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Identification
NameMibefradil
Accession NumberDB01388
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsWithdrawn
Description

Mibefradil was withdrawn from the market in 1998 because of potentially harmful interactions with other drugs.

Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
PosicorNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII27B90X776A
CAS number116644-53-2
WeightAverage: 495.6287
Monoisotopic: 495.289720302
Chemical FormulaC29H38FN3O3
InChI KeyInChIKey=HBNPJJILLOYFJU-VMPREFPWSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C29H38FN3O3/c1-20(2)28-23-12-11-22(30)18-21(23)13-14-29(28,36-27(34)19-35-4)15-17-33(3)16-7-10-26-31-24-8-5-6-9-25(24)32-26/h5-6,8-9,11-12,18,20,28H,7,10,13-17,19H2,1-4H3,(H,31,32)/t28-,29-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,2S)-2-(2-{[3-(1H-1,3-benzodiazol-2-yl)propyl](methyl)amino}ethyl)-6-fluoro-1-(propan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl 2-methoxyacetate
SMILES
COCC(=O)O[C@]1(CCN(C)CCCC2=NC3=CC=CC=C3N2)CCC2=C(C=CC(F)=C2)[C@@H]1C(C)C
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tetralins. These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a tetralin moiety, which consists of a benzene fused to a cyclohexane.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassTetralins
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentTetralins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Tetralin
  • Benzimidazole
  • Aralkylamine
  • Fluorobenzene
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl fluoride
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of angina and high blood pressure.
PharmacodynamicsMibefradil belongs to a group of medicines called calcium channel blocking agents, or, more commonly, calcium channel blockers. Calcium channel blocking agents affect the movement of calcium into the cells of the heart and blood vessels. As a result, they relax blood vessels and increase the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart while reducing its workload. Mibefradil is a benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits T-type calcium channels.
Mechanism of actionMibefradil is a tetralol calcium channel blocking agent that inhibits the influx of calcium ions across both the T (low-voltage) and L (high-voltage) calcium channels of cardiac and vascular smooth muscle, with a greater selectivity for T channels. Vasodilation occurs in vascular smooth muscle, causing a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and a resulting decrease in blood pressure. Mibefradil causes a slight increase in cardiac output during chronic dosing. Mibefradil slows sinus and atrioventricular (AV) node conduction, producing a slight reduction in heart rate and a slight increase in the PR interval. It has also been shown to slightly lengthen the corrected sinus node recovery time and AH interval and to raise the Wenckebach point. The mechanism by which mibefradil reduces angina is not known, but is thought to be attributed to a reduction in heart rate, total peripheral resistance (afterload), and the heart rate–systolic blood pressure product at any given level of exercise. The result of these effects is a decrease in cardiac workload and myocardial oxygen demand.
Related Articles
AbsorptionBioavailability after a single dose is 70%. After multiple dosing, the proportion of mibefradil undergoing first-pass metabolism is reduced, resulting in a steady state bioavailability of approximately 90%. Food does not affect the rate or extent of absorption of mibefradil.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding≥ 99%, primarily to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein.
Metabolism

The two metabolic pathways that mibefradil undergoes are esterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of the ester side chain (producing an alcohol metabolite) and cytochrome P450 3A4-catalyzed oxidation (that becomes less important during chronic dosing). The pharmacologic effect of the metabolite is approximately 10% of that of the parent mibefradil.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life17 to 25 hours at steady state.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9964
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5
Caco-2 permeable+0.5
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.9087
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8718
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8388
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.549
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8596
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7408
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.796
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6921
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6864
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.892
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.8610 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9611
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7742
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
Caco2 permeability-4.87ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00104 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.34ALOGPS
logP5.16ChemAxon
logS-5.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.54ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.82ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area67.45 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count12ChemAxon
Refractivity139.73 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesC08CX01
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1G gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-v...
Gene Name:
CACNA1G
Uniprot ID:
O43497
Molecular Weight:
262468.62 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Lee TS, Kaku T, Takebayashi S, Uchino T, Miyamoto S, Hadama T, Perez-Reyes E, Ono K: Actions of mibefradil, efonidipine and nifedipine block of recombinant T- and L-type Ca channels with distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Pharmacology. 2006;78(1):11-20. Epub 2006 Aug 7. [PubMed:16899990 ]
  3. Monteil A, Chemin J, Bourinet E, Mennessier G, Lory P, Nargeot J: Molecular and functional properties of the human alpha(1G) subunit that forms T-type calcium channels. J Biol Chem. 2000 Mar 3;275(9):6090-100. [PubMed:10692398 ]
  4. Massie BM: Mibefradil: a selective T-type calcium antagonist. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Nov 6;80(9A):23I-32I. [PubMed:9375939 ]
  5. Clozel JP, Ertel EA, Ertel SI: Discovery and main pharmacological properties of mibefradil (Ro 40-5967), the first selective T-type calcium channel blocker. J Hypertens Suppl. 1997 Dec;15(5):S17-25. [PubMed:9481612 ]
  6. McNulty MM, Hanck DA: State-dependent mibefradil block of Na+ channels. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Dec;66(6):1652-61. [PubMed:15562257 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1H gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-v...
Gene Name:
CACNA1H
Uniprot ID:
O95180
Molecular Weight:
259160.2 Da
References
  1. Brueggemann LI, Martin BL, Barakat J, Byron KL, Cribbs LL: Low voltage-activated calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle: T-type channels and AVP-stimulated calcium spiking. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 Feb;288(2):H923-35. Epub 2004 Oct 21. [PubMed:15498818 ]
  2. Coste B, Crest M, Delmas P: Pharmacological dissection and distribution of NaN/Nav1.9, T-type Ca2+ currents, and mechanically activated cation currents in different populations of DRG neurons. J Gen Physiol. 2007 Jan;129(1):57-77. [PubMed:17190903 ]
  3. Cribbs LL, Lee JH, Yang J, Satin J, Zhang Y, Daud A, Barclay J, Williamson MP, Fox M, Rees M, Perez-Reyes E: Cloning and characterization of alpha1H from human heart, a member of the T-type Ca2+ channel gene family. Circ Res. 1998 Jul 13;83(1):103-9. [PubMed:9670923 ]
  4. Lee TS, Kaku T, Takebayashi S, Uchino T, Miyamoto S, Hadama T, Perez-Reyes E, Ono K: Actions of mibefradil, efonidipine and nifedipine block of recombinant T- and L-type Ca channels with distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Pharmacology. 2006;78(1):11-20. Epub 2006 Aug 7. [PubMed:16899990 ]
  5. Perez-Reyes E: Paradoxical role of T-type calcium channels in coronary smooth muscle. Mol Interv. 2004 Feb;4(1):16-8. [PubMed:14993472 ]
  6. Massie BM: Mibefradil: a selective T-type calcium antagonist. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Nov 6;80(9A):23I-32I. [PubMed:9375939 ]
  7. Clozel JP, Ertel EA, Ertel SI: Discovery and main pharmacological properties of mibefradil (Ro 40-5967), the first selective T-type calcium channel blocker. J Hypertens Suppl. 1997 Dec;15(5):S17-25. [PubMed:9481612 ]
  8. McNulty MM, Hanck DA: State-dependent mibefradil block of Na+ channels. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Dec;66(6):1652-61. [PubMed:15562257 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1C gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belon...
Gene Name:
CACNA1C
Uniprot ID:
Q13936
Molecular Weight:
248974.1 Da
References
  1. Moosmang S, Haider N, Bruderl B, Welling A, Hofmann F: Antihypertensive effects of the putative T-type calcium channel antagonist mibefradil are mediated by the L-type calcium channel Cav1.2. Circ Res. 2006 Jan 6;98(1):105-10. Epub 2005 Nov 23. [PubMed:16306443 ]
  2. Lee TS, Kaku T, Takebayashi S, Uchino T, Miyamoto S, Hadama T, Perez-Reyes E, Ono K: Actions of mibefradil, efonidipine and nifedipine block of recombinant T- and L-type Ca channels with distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Pharmacology. 2006;78(1):11-20. Epub 2006 Aug 7. [PubMed:16899990 ]
  3. Mocanu MM, Gadgil S, Yellon DM, Baxter GF: Mibefradil, a T-type and L-type calcium channel blocker, limits infarct size through a glibenclamide-sensitive mechanism. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1999 Apr;13(2):115-22. [PubMed:10372226 ]
  4. Jimenez C, Bourinet E, Leuranguer V, Richard S, Snutch TP, Nargeot J: Determinants of voltage-dependent inactivation affect Mibefradil block of calcium channels. Neuropharmacology. 2000;39(1):1-10. [PubMed:10665814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity involved sa node cell action potential
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1D gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belon...
Gene Name:
CACNA1D
Uniprot ID:
Q01668
Molecular Weight:
245138.75 Da
References
  1. Mocanu MM, Gadgil S, Yellon DM, Baxter GF: Mibefradil, a T-type and L-type calcium channel blocker, limits infarct size through a glibenclamide-sensitive mechanism. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1999 Apr;13(2):115-22. [PubMed:10372226 ]
  2. Jimenez C, Bourinet E, Leuranguer V, Richard S, Snutch TP, Nargeot J: Determinants of voltage-dependent inactivation affect Mibefradil block of calcium channels. Neuropharmacology. 2000;39(1):1-10. [PubMed:10665814 ]
  3. Lee TS, Kaku T, Takebayashi S, Uchino T, Miyamoto S, Hadama T, Perez-Reyes E, Ono K: Actions of mibefradil, efonidipine and nifedipine block of recombinant T- and L-type Ca channels with distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Pharmacology. 2006;78(1):11-20. Epub 2006 Aug 7. [PubMed:16899990 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1F gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belon...
Gene Name:
CACNA1F
Uniprot ID:
O60840
Molecular Weight:
220675.9 Da
References
  1. Mocanu MM, Gadgil S, Yellon DM, Baxter GF: Mibefradil, a T-type and L-type calcium channel blocker, limits infarct size through a glibenclamide-sensitive mechanism. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1999 Apr;13(2):115-22. [PubMed:10372226 ]
  2. Jimenez C, Bourinet E, Leuranguer V, Richard S, Snutch TP, Nargeot J: Determinants of voltage-dependent inactivation affect Mibefradil block of calcium channels. Neuropharmacology. 2000;39(1):1-10. [PubMed:10665814 ]
  3. Lee TS, Kaku T, Takebayashi S, Uchino T, Miyamoto S, Hadama T, Perez-Reyes E, Ono K: Actions of mibefradil, efonidipine and nifedipine block of recombinant T- and L-type Ca channels with distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Pharmacology. 2006;78(1):11-20. Epub 2006 Aug 7. [PubMed:16899990 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. Isoform alpha-1I gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-volta...
Gene Name:
CACNA1I
Uniprot ID:
Q9P0X4
Molecular Weight:
245100.8 Da
References
  1. Massie BM: Mibefradil: a selective T-type calcium antagonist. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Nov 6;80(9A):23I-32I. [PubMed:9375939 ]
  2. Clozel JP, Ertel EA, Ertel SI: Discovery and main pharmacological properties of mibefradil (Ro 40-5967), the first selective T-type calcium channel blocker. J Hypertens Suppl. 1997 Dec;15(5):S17-25. [PubMed:9481612 ]
  3. McNulty MM, Hanck DA: State-dependent mibefradil block of Na+ channels. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Dec;66(6):1652-61. [PubMed:15562257 ]
  4. Lee TS, Kaku T, Takebayashi S, Uchino T, Miyamoto S, Hadama T, Perez-Reyes E, Ono K: Actions of mibefradil, efonidipine and nifedipine block of recombinant T- and L-type Ca channels with distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Pharmacology. 2006;78(1):11-20. Epub 2006 Aug 7. [PubMed:16899990 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1S gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belon...
Gene Name:
CACNA1S
Uniprot ID:
Q13698
Molecular Weight:
212348.1 Da
References
  1. Mocanu MM, Gadgil S, Yellon DM, Baxter GF: Mibefradil, a T-type and L-type calcium channel blocker, limits infarct size through a glibenclamide-sensitive mechanism. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1999 Apr;13(2):115-22. [PubMed:10372226 ]
  2. Jimenez C, Bourinet E, Leuranguer V, Richard S, Snutch TP, Nargeot J: Determinants of voltage-dependent inactivation affect Mibefradil block of calcium channels. Neuropharmacology. 2000;39(1):1-10. [PubMed:10665814 ]
  3. Lee TS, Kaku T, Takebayashi S, Uchino T, Miyamoto S, Hadama T, Perez-Reyes E, Ono K: Actions of mibefradil, efonidipine and nifedipine block of recombinant T- and L-type Ca channels with distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Pharmacology. 2006;78(1):11-20. Epub 2006 Aug 7. [PubMed:16899990 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.
Gene Name:
CACNB1
Uniprot ID:
Q02641
Molecular Weight:
65712.995 Da
References
  1. Lee TS, Kaku T, Takebayashi S, Uchino T, Miyamoto S, Hadama T, Perez-Reyes E, Ono K: Actions of mibefradil, efonidipine and nifedipine block of recombinant T- and L-type Ca channels with distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Pharmacology. 2006;78(1):11-20. Epub 2006 Aug 7. [PubMed:16899990 ]
  2. Mocanu MM, Gadgil S, Yellon DM, Baxter GF: Mibefradil, a T-type and L-type calcium channel blocker, limits infarct size through a glibenclamide-sensitive mechanism. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1999 Apr;13(2):115-22. [PubMed:10372226 ]
  3. Jimenez C, Bourinet E, Leuranguer V, Richard S, Snutch TP, Nargeot J: Determinants of voltage-dependent inactivation affect Mibefradil block of calcium channels. Neuropharmacology. 2000;39(1):1-10. [PubMed:10665814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.
Gene Name:
CACNB2
Uniprot ID:
Q08289
Molecular Weight:
73579.925 Da
References
  1. Lee TS, Kaku T, Takebayashi S, Uchino T, Miyamoto S, Hadama T, Perez-Reyes E, Ono K: Actions of mibefradil, efonidipine and nifedipine block of recombinant T- and L-type Ca channels with distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Pharmacology. 2006;78(1):11-20. Epub 2006 Aug 7. [PubMed:16899990 ]
  2. Mocanu MM, Gadgil S, Yellon DM, Baxter GF: Mibefradil, a T-type and L-type calcium channel blocker, limits infarct size through a glibenclamide-sensitive mechanism. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1999 Apr;13(2):115-22. [PubMed:10372226 ]
  3. Jimenez C, Bourinet E, Leuranguer V, Richard S, Snutch TP, Nargeot J: Determinants of voltage-dependent inactivation affect Mibefradil block of calcium channels. Neuropharmacology. 2000;39(1):1-10. [PubMed:10665814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.
Gene Name:
CACNB3
Uniprot ID:
P54284
Molecular Weight:
54531.425 Da
References
  1. Lee TS, Kaku T, Takebayashi S, Uchino T, Miyamoto S, Hadama T, Perez-Reyes E, Ono K: Actions of mibefradil, efonidipine and nifedipine block of recombinant T- and L-type Ca channels with distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Pharmacology. 2006;78(1):11-20. Epub 2006 Aug 7. [PubMed:16899990 ]
  2. Mocanu MM, Gadgil S, Yellon DM, Baxter GF: Mibefradil, a T-type and L-type calcium channel blocker, limits infarct size through a glibenclamide-sensitive mechanism. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1999 Apr;13(2):115-22. [PubMed:10372226 ]
  3. Jimenez C, Bourinet E, Leuranguer V, Richard S, Snutch TP, Nargeot J: Determinants of voltage-dependent inactivation affect Mibefradil block of calcium channels. Neuropharmacology. 2000;39(1):1-10. [PubMed:10665814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.
Gene Name:
CACNB4
Uniprot ID:
O00305
Molecular Weight:
58168.625 Da
References
  1. Lee TS, Kaku T, Takebayashi S, Uchino T, Miyamoto S, Hadama T, Perez-Reyes E, Ono K: Actions of mibefradil, efonidipine and nifedipine block of recombinant T- and L-type Ca channels with distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Pharmacology. 2006;78(1):11-20. Epub 2006 Aug 7. [PubMed:16899990 ]
  2. Mocanu MM, Gadgil S, Yellon DM, Baxter GF: Mibefradil, a T-type and L-type calcium channel blocker, limits infarct size through a glibenclamide-sensitive mechanism. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1999 Apr;13(2):115-22. [PubMed:10372226 ]
  3. Jimenez C, Bourinet E, Leuranguer V, Richard S, Snutch TP, Nargeot J: Determinants of voltage-dependent inactivation affect Mibefradil block of calcium channels. Neuropharmacology. 2000;39(1):1-10. [PubMed:10665814 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular Weight:
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid 11-beta-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Has steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity. In addition to this activity, the 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and the aromatization of androstendione to estrone have also been ascribed to cytochrome P450 XIB.
Gene Name:
CYP11B1
Uniprot ID:
P15538
Molecular Weight:
57572.44 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid 11-beta-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Preferentially catalyzes the conversion of 11-deoxycorticosterone to aldosterone via corticosterone and 18-hydroxycorticosterone.
Gene Name:
CYP11B2
Uniprot ID:
P19099
Molecular Weight:
57559.62 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Wandel C, Kim RB, Guengerich FP, Wood AJ: Mibefradil is a P-glycoprotein substrate and a potent inhibitor of both P-glycoprotein and CYP3A in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Aug;28(8):895-8. [PubMed:10901697 ]
  2. Ekins S, Kim RB, Leake BF, Dantzig AH, Schuetz EG, Lan LB, Yasuda K, Shepard RL, Winter MA, Schuetz JD, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships of inhibitors of P-glycoprotein. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 May;61(5):964-73. [PubMed:11961113 ]
  3. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [PubMed:12699389 ]
  4. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. [PubMed:14985103 ]
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Drug created on July 06, 2007 14:41 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:14