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Identification
NameD-Phenylalanine
Accession NumberDB02556  (EXPT01257)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsExperimental
Description

An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of melanin; dopamine; noradrenalin (norepinephrine), and thyroxine. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
CategoriesNot Available
UNII032K16VRCU
CAS number673-06-3
WeightAverage: 165.1891
Monoisotopic: 165.078978601
Chemical FormulaC9H11NO2
InChI KeyInChIKey=COLNVLDHVKWLRT-MRVPVSSYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H11NO2/c10-8(9(11)12)6-7-4-2-1-3-5-7/h1-5,8H,6,10H2,(H,11,12)/t8-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid
SMILES
N[[email protected]](CC1=CC=CC=C1)C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpropanoic acids. These are compounds with a structure containing a benzene ring conjugated to a propanoic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassPhenylpropanoic acids
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentPhenylpropanoic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • D-alpha-amino acid
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Aralkylamine
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationNot Available
PharmacodynamicsNot Available
Mechanism of actionNot Available
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organismsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9733
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5902
Caco-2 permeable+0.8129
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.721
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9916
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9941
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9204
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8512
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8296
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8378
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9448
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9792
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9674
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9797
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9278
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9896
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9211
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8441
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.7562
Rat acute toxicity1.9053 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9805
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9737
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility2.82E+004 mg/L (at 16 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.14 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.4ALOGPS
logP-1.2ChemAxon
logS-1.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.45ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity45.12 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17.13 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Dennis P. Bauer, “Process for producing N-acyl-D-phenylalanine ester.” U.S. Patent US4262092, issued November, 1977.

US4262092
General References
  1. Yanagida O, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Kim DK, Segawa H, Nii T, Cha SH, Matsuo H, Fukushima J, Fukasawa Y, Tani Y, Taketani Y, Uchino H, Kim JY, Inatomi J, Okayasu I, Miyamoto K, Takeda E, Goya T, Endou H: Human L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): characterization of function and expression in tumor cell lines. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 Oct 1;1514(2):291-302. [PubMed:11557028 ]
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transaminase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). Metabolizes the cysteine conjugates of certain halogenated alkenes and alkanes to form reactive metabolites. Catalyzes the beta-elimination of S-conjugates and Se-conjugates of L-(seleno)cysteine, resulting in the cleavage of the C-S or C-Se bond.
Gene Name:
CCBL1
Uniprot ID:
Q16773
Molecular Weight:
47874.765 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Hormone regulating the release of corticotropin from pituitary gland (By similarity). Induces NLRP6 in intestinal epithelial cells, hence may influence gut microbiota profile (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CRH
Uniprot ID:
P06850
Molecular Weight:
21421.505 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular Weight:
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
  2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. [PubMed:11827462 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Peptide antigen binding
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc. Involved in cellular amino acid uptake. Acts as an amino acid exchanger. Involved in the transport of L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier, and that of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) across the ...
Gene Name:
SLC7A5
Uniprot ID:
Q01650
Molecular Weight:
55009.62 Da
References
  1. Yanagida O, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Kim DK, Segawa H, Nii T, Cha SH, Matsuo H, Fukushima J, Fukasawa Y, Tani Y, Taketani Y, Uchino H, Kim JY, Inatomi J, Okayasu I, Miyamoto K, Takeda E, Goya T, Endou H: Human L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): characterization of function and expression in tumor cell lines. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 Oct 1;1514(2):291-302. [PubMed:11557028 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23