLrespiratory (inhalation)Sandoz Inc.2015-11-03Not applicableUs
Sevofluraneliquid1 mL/mLrespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2011-07-15Not applicableUs
Sevofluraneliquid250 mL/250mLrespiratory (inhalation)Baxter Healthcare Corporation2002-07-07Not applicableUs
Sojournliquid1 mL/mLrespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2010-04-13Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
SevoraneNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII38LVP0K73A
CAS number28523-86-6
WeightAverage: 200.0548
Monoisotopic: 200.007212153
Chemical FormulaC4H3F7O
InChI KeyInChIKey=DFEYYRMXOJXZRJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H3F7O/c5-1-12-2(3(6,7)8)4(9,10)11/h2H,1H2
IUPAC Name
1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(fluoromethoxy)propane
SMILES
FCOC(C(F)(F)F)C(F)(F)F
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dialkyl ethers. These are organic compounds containing the dialkyl ether functional group, with the formula ROR', where R and R' are alkyl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
ClassEthers
Sub ClassDialkyl ethers
Direct ParentDialkyl ethers
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Halomethane
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organofluoride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Alkyl halide
  • Alkyl fluoride
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in adult and pediatric patients for inpatient and outpatient surgery.
PharmacodynamicsSevoflurane (also called fluoromethyl) is a halogenated ether used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. Together with desflurane, it is replacing isoflurane and halothane in modern anesthesiology. It is often administered in nitrous oxide and pure oxygen. After desflurane it is the volatile anesthetic with the fastest onset and offset. It induces muscle relaxation and reduces pains sensitivity by altering tissue excitability. It does so by decreasing the extent of gap junction mediated cell-cell coupling and altering the activity of the channels that underlie the action potential.
Mechanism of actionSevoflurane induces a reduction in junctional conductance by decreasing gap junction channel opening times and increasing gap junction channel closing times. Sevoflurane also activates calcium dependent ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum by increasing the fluidity of the lipid membrane. It also appears to bind the D subunit of ATP synthase and NADH dehydogenase and also binds to the GABA receptor, the large conductance Ca2+ activated potassium channel, the glutamate receptor, and the glycine receptor.
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapidly absorbed into circulation via the lungs, however solubility in the blood is low.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Relatively little biotransformation, only 5% is metabolized by cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 to hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) with release of inorganic fluoride and CO2. No other metabolic pathways have been identified for sevoflurane.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Sevoflurane
Not Available
FluorideDetails
Sevoflurane
Not Available
Carbon dioxideDetails
Sevoflurane
Not Available
HexafluoroisopropanolDetails
Route of eliminationThe low solubility of sevoflurane facilitates rapid elimination via the lungs. In vivo metabolism studies suggest that approximately 5% of the sevoflurane dose may be metabolized. Up to 3.5% of the sevoflurane dose appears in the urine as inorganic fluoride.
Half life15-23 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityLC50=49881 ppm/hr (rat), LD50=10.8 g/kg (rat)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9963
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9941
Caco-2 permeable+0.6134
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8839
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8807
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.5436
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8649
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.9039
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6876
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.5254
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7941
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9114
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.5569
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9148
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7006
Ames testAMES toxic0.5082
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.7014
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8564
Rat acute toxicity1.3361 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9485
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8685
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Liquidinhalation99.97 %
Liquidrespiratory (inhalation)1 mL/mL
Liquidrespiratory (inhalation)250 mL/250mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ultane 250 ml pen bottle1.16USD ml
Sojourn inhalation liquid0.99USD ml
Sevoflurane inhalation liquid0.89USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5990176 Yes1997-07-272017-07-27Us
US6074668 Yes1998-07-092018-07-09Us
US6288127 Yes1997-07-272017-07-27Us
US6444859 Yes1997-07-272017-07-27Us
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point< 25 °CPhysProp
boiling point58.5 °CPhysProp
water solubilityVery slightly solubleNot Available
logP2.4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.48 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.44ALOGPS
logP2.27ChemAxon
logS-2.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.07ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area9.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity23.3 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.83 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Ross C. Terrell, “Method for the preparation of sevoflurane.” U.S. Patent US5969193, issued December, 1979.

US5969193
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesN01AB08
AHFS Codes
  • 28:04.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (188 KB)
MSDSDownload (49.5 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
Atracurium besylateSevoflurane may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.
AzelastineSevoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Sevoflurane.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sevoflurane.
BuprenorphineSevoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.
CitalopramSevoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Citalopram.
DisulfiramThe metabolism of Sevoflurane can be decreased when combined with Disulfiram.
DofetilideSevoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dofetilide.
DopamineSevoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Dopamine.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sevoflurane.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sevoflurane.
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sevoflurane.
EphedraEphedra may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Sevoflurane.
EphedrineEphedrine may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Sevoflurane.
EpinephrineSevoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Epinephrine.
EthanolSevoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
FormoterolSevoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Formoterol.
GoserelinSevoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Goserelin.
HydrocodoneSevoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sevoflurane.
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Sevoflurane can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.
IsoprenalineSevoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Isoprenaline.
LeuprolideSevoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Leuprolide.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Sevoflurane.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sevoflurane.
MethotrimeprazineSevoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.
MethylphenidateMethylphenidate may increase the hypertensive activities of Sevoflurane.
MetyrosineSevoflurane may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Sevoflurane.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sevoflurane.
MirtazapineSevoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sevoflurane.
NorepinephrineSevoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Norepinephrine.
OrphenadrineSevoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
ParaldehydeSevoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Paroxetine.
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sevoflurane.
PramipexoleSevoflurane may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
RopiniroleSevoflurane may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RotigotineSevoflurane may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Sevoflurane.
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sevoflurane.
SuvorexantSevoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sevoflurane.
ThalidomideSevoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
ZolpidemSevoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By si...
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name:
GLRA1
Uniprot ID:
P23415
Molecular Weight:
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inacti...
Gene Name:
GRIA1
Uniprot ID:
P42261
Molecular Weight:
101505.245 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel that mediates transmembrane potassium transport in excitable membranes, primarily in the brain and the central nervous system, but also in the kidney (PubMed:19903818). Contributes to the regulation of the membrane potential and nerve signaling, and prevents neuronal hyperexcitability (PubMed:17156368). Forms tetrameric potassium-selective channels through which ...
Gene Name:
KCNA1
Uniprot ID:
Q09470
Molecular Weight:
56465.01 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular Weight:
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F(1) - containing the extramembraneous catalytic core, and F(0) - containing the membrane proton channel, linked toget...
Gene Name:
ATP5D
Uniprot ID:
P30049
Molecular Weight:
17489.755 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND1
Uniprot ID:
P03886
Molecular Weight:
35660.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
positive allosteric modulator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1P14867 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2P47869 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3P34903 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4P48169 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5P31644 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6Q16445 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1P18505 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2P47870 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3P28472 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltaO14764 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilonP78334 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1Q8N1C3 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2P18507 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3Q99928 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit piO00591 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetaQ9UN88 Details
References
  1. ChEMBL Compound Report Card [Link]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular Weight:
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Sawas AH, Pentyala SN, Rebecchi MJ: Binding of volatile anesthetics to serum albumin: measurements of enthalpy and solvent contributions. Biochemistry. 2004 Oct 5;43(39):12675-85. [PubMed:15449957 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on June 24, 2016 03:04