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Identification
NameHexobarbital
Accession NumberDB01355  (EXPT03301)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A barbiturate that is effective as a hypnotic and sedative. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
5-(1-Cyclohexen-1-yl)-1,5-dimethyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione
5-(1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-1,5-dimethylbarbituric acid
5-Cyclohex-1-enyl-1,5-dimethyl-pyrimidine-2,4,6-trione
Evipan
Hexobarbital
Hexobarbitone
Methexenyl
Methylhexabital
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
EvipalNot Available
EvipanNot Available
TobinalNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Hexobarbital sodium
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT000914
Categories
UNIIAL8Z8K3P6S
CAS number56-29-1
WeightAverage: 236.267
Monoisotopic: 236.116092388
Chemical FormulaC12H16N2O3
InChI KeyInChIKey=UYXAWHWODHRRMR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H16N2O3/c1-12(8-6-4-3-5-7-8)9(15)13-11(17)14(2)10(12)16/h6H,3-5,7H2,1-2H3,(H,13,15,17)
IUPAC Name
5-(cyclohex-1-en-1-yl)-1,5-dimethyl-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione
SMILES
CN1C(=O)NC(=O)C(C)(C1=O)C1=CCCCC1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as barbituric acid derivatives. These are compounds containing a perhydropyrimidine ring substituted at C-2, -4 and -6 by oxo groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazines
Sub ClassPyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct ParentBarbituric acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Barbiturate
  • Ureide
  • 1,3-diazinane
  • Urea
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful stimuli.
PharmacodynamicsHexobarbital is a barbiturate derivative having hypnotic and sedative effects. It was used in the 1940s-1950s as an agent for inducing anesthesia for surgery and has a relatively fast onset of effects and short duration of action. However it can be difficult to control the depth of anesthesia with hexobarbital which makes it quite dangerous, and it has now been replaced by safer drugs in human medicine, usually thiopental would be the barbiturate of choice for this application these days.
Mechanism of actionHexobarbital binds at a distinct binding site associated with a Cl- ionopore at the GABA-A receptor, increasing the duration of time for which the Cl- ionopore is open. The post-synaptic inhibitory effect of GABA in the thalamus is, therefore, prolonged.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding25%
Metabolism

Hepatic.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Hexobarbital
3'-HydroxyhexobarbitalDetails
Hexobarbital
Epoxy-hexobarbitalDetails
3'-Hydroxyhexobarbital
Not Available
3'-OxohexobarbitalDetails
3'-Oxohexobarbital
Not Available
Hexobarbital glutathione conjugate derivativeDetails
Epoxy-hexobarbital
Not Available
Hexobarbital dihydrodiol derivativeDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySymptoms of an overdose typically include sluggishness, incoordination, difficulty in thinking, slowness of speech, faulty judgment, drowsiness or coma, shallow breathing, staggering, and in severe cases coma and death.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9793
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9649
Caco-2 permeable+0.519
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5562
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.7705
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8379
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7687
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7622
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.894
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.543
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7994
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.5316
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9369
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6349
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9571
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8803
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7061
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8753
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9143
Rat acute toxicity2.5050 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9348
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8502
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point146.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility435 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP1.98SANGSTER (1994)
logS-2.74ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.2SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.51 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.8ALOGPS
logP1.25ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.41ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.48 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity61.95 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability24.14 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (9.16 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-05cu-9310000000-eeec363075c613d35696View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Takenoshita R, Toki S: [New aspects of hexobarbital metabolism: stereoselective metabolism, new metabolic pathway via GSH conjugation, and 3-hydroxyhexobarbital dehydrogenases]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2004 Dec;124(12):857-71. [PubMed:15577260 ]
  2. Wahlstrom G: A study of the duration of acute tolerance induced with hexobarbital in male rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1998 Apr;59(4):945-8. [PubMed:9586853 ]
  3. Korkmaz S, Ljungblad E, Wahlstrom G: Interaction between flumazenil and the anesthetic effects of hexobarbital in the rat. Brain Res. 1995 Apr 10;676(2):371-7. [PubMed:7614008 ]
  4. Dall V, Orntoft U, Schmidt A, Nordholm L: Interaction of the competitive AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX with hexobarbital. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1993 Sep;46(1):73-6. [PubMed:8255925 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN01AF02N05CA16
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcebutololThe serum concentration of Acebutolol can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
AcenocoumarolThe metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Acetaminophen can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
AcetazolamideHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Acetazolamide.
AldesleukinHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Aldesleukin.
AliskirenHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Aliskiren.
AmilorideHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Amiloride.
AminophyllineThe serum concentration of Aminophylline can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
AmitriptylineThe metabolism of Amitriptyline can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
AmlodipineThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
AmoxapineThe metabolism of Amoxapine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
Amyl NitriteHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Amyl Nitrite.
ApraclonidineHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apraclonidine.
AtenololHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Atenolol.
Azilsartan medoxomilHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Azilsartan medoxomil.
BenazeprilHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Benazepril.
BendroflumethiazideHexobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Bendroflumethiazide.
BetaxololThe serum concentration of Betaxolol can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
BisoprololThe serum concentration of Bisoprolol can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
BretyliumHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Bretylium.
BrimonidineHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Brimonidine.
BumetanideHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Bumetanide.
ButalbitalThe metabolism of Butalbital can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
CaffeineThe metabolism of Caffeine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
CanagliflozinHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Canagliflozin.
CandesartanHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Candesartan.
CaptoprilHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Captopril.
CarteololThe serum concentration of Carteolol can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
CarvedilolThe serum concentration of Carvedilol can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
ChloramphenicolThe metabolism of Hexobarbital can be decreased when combined with Chloramphenicol.
ChlorothiazideHexobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Chlorothiazide.
ChlorthalidoneHexobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Chlorthalidone.
CilazaprilHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Cilazapril.
ClevidipineHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Clevidipine.
ClomipramineThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
ClonidineHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Clonidine.
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Cyclosporine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
DapagliflozinHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Dapagliflozin.
DesipramineThe metabolism of Desipramine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
DesogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Desogestrel can be decreased when used in combination with Hexobarbital.
DexmedetomidineHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Dexmedetomidine.
DiclofenamideHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Diclofenamide.
DienogestThe therapeutic efficacy of Dienogest can be decreased when used in combination with Hexobarbital.
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Diltiazem can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
DinutuximabHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Dinutuximab.
DipyridamoleHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Dipyridamole.
DoxazosinHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Doxazosin.
DoxepinThe metabolism of Doxepin can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
DoxycyclineThe serum concentration of Doxycycline can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
DrospirenoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Drospirenone can be decreased when used in combination with Hexobarbital.
EmpagliflozinHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Empagliflozin.
EnalaprilHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalapril.
EnalaprilatHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalaprilat.
EplerenoneHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Eplerenone.
EprosartanHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Eprosartan.
EsmololThe serum concentration of Esmolol can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Hexobarbital.
Etacrynic acidHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Ethacrynic acid.
Ethinyl EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when used in combination with Hexobarbital.
Ethynodiol diacetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethynodiol can be decreased when used in combination with Hexobarbital.
EtonogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Etonogestrel can be decreased when used in combination with Hexobarbital.
FelbamateThe serum concentration of Hexobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Felbamate.
FelodipineThe metabolism of Felodipine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
FosinoprilHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Fosinopril.
FurosemideHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Furosemide.
GriseofulvinThe serum concentration of Griseofulvin can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
GuanfacineHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanfacine.
HydralazineHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydralazine.
HydrochlorothiazideHexobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hexobarbital.
ImipramineThe metabolism of Imipramine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
IndapamideHexobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Indapamide.
IrbesartanHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Irbesartan.
IsomethepteneThe metabolism of Isometheptene can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
IsosorbideHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Isosorbide.
Isosorbide DinitrateHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Isosorbide Dinitrate.
Isosorbide MononitrateHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Isosorbide Mononitrate.
IsoxsuprineHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Isoxsuprine.
IsradipineThe metabolism of Isradipine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
LabetalolThe serum concentration of Labetalol can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Lamotrigine can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
LevobunololHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
LevonorgestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Levonorgestrel can be decreased when used in combination with Hexobarbital.
LisinoprilHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Lisinopril.
LosartanHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Losartan.
MannitolHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Mannitol.
MecamylamineHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Mecamylamine.
Medroxyprogesterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate can be decreased when used in combination with Hexobarbital.
MestranolThe therapeutic efficacy of Mestranol can be decreased when used in combination with Hexobarbital.
MetforminHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Metformin.
MethazolamideHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Methazolamide.
MethyclothiazideHexobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Methyclothiazide.
MethyldopaHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Methyldopa.
MetipranololHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Metipranolol.
MetolazoneHexobarbital may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Metolazone.
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
MinoxidilHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.
MoexiprilHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Moexipril.
NadololHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nadolol.
NebivololThe serum concentration of Nebivolol can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
NesiritideHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nesiritide.
NicardipineThe metabolism of Nicardipine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
NifedipineThe metabolism of Nifedipine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
NimodipineThe metabolism of Nimodipine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
NisoldipineThe metabolism of Nisoldipine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
NitroglycerinHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroglycerin.
NitroprussideHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroprusside.
NorethisteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Norethindrone can be decreased when used in combination with Hexobarbital.
NorgestimateThe therapeutic efficacy of Norgestimate can be decreased when used in combination with Hexobarbital.
NortriptylineThe metabolism of Nortriptyline can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
OlmesartanHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Olmesartan.
PapaverineHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Papaverine.
PenbutololThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
PerindoprilHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.
PethidineHexobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Pethidine.
PindololThe serum concentration of Pindolol can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
PrazosinHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Prazosin.
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Primidone is combined with Hexobarbital.
PropranololThe serum concentration of Propranolol can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
ProtriptylineThe metabolism of Protriptyline can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
PyridoxineThe metabolism of Hexobarbital can be increased when combined with Pyridoxine.
QuetiapineHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Quetiapine.
QuinaprilHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Quinapril.
RamiprilHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Ramipril.
ReserpineHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Reserpine.
RifabutinThe metabolism of Hexobarbital can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.
RifampicinThe metabolism of Hexobarbital can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
RifapentineThe metabolism of Hexobarbital can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.
RiociguatHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Riociguat.
SotalolThe serum concentration of Sotalol can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
SpironolactoneHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Spironolactone.
TelmisartanHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Telmisartan.
TeniposideThe serum concentration of Teniposide can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
TerazosinHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Terazosin.
TheophyllineThe serum concentration of Theophylline can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
TimololThe serum concentration of Timolol can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
TizanidineHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Tizanidine.
TorasemideHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Torasemide.
TrandolaprilHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Trandolapril.
TriamtereneHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Triamterene.
TrimipramineThe metabolism of Trimipramine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
UlipristalThe serum concentration of Ulipristal can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
Valproic AcidThe serum concentration of Hexobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
ValsartanHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Valsartan.
VerapamilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
VoriconazoleThe serum concentration of Voriconazole can be decreased when it is combined with Hexobarbital.
WarfarinThe metabolism of Warfarin can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By si...
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Whiting PJ: The GABAA receptor gene family: new opportunities for drug development. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2003 Sep;6(5):648-57. [PubMed:14579514 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232 ]
  3. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  4. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207 ]
  5. Tomlin SL, Jenkins A, Lieb WR, Franks NP: Preparation of barbiturate optical isomers and their effects on GABA(A) receptors. Anesthesiology. 1999 Jun;90(6):1714-22. [PubMed:10360871 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  7. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  8. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular Weight:
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232 ]
  2. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodium ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID:
P43681
Molecular Weight:
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [PubMed:16248797 ]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin.
Gene Name:
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID:
P36544
Molecular Weight:
56448.925 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [PubMed:16248797 ]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and t...
Gene Name:
GRIA2
Uniprot ID:
P42262
Molecular Weight:
98820.32 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inacti...
Gene Name:
GRIK2
Uniprot ID:
Q13002
Molecular Weight:
102582.475 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449 ]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Adedoyin A, Prakash C, O'Shea D, Blair IA, Wilkinson GR: Stereoselective disposition of hexobarbital and its metabolites: relationship to the S-mephenytoin polymorphism in Caucasian and Chinese subjects. Pharmacogenetics. 1994 Feb;4(1):27-38. [PubMed:8004130 ]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  4. Lewis DF, Modi S, Dickins M: Structure-activity relationship for human cytochrome P450 substrates and inhibitors. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):69-82. [PubMed:11996013 ]
  5. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the gener...
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular Weight:
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Ono S, Hatanaka T, Hotta H, Satoh T, Gonzalez FJ, Tsutsui M: Specificity of substrate and inhibitor probes for cytochrome P450s: evaluation of in vitro metabolism using cDNA-expressed human P450s and human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica. 1996 Jul;26(7):681-93. [PubMed:8819299 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:14