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Identification
NameRufinamide
Accession NumberDB06201
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionRufinamide is a triazole derivative and an anticonvulsant medication to treat seizure disorders like Lennox-Gastuat syndrome, a form of childhood epilepsy. Clinical trials suggest its efficacy in the treatment of partial seizures.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Banzel
RUF 331
Xilep
External Identifiers
  • CGP 33101
  • E 2080
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Banzeltablet, film coated200 mg/1oralEisai Inc.2008-11-14Not applicableUs
Banzeltablet200 mgoralEisai Limited2011-08-29Not applicableCanada
Banzeltablet, film coated400 mg/1oralEisai Inc.2008-11-14Not applicableUs
Banzeltablet400 mgoralEisai Limited2011-09-01Not applicableCanada
Banzelsuspension40 mg/mLoralEisai Inc.2011-03-03Not applicableUs
Banzelsuspension40 mgoralEisai LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Banzeltablet100 mgoralEisai Limited2011-10-20Not applicableCanada
InovelonFilm-coated tablet100 mgOral useEisai Ltd2007-01-16Not applicableEu
InovelonFilm-coated tablet400 mgOral useEisai Ltd2007-01-16Not applicableEu
InovelonFilm-coated tablet200 mgOral useEisai Ltd2007-01-16Not applicableEu
InovelonFilm-coated tablet100 mgOral useEisai Ltd2007-01-16Not applicableEu
InovelonFilm-coated tablet400 mgOral useEisai Ltd2007-01-16Not applicableEu
InovelonOral suspension40 mg/mlOral useEisai Ltd2007-01-16Not applicableEu
InovelonFilm-coated tablet100 mgOral useEisai Ltd2007-01-16Not applicableEu
InovelonFilm-coated tablet200 mgOral useEisai Ltd2007-01-16Not applicableEu
InovelonFilm-coated tablet200 mgOral useEisai Ltd2007-01-16Not applicableEu
InovelonFilm-coated tablet400 mgOral useEisai Ltd2007-01-16Not applicableEu
InovelonFilm-coated tablet100 mgOral useEisai Ltd2007-01-16Not applicableEu
InovelonFilm-coated tablet400 mgOral useEisai Ltd2007-01-16Not applicableEu
InovelonFilm-coated tablet200 mgOral useEisai Ltd2007-01-16Not applicableEu
InovelonFilm-coated tablet400 mgOral useEisai Ltd2007-01-16Not applicableEu
InovelonFilm-coated tablet100 mgOral useEisai Ltd2007-01-16Not applicableEu
InovelonFilm-coated tablet400 mgOral useEisai Ltd2007-01-16Not applicableEu
InovelonFilm-coated tablet200 mgOral useEisai Ltd2007-01-16Not applicableEu
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
InovelonEisai Inc.
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIWFW942PR79
CAS number106308-44-5
WeightAverage: 238.1935
Monoisotopic: 238.066617308
Chemical FormulaC10H8F2N4O
InChI KeyInChIKey=POGQSBRIGCQNEG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H8F2N4O/c11-7-2-1-3-8(12)6(7)4-16-5-9(10(13)17)14-15-16/h1-3,5H,4H2,(H2,13,17)
IUPAC Name
1-[(2,6-difluorophenyl)methyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxamide
SMILES
NC(=O)C1=CN(CC2=C(F)C=CC=C2F)N=N1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as triazole carboxylic acids and derivatives. These are heterocyclic compounds containing a triazole ring substituted by at least one carboxylic acid group (or a derivative thereof).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassAzoles
Sub ClassTriazoles
Direct ParentTriazole carboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 1,2,3-triazole carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Phenylmethylamine
  • Halobenzene
  • Fluorobenzene
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl fluoride
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Primary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationAdjunct therapy for treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
PharmacodynamicsAt high concentrations will inhibit action of mGluR5 subtype receptors thus preventing the production of glutamate.
Mechanism of actionRufinamide is a triazole derivative antiepileptic that prolongs the inactive state of voltage gated sodium channels thus stabilizing membranes, ultimately blocking the spread of partial seizure activity.
Related Articles
AbsorptionThe oral suspension and tablet are bioequivalent on a mg per mg basis. Rufinamide is well absorbed but the rate is slow and the extent of absorption decreases as dose is increases. Based on urinary excretion, the extent of absorption was at least 85% following oral administration of a single dose of 600 mg rufinamide tablet under fed conditions. Bioavailability= 70%-85% (decreases with increasing doses); Tmax, fed and fasted states= 4-6 hours; Cmax, 10 mg/kg/day= 4.01 µL/mL; Cmax, 30mg/kg/day= 8.68 µL/mL; AUC (0h-12h), 10mg/kg/day= 37.8±47 µg·h/mL; AUC (0h-12h), 30mg/kg/day= 89.3±59 µg·h/mL.
Volume of distribution

Rufinamide was evenly distributed between erythrocytes and plasma. The apparent volume of distribution is dependent upon dose and varies with body surface area. The apparent volume of distribution was about 50 L at 3200 mg/day.
Volume of distribution is similar between adults and children and is non-linear.

Protein binding26.3% - 34.8% with 90% binding to albumin (27%).
Metabolism

Rufinamide is extensively metabolized but has no active metabolites. Metabolism by carboxyesterases into inactive metabolite CGP 47292, a carboxylic acid derivative, via hydrolysis is the primary biotransformation pathway. A few minor additional metabolites were detected in urine, which appeared to be acyl-glucuronides of CGP 47292. The cytochrome P450 enzyme system or glutathiones are not involved with the metabolism of rufinamide. Rufinamide is a weak inhibitor of CYP 2E1. Rufinamide is a weak inducer of CYP 3A4 enzymes.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Rufinamide
Not Available
CGP 47292Details
Route of eliminationRenally (91%; 66% as CGP 47292, 2% as unchanged drug) and fecally (9%) eliminated.
Half lifeElimination half-life, healthy subjects and patients with epilepsy = 6-10 hours.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityThe most commonly observed adverse reactions (≥10% and greater than placebo) were headache, dizziness, fatigue, somnolence, and nausea.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9777
Caco-2 permeable-0.5301
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7407
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9422
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9633
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6685
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8452
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8723
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5567
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8201
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8454
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5561
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7995
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5438
Ames testAMES toxic0.6126
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8415
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9945
Rat acute toxicity2.5067 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9484
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7869
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Suspensionoral40 mg
Suspensionoral40 mg/mL
Tabletoral100 mg
Tabletoral200 mg
Tabletoral400 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral200 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral400 mg/1
Film-coated tabletOral use100 mg
Film-coated tabletOral use200 mg
Film-coated tabletOral use400 mg
Oral suspensionOral use40 mg/ml
PricesNot Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6740669 Yes2003-05-142023-05-14Us
US7750028 Yes1999-04-192019-04-19Us
US8076362 Yes1998-12-082018-12-08Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityInsoluble FDA label
logP0.835MSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.642 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.95ALOGPS
logP1.27ChemAxon
logS-2.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.69ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area73.8 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity67.07 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability20.42 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Emanuele ATTOLINO, Lino COLOMBO, Ilaria MORMINO, Pietro ALLEGRINI, “METHOD FOR THE PREPARATION OF RUFINAMIDE.” U.S. Patent US20100234616, issued September 16, 2010.

US20100234616
General References
  1. Arroyo S: Rufinamide. Neurotherapeutics. 2007 Jan;4(1):155-62. [PubMed:17199032 ]
  2. Hakimian S, Cheng-Hakimian A, Anderson GD, Miller JW: Rufinamide: a new anti-epileptic medication. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2007 Aug;8(12):1931-40. [PubMed:17696794 ]
  3. Authors unspecified: Rufinamide: CGP 33101, E 2080, RUF 331, Xilep. Drugs R D. 2005;6(4):249-52. [PubMed:15991887 ]
  4. Wier HA, Cerna A, So TY: Rufinamide for pediatric patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: a comprehensive overview. Paediatr Drugs. 2011 Apr 1;13(2):97-106. doi: 10.2165/11586920-000000000-00000. [PubMed:21351809 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN03AF03
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (562 KB)
MSDSDownload (76.7 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Acepromazine.
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Aceprometazine.
adipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with adipiplon.
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Agomelatine.
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Alfaxalone.
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Alfentanil.
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Alprazolam.
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Amisulpride.
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Amitriptyline.
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Amobarbital.
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Amoxapine.
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Amperozide.
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Aripiprazole.
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Articaine.
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Asenapine.
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Azaperone.
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Azelastine.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Baclofen.
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Barbital.
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Benzocaine.
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Benzyl alcohol.
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Brexpiprazole.
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Brimonidine.
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Bromazepam.
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Brompheniramine.
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Brotizolam.
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Bupivacaine.
BuprenorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Buprenorphine.
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Buspirone.
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Butabarbital.
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Butacaine.
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Butalbital.
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Butamben.
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Butethal.
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Butorphanol.
CarbamazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Carbamazepine.
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Carbinoxamine.
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Carfentanil.
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Carisoprodol.
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Cetirizine.
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Chloral hydrate.
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Chlordiazepoxide.
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Chlormezanone.
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Chloroprocaine.
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Chlorphenamine.
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Chlorpromazine.
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Chlorprothixene.
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Chlorzoxazone.
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Cinchocaine.
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Clemastine.
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Clidinium.
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Clobazam.
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with clomethiazole.
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Clomipramine.
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Clonazepam.
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Clonidine.
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Clorazepate.
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Clozapine.
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Cocaine.
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Codeine.
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Cyclizine.
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Cyclobenzaprine.
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Cyproheptadine.
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Dantrolene.
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Dapiprazole.
deramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with deramciclane.
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Desflurane.
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Desipramine.
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Desloratadine.
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Detomidine.
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Dexmedetomidine.
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Dextromoramide.
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Dextropropoxyphene.
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Dezocine.
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Diazepam.
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Difenoxin.
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Dihydrocodeine.
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Dihydroetorphine.
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Dihydromorphine.
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Dimenhydrinate.
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Diphenhydramine.
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Diphenoxylate.
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Doramectin.
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Doxepin.
DoxylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Doxylamine.
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with DPDPE.
DroperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Droperidol.
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Drotebanol.
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Dyclonine.
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ecgonine.
ECGONINE METHYL ESTERThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with ECGONINE METHYL ESTER.
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Efavirenz.
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Enflurane.
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Entacapone.
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Estazolam.
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Eszopiclone.
EthanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ethanol.
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ethchlorvynol.
Ethinyl EstradiolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Rufinamide.
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ethosuximide.
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ethotoin.
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ethyl carbamate.
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ethyl loflazepate.
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ethylmorphine.
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Etidocaine.
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Etifoxine.
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Etizolam.
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Etomidate.
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Etorphine.
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ezogabine.
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Felbamate.
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Fencamfamine.
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Fentanyl.
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Fexofenadine.
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Flibanserin.
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Fludiazepam.
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Flunarizine.
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Flunitrazepam.
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Flupentixol.
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Fluphenazine.
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Flurazepam.
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Fluspirilene.
Fluticasone PropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Fluticasone Propionate.
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Fluvoxamine.
FosphenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Fosphenytoin.
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Rufinamide can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Fospropofol.
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Gabapentin.
gabapentin enacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with gabapentin enacarbil.
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Glutethimide.
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Guanfacine.
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Halazepam.
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Haloperidol.
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Halothane.
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Heroin.
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Hexobarbital.
HydrocodoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocodone can be decreased when it is combined with Rufinamide.
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Hydromorphone.
HydroxyzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Hydroxyzine.
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Iloperidone.
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Imipramine.
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Isoflurane.
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ketamine.
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ketazolam.
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ketobemidone.
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Lamotrigine.
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Levetiracetam.
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Levobupivacaine.
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Levocabastine.
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Levocetirizine.
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Levodopa.
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Levomethadyl Acetate.
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Levorphanol.
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Lidocaine.
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Lithium.
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Lofentanil.
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Loratadine.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Lorazepam.
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Loxapine.
Lu AA21004The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Lu AA21004.
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Lurasidone.
Magnesium SulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Magnesium Sulfate.
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Maprotiline.
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Meclizine.
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Medetomidine.
MefloquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Rufinamide can be decreased when used in combination with Mefloquine.
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Melatonin.
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Melperone.
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Mepivacaine.
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Meprobamate.
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Mesoridazine.
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Metaxalone.
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Methadone.
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Methadyl Acetate.
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Methapyrilene.
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Methaqualone.
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Methocarbamol.
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Methohexital.
MethotrimeprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Methotrimeprazine.
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Methoxyflurane.
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Methsuximide.
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Methylphenobarbital.
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Rufinamide can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Midazolam.
MirtazapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Mirtazapine.
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Molindone.
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Morphine.
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Nabilone.
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Nalbuphine.
NimodipineThe serum concentration of Nimodipine can be decreased when it is combined with Rufinamide.
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be decreased when it is combined with Rufinamide.
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Nitrazepam.
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Nitrous oxide.
NorethisteroneThe serum concentration of Norethisterone can be decreased when it is combined with Rufinamide.
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Normethadone.
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Nortriptyline.
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Olanzapine.
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Olopatadine.
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ondansetron.
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Opium.
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Rufinamide can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
OrphenadrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Orphenadrine.
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Osanetant.
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Oxazepam.
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Oxprenolol.
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Oxybuprocaine.
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Oxycodone.
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Oxymorphone.
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Paliperidone.
ParaldehydeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Paraldehyde.
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Pentazocine.
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Pentobarbital.
PerampanelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Perampanel.
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Perospirone.
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Perphenazine.
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Pethidine.
PhenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Phenobarbital.
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Phenoxyethanol.
PhenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Phenytoin.
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Pimozide.
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Pipamperone.
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Pipotiazine.
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Pizotifen.
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Pomalidomide.
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Pramocaine.
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Prazepam.
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Pregabalin.
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Prilocaine.
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Primidone.
PrimidoneThe serum concentration of Rufinamide can be decreased when it is combined with Primidone.
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Procaine.
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Prochlorperazine.
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Promazine.
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Promethazine.
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Proparacaine.
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Propofol.
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Propoxycaine.
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Protriptyline.
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with PSD502.
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Quazepam.
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Quetiapine.
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ramelteon.
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Remifentanil.
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Remoxipride.
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Reserpine.
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Risperidone.
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Romifidine.
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ropivacaine.
S-EthylisothioureaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with S-Ethylisothiourea.
SaxagliptinThe serum concentration of Saxagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Rufinamide.
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Scopolamine.
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Secobarbital.
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Sertindole.
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Sevoflurane.
Sodium oxybateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Sodium oxybate.
StiripentolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Stiripentol.
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Sufentanil.
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Sulpiride.
SuvorexantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Suvorexant.
TapentadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Tapentadol.
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Tasimelteon.
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Temazepam.
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Tetrabenazine.
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Tetracaine.
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Tetrodotoxin.
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Thalidomide.
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Thiamylal.
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Thiopental.
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Thioridazine.
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Thiothixene.
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Tiagabine.
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Tiletamine.
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Tizanidine.
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Tolcapone.
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Topiramate.
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Tramadol.
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Tranylcypromine.
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Trazodone.
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Triazolam.
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Trifluoperazine.
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Triflupromazine.
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Trimipramine.
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Triprolidine.
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Valproic Acid.
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Vigabatrin.
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Vortioxetine.
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Xylazine.
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Zaleplon.
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ziconotide.
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ziprasidone.
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Zolazepam.
ZolpidemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Zolpidem.
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Zonisamide.
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Zopiclone.
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Zotepine.
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Zuclopenthixol.
Food Interactions
  • Food increases plasma concentrations of rufinamide and slightly decreases half-life (by 3%)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system and generates a calcium-activated chloride current. Plays an important role in the regulation of synaptic ...
Gene Name:
GRM5
Uniprot ID:
P41594
Molecular Weight:
132467.635 Da
References
  1. Wier HA, Cerna A, So TY: Rufinamide for pediatric patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: a comprehensive overview. Paediatr Drugs. 2011 Apr 1;13(2):97-106. doi: 10.2165/11586920-000000000-00000. [PubMed:21351809 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
modulator
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+) channel isoform. Plays a role in pain mechanisms, es...
Gene Name:
SCN9A
Uniprot ID:
Q15858
Molecular Weight:
226370.175 Da
References
  1. Suter MR, Kirschmann G, Laedermann CJ, Abriel H, Decosterd I: Rufinamide attenuates mechanical allodynia in a model of neuropathic pain in the mouse and stabilizes voltage-gated sodium channel inactivated state. Anesthesiology. 2013 Jan;118(1):160-72. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e318278cade. [PubMed:23221868 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Triglyceride lipase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Hydrolyzes aromatic and aliphatic esters, but has no catalytic activity toward amides or a fatty acyl-CoA ester. Hydrolyzes the methyl ester group of cocaine to form benzoylecgonine. Catalyzes the transesterification of cocaine to form cocaethylene. Displays fatty acid ethyl ester synthase activity,...
Gene Name:
CES1
Uniprot ID:
P23141
Molecular Weight:
62520.62 Da
References
  1. Williams ET, Carlson JE, Lai WG, Wong YN, Yoshimura T, Critchley DJ, Narurkar M: Investigation of the metabolism of rufinamide and its interaction with valproate. Drug Metab Lett. 2011 Dec;5(4):280-9. [PubMed:22022867 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
Comments
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Drug created on March 19, 2008 10:17 / Updated on September 28, 2016 03:41