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Identification
NameHexobarbital
Accession NumberDB01355  (EXPT03301)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A barbiturate that is effective as a hypnotic and sedative. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
5-(1-Cyclohexen-1-yl)-1,5-dimethyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrioneNot AvailableNot Available
5-(1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-1,5-dimethylbarbituric acidNot AvailableNot Available
5-Cyclohex-1-enyl-1,5-dimethyl-pyrimidine-2,4,6-trioneNot AvailableNot Available
EvipanNot AvailableNot Available
HexobarbitalNot AvailableNot Available
HexobarbitoneNot AvailableNot Available
MethexenylNot AvailableNot Available
MethylhexabitalNot AvailableNot Available
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
EvipalNot Available
EvipanNot Available
TobinalNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Hexobarbital sodium
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT000914
Categories
CAS number56-29-1
WeightAverage: 236.267
Monoisotopic: 236.116092388
Chemical FormulaC12H16N2O3
InChI KeyUYXAWHWODHRRMR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H16N2O3/c1-12(8-6-4-3-5-7-8)9(15)13-11(17)14(2)10(12)16/h6H,3-5,7H2,1-2H3,(H,13,15,17)
IUPAC Name
5-(cyclohex-1-en-1-yl)-1,5-dimethyl-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione
SMILES
CN1C(=O)NC(=O)C(C)(C1=O)C1=CCCCC1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as barbituric acid derivatives. These are compounds containing a perhydropyrimidine ring substituted at C-2, -4 and -6 by oxo groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazines
Sub ClassPyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct ParentBarbituric acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Barbiturate
  • Ureide
  • 1,3-diazinane
  • Urea
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful stimuli.
PharmacodynamicsHexobarbital is a barbiturate derivative having hypnotic and sedative effects. It was used in the 1940s-1950s as an agent for inducing anesthesia for surgery and has a relatively fast onset of effects and short duration of action. However it can be difficult to control the depth of anesthesia with hexobarbital which makes it quite dangerous, and it has now been replaced by safer drugs in human medicine, usually thiopental would be the barbiturate of choice for this application these days.
Mechanism of actionHexobarbital binds at a distinct binding site associated with a Cl- ionopore at the GABA-A receptor, increasing the duration of time for which the Cl- ionopore is open. The post-synaptic inhibitory effect of GABA in the thalamus is, therefore, prolonged.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding25%
Metabolism

Hepatic.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Hexobarbital
3'-HydroxyhexobarbitalDetails
Hexobarbital
Epoxy-hexobarbitalDetails
3'-Hydroxyhexobarbital
Not Available
3'-OxohexobarbitalDetails
3'-Oxohexobarbital
Not Available
Hexobarbital glutathione conjugate derivativeDetails
Epoxy-hexobarbital
Not Available
Hexobarbital dihydrodiol derivativeDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySymptoms of an overdose typically include sluggishness, incoordination, difficulty in thinking, slowness of speech, faulty judgment, drowsiness or coma, shallow breathing, staggering, and in severe cases coma and death.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9793
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9649
Caco-2 permeable+0.519
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5562
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.7705
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8379
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7687
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7622
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.894
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.543
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7994
CYP450 2C9 substrateInhibitor0.5316
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9369
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.6349
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9571
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8803
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7061
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8753
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9143
Rat acute toxicity2.5050 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9348
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8502
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point146.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility435 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP1.98SANGSTER (1994)
logS-2.74ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.2SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.51 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.8ALOGPS
logP1.25ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.41ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.48 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity61.95 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability24.14 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (9.16 KB)
SpectraMS1D NMR
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General Reference
  1. Takenoshita R, Toki S: [New aspects of hexobarbital metabolism: stereoselective metabolism, new metabolic pathway via GSH conjugation, and 3-hydroxyhexobarbital dehydrogenases] Yakugaku Zasshi. 2004 Dec;124(12):857-71. Pubmed
  2. Wahlstrom G: A study of the duration of acute tolerance induced with hexobarbital in male rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1998 Apr;59(4):945-8. Pubmed
  3. Korkmaz S, Ljungblad E, Wahlstrom G: Interaction between flumazenil and the anesthetic effects of hexobarbital in the rat. Brain Res. 1995 Apr 10;676(2):371-7. Pubmed
  4. Dall V, Orntoft U, Schmidt A, Nordholm L: Interaction of the competitive AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX with hexobarbital. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1993 Sep;46(1):73-6. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesN01AF02N05CA16
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcebutololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
AcenocoumarolMay increase the metabolism of Vitamin K Antagonists.
AcetaminophenMay increase the metabolism of Acetaminophen. This may 1) diminish the effect of acetaminophen; and 2) increase the risk of liver damage.
AcetazolamideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
AldesleukinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
AliskirenMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
AmilorideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
AminophyllineMay decrease the serum concentration of Theophylline Derivatives.
AmitriptylineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
AmlodipineMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
AmoxapineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
Amyl NitriteMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ApraclonidineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
AtenololMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
Azilsartan medoxomilMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
BenazeprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
BendroflumethiazideMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
BetaxololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
BisoprololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
BretyliumMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
BrimonidineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
BumetanideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ButalbitalMay increase the metabolism of Acetaminophen. This may 1) diminish the effect of acetaminophen; and 2) increase the risk of liver damage.
CanagliflozinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
CandesartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
CaptoprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
CarteololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
CarvedilolMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
ChloramphenicolMay increase the metabolism of Chloramphenicol. Chloramphenicol may decrease the metabolism of Barbiturates.
ChlorothiazideMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
ChlorthalidoneMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
CilazaprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ClevidipineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ClomipramineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
ClonidineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
DapagliflozinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
DesipramineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
DesogestrelMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible.
DihydrocodeineMay increase the metabolism of Acetaminophen. This may 1) diminish the effect of acetaminophen; and 2) increase the risk of liver damage.
DiltiazemMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
DipyridamoleMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
DoxazosinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
DoxycyclineMay decrease the serum concentration of Doxycycline.
DrospirenoneMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
EmpagliflozinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
EnalaprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
EplerenoneMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
EprosartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
EsmololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
Ethacrynic acidMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
Ethinyl EstradiolMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible.
EthynodiolMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible.
EtonogestrelMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
EtoposideMay decrease the serum concentration of Etoposide.
FelbamateMay decrease the serum concentration of Felbamate. Felbamate may increase the serum concentration of Barbiturates.
FelodipineMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
FosinoprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
FurosemideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
GriseofulvinMay decrease the serum concentration of Griseofulvin. Exceptions: Methohexital; Thiopental.
GuanfacineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
HydralazineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
HydrochlorothiazideMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
HydroxyzineHydrOXYzine may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Barbiturates.
ImipramineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
IndapamideMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
IrbesartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
IsomethepteneMay increase the metabolism of Acetaminophen. This may 1) diminish the effect of acetaminophen; and 2) increase the risk of liver damage.
Isosorbide DinitrateMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
Isosorbide MononitrateMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
IsoxsuprineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
IsradipineMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
LabetalolMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
LamotrigineMay decrease the serum concentration of LamoTRIgine.
LevobunololMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
LevonorgestrelMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
LisinoprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
LosartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
MannitolMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
Medroxyprogesterone AcetateMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
MestranolMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible.
MethazolamideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
MethyclothiazideMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
MethyldopaMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
MetipranololMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
MetolazoneMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide Diuretics.
MetoprololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
MoexiprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
NadololMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
NebivololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
NesiritideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
NifedipineMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
NimodipineMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
NisoldipineMay increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers.
NitroglycerinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
NitroprussideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
NorelgestrominMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Estrogens). Contraceptive failure is possible.
NorethindroneMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
NorgestimateMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
NortriptylineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
OlmesartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
PapaverineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
PenbutololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
PerindoprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
PethidineMay enhance the CNS depressant effect of Meperidine. Barbiturates may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Meperidine.
PindololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
PrazosinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
PrimidonePrimidone may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Barbiturates. Primidone is converted to phenobarbital, and thus becomes additive with existing barbiturate therapy.
PropafenoneMay decrease the serum concentration of Propafenone.
PropranololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
ProtriptylineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
PyridoxinePyridoxine may increase the metabolism of Barbiturates. Apparent in high pyridoxine doses (eg, 200 mg/day)
QuetiapineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
QuinaprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
RamiprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ReserpineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
RifampicinRifamycin Derivatives may increase the metabolism of Barbiturates.
RifapentineRifamycin Derivatives may increase the metabolism of Barbiturates.
RiociguatMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
SotalolMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
SpironolactoneMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
TelmisartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
TeniposideMay decrease the serum concentration of Teniposide.
TerazosinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
TheophyllineMay decrease the serum concentration of Theophylline Derivatives.
TimololMay decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers.
TizanidineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
TorasemideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
TrandolaprilMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
TriamtereneMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
TrimipramineMay increase the metabolism of Tricyclic Antidepressants.
UlipristalMay decrease the serum concentration of Ulipristal.
Valproic AcidValproic Acid and Derivatives may decrease the metabolism of Barbiturates. Barbiturates may decrease the serum concentration of Valproic Acid and Derivatives.
ValsartanMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
VoriconazoleMay decrease the serum concentration of Voriconazole. Exceptions: Methohexital; PENTobarbital; Secobarbital; Thiopental.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1 P14867 Details

References:

  1. Whiting PJ: The GABAA receptor gene family: new opportunities for drug development. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2003 Sep;6(5):648-57. Pubmed
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. Pubmed
  3. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  4. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. Pubmed
  5. Tomlin SL, Jenkins A, Lieb WR, Franks NP: Preparation of barbiturate optical isomers and their effects on GABA receptors. Anesthesiology. 1999 Jun;90(6):1714-22. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  7. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  8. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

2. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2 P47869 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. Pubmed

3. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3 P34903 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. Pubmed

4. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 P48169 Details

References:

  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. Pubmed

5. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5 P31644 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. Pubmed

6. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: potentiator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6 Q16445 Details

References:

  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. Pubmed
  2. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed

7. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4 P43681 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. Pubmed
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. Pubmed

8. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7 P36544 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. Pubmed
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. Pubmed

9. Glutamate receptor 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor 2 P42262 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. Pubmed

10. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2 Q13002 Details

References:

  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. Pubmed
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2C19

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
  3. Adedoyin A, Prakash C, O’Shea D, Blair IA, Wilkinson GR: Stereoselective disposition of hexobarbital and its metabolites: relationship to the S-mephenytoin polymorphism in Caucasian and Chinese subjects. Pharmacogenetics. 1994 Feb;4(1):27-38. Pubmed
  4. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  5. Lewis DF, Modi S, Dickins M: Structure-activity relationship for human cytochrome P450 substrates and inhibitors. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):69-82. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

3. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 P23219 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

4. Cytochrome P450 2E1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2E1 P05181 Details

References:

  1. Ono S, Hatanaka T, Hotta H, Satoh T, Gonzalez FJ, Tsutsui M: Specificity of substrate and inhibitor probes for cytochrome P450s: evaluation of in vitro metabolism using cDNA-expressed human P450s and human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica. 1996 Jul;26(7):681-93. Pubmed

5. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

6. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:14