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Identification
Name1,4-Dithiothreitol
Accession NumberDB04447  (EXPT01291)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsExperimental
Description

A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
CategoriesNot Available
UNIINot Available
CAS numberNot Available
WeightAverage: 154.251
Monoisotopic: 154.012220944
Chemical FormulaC4H10O2S2
InChI KeyInChIKey=VHJLVAABSRFDPM-QWWZWVQMSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H10O2S2/c5-3(1-7)4(6)2-8/h3-8H,1-2H2/t3-,4-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S,3S)-1,4-disulfanylbutane-2,3-diol
SMILES
O[[email protected]](CS)[[email protected]](O)CS
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1,2-diols. These are polyols containing an alcohol group at two adjacent positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
ClassAlcohols and polyols
Sub ClassPolyols
Direct Parent1,2-diols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-diol
  • Alkylthiol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationNot Available
PharmacodynamicsNot Available
Mechanism of actionNot Available
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organismsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal AbsorptionNot AvailableNot Available
Blood Brain BarrierNot AvailableNot Available
Caco-2 permeableNot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein substrateNot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINot AvailableNot Available
Renal organic cation transporterNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C9 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2D6 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 3A4 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 1A2 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityNot AvailableNot Available
Ames testNot AvailableNot Available
CarcinogenicityNot AvailableNot Available
BiodegradationNot AvailableNot Available
Rat acute toxicityNot AvailableNot applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Not AvailableNot Available
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Not AvailableNot Available
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.14 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.18ALOGPS
logP-0.28ChemAxon
logS-1.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.62ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity38.84 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability15.67 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Thymidylate synthase activity
Specific Function:
Provides the sole de novo source of dTMP for DNA biosynthesis. This protein also binds to its mRNA thus repressing its own translation.
Gene Name:
thyA
Uniprot ID:
P0A884
Molecular Weight:
30479.475 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
TPI1
Uniprot ID:
P60174
Molecular Weight:
30790.785 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Bifunctional enzyme showing minimal glutathione-conjugating activity with ethacrynic acid and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole and maleylacetoacetate isomerase activity. Has also low glutathione peroxidase activity with T-butyl and cumene hydroperoxides. Is able to catalyze the glutathione dependent oxygenation of dichloroacetic acid to glyoxylic acid.
Gene Name:
GSTZ1
Uniprot ID:
O43708
Molecular Weight:
24212.005 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadph binding
Specific Function:
Transmembrane glycoprotein that is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis as well as in the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids that are essential for normal cell function including ubiquinone and geranylgeranyl proteins.
Gene Name:
HMGCR
Uniprot ID:
P04035
Molecular Weight:
97475.155 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Listeria monocytogenes serovar 1/2a (strain ATCC BAA-679 / EGD-e)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transcription factor activity, sequence-specific dna binding
Specific Function:
Positively regulates expression of listeriolysin, of 1-phosphadidylinositol phosphodiesterase (PI-PLC) and other virulence factors.
Gene Name:
prfA
Uniprot ID:
P22262
Molecular Weight:
27301.24 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus subtilis (strain 168)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Diamine n-acetyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the protection against polyamine toxicity by regulating their concentration. Also could be involved in the negative control of sporulation as well as production of degradative enzymes such as alpha-amylase, levansucrase and alkaline phosphatase. Catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) to an acceptor substrate and releases both CoA and the acetylated ...
Gene Name:
paiA
Uniprot ID:
P21340
Molecular Weight:
20014.605 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus subtilis (strain 168)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Magnesium ion binding
Specific Function:
Transfers the 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety from coenzyme A to a Ser of fatty acid acyl-carrier-protein ACP. Also modifies the D-alanyl carrier protein but fails to recognize PCP and AcpK, an acyl carrier protein of secondary metabolism.
Gene Name:
acpS
Uniprot ID:
P96618
Molecular Weight:
13717.63 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the sequential NAD-dependent oxidations of L-histidinol to L-histidinaldehyde and then to L-histidine.
Gene Name:
hisD
Uniprot ID:
P06988
Molecular Weight:
46109.815 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Shikimate 3-dehydrogenase (nadp+) activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the biosynthesis of the chorismate, which leads to the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Catalyzes the reversible NADPH linked reduction of 3-dehydroshikimate (DHSA) to yield shikimate (SA). It displays no activity in the presence of NAD.
Gene Name:
aroE
Uniprot ID:
P15770
Molecular Weight:
29413.305 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
Lectin that binds beta-galactoside and a wide array of complex carbohydrates. Plays a role in regulating apoptosis, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Inhibits CD45 protein phosphatase activity and therefore the dephosphorylation of Lyn kinase. Strong inducer of T-cell apoptosis.
Gene Name:
LGALS1
Uniprot ID:
P09382
Molecular Weight:
14715.57 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
CaM-kinase II (CAMK2) is a prominent kinase in the central nervous system that may function in long-term potentiation and neurotransmitter release. Member of the NMDAR signaling complex in excitatory synapses it may regulate NMDAR-dependent potentiation of the AMPAR and synaptic plasticity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CAMK2A
Uniprot ID:
Q9UQM7
Molecular Weight:
54087.265 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Thermus thermophilus (strain HB8 / ATCC 27634 / DSM 579)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Structural constituent of ribosome
Specific Function:
Found on the solvent side of the large subunit.
Gene Name:
rpmA
Uniprot ID:
P60493
Molecular Weight:
9508.0 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinal dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Binds free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Can convert/oxidize retinaldehyde to retinoic acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A1
Uniprot ID:
P00352
Molecular Weight:
54861.44 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain ATCC 15692 / PAO1 / 1C / PRS 101 / LMG 12228)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ohr
Uniprot ID:
Q9HZZ3
Molecular Weight:
14522.335 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas putida
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes an anti cycloisomerization.
Gene Name:
pcaB
Uniprot ID:
P32427
Molecular Weight:
44675.755 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Essential ion channel and serine/threonine-protein kinase. Divalent cation channel permeable to calcium and magnesium. Has a central role in magnesium ion homeostasis and in the regulation of anoxic neuronal cell death. Involved in TNF-induced necroptosis downstream of MLKL by mediating calcium influx. The kinase activity is essential for the channel function. May be involved in a fundamental p...
Gene Name:
TRPM7
Uniprot ID:
Q96QT4
Molecular Weight:
212695.37 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus sp. (strain GL1)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Hydrolase activity, acting on glycosyl bonds
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of oligosaccharides with unsaturated glucuronyl residues at the non-reducing terminal, to a sugar or an amino sugar, and an unsaturated D-glucuronic acid (GlcA), which is nonenzymatically converted immediately to alpha-keto acid.
Gene Name:
ugl
Uniprot ID:
Q9RC92
Molecular Weight:
42861.02 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Staphylococcus aureus (strain MW2)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes, together with MoaC, the conversion of 5'-GTP to cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate (cPMP or molybdopterin precursor Z).
Gene Name:
moaA
Uniprot ID:
P65389
Molecular Weight:
39077.505 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus agalactiae serotype Ia (strain ATCC 27591 / A909 / CDC SS700)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
May play a role in both virulence and immunity.
Gene Name:
bca
Uniprot ID:
Q02192
Molecular Weight:
108704.715 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Peptide-methionine (s)-s-oxide reductase activity
Specific Function:
Has an important function as a repair enzyme for proteins that have been inactivated by oxidation. Catalyzes the reversible oxidation-reduction of methionine sulfoxide in proteins to methionine.
Gene Name:
MSRA
Uniprot ID:
Q9UJ68
Molecular Weight:
26132.42 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Shewanella massilia
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Involved in the biogenesis of TorA. Acts on TorA before the insertion of the molybdenum cofactor and, as a result, probably favors a conformation of the apoenzyme that is competent for acquiring the cofactor.
Gene Name:
torD
Uniprot ID:
O87949
Molecular Weight:
23554.45 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Component of the beta-catenin destruction complex required for regulating CTNNB1 levels through phosphorylation and ubiquitination, and modulating Wnt-signaling. Controls dorsoventral patterning via two opposing effects; down-regulates CTNNB1 to inhibit the Wnt signaling pathway and ventralize embryos, but also dorsalizes embryos by activating a Wnt-independent JNK signaling pathway. In Wnt sig...
Gene Name:
AXIN1
Uniprot ID:
O15169
Molecular Weight:
95634.205 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Unfolded protein binding
Specific Function:
PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins. It catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides.
Gene Name:
PPIB
Uniprot ID:
P23284
Molecular Weight:
23742.405 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Neisseria polysaccharea
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Cation binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the synthesis of alpha-glucan from sucrose. Catalyzes, in addition, sucrose hydrolysis, maltose and maltotriose synthesis by successive transfers of the glucosyl moiety of sucrose onto the released glucose, and finally turanose and trehalulose synthesis, these two sucrose isomers being obtained by glucosyl transfer onto fructose.
Gene Name:
ams
Uniprot ID:
Q9ZEU2
Molecular Weight:
72343.005 Da
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:24