Identification

Name
Enoxaparin
Accession Number
DB01225  (APRD00068)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Enoxaparin is a low molecular weight heparin. Enoxaparin is used to prevent and treat deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, and is given as a subcutaneous injection. Enoxaparin binds to and accelerates the activity of antithrombin III. By activating antithrombin III, enoxaparin preferentially potentiates the inhibition of coagulation factors Xa and IIa. Factor Xa catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, so enoxaparin's inhibition of this process results in decreased thrombin and ultimately the prevention of fibrin clot formation. Low molecular weight heparins are less effective at inactivating factor IIa due to their shorter length compared to unfractionated heparin.

Synonyms
  • Enoxaparin sodium
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
LovenoxInjection60 mg/0.6mLIntravenous; SubcutaneousSanofi Aventis1993-03-29Not applicableUs
LovenoxInjection60 mg/0.6mLIntravenous; SubcutaneousCardinal Health1993-03-29Not applicableUs
LovenoxSolution30 mgSubcutaneousSanofi Aventis1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
LovenoxInjection100 mg/1mLIntravenous; SubcutaneousCardinal Health1993-03-29Not applicableUs
LovenoxInjection150 mg/1mLIntravenous; SubcutaneousSanofi Aventis1993-03-29Not applicableUs
LovenoxInjection120 mg/0.8mLIntravenous; SubcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-12-04Not applicableUs
LovenoxInjection300 mg/3mLIntravenous; SubcutaneousSanofi Aventis1993-03-29Not applicableUs
LovenoxInjection80 mg/0.8mLIntravenous; SubcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-07-28Not applicableUs
LovenoxInjection60 mg/0.6mLIntravenous; SubcutaneousCardinal Health1993-03-29Not applicableUs
LovenoxInjection150 mg/1mLIntravenous; SubcutaneousSanofi Aventis1993-03-29Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Enoxaparin SodiumInjection100 mg/1mLSubcutaneousCardinal Health2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin SodiumInjection100 mg/1mLSubcutaneousCardinal Health2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin sodiumInjection100 mg/1mLSubcutaneousFresenius Kabi2015-02-20Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin sodiumInjection120 mg/0.8mLSubcutaneousWinthrop U.S.2011-10-03Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin SodiumInjection100 mg/1mLSubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-19Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin SodiumInjection100 mg/1mLSubcutaneousCardinal Health2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin SodiumInjection100 mg/1mLSubcutaneousCardinal Health2010-07-23Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin SodiumInjection100 mg/1mLSubcutaneousAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-19Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin sodiumInjection80 mg/0.8mLSubcutaneousWinthrop U.S.2011-10-03Not applicableUs
Enoxaparin SodiumInjection150 mg/1mLSubcutaneousSandoz2010-07-23Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Clexane
Categories
UNII
E47C0NF7LV
CAS number
9005-49-6
Weight
Not Available
Chemical Formula
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

For the prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis, which may lead to pulmonary embolism, and also for the prophylaxis of ischemic complications of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, when concurrently administered with aspirin.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Enoxaparin is a highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from 3800 to 5000 daltons. Enoxaparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Enoxaparin is a well known and commonly used anticoagulant which has antithrombotic properties. Enoxaparin inhibits reactions that lead to the clotting of blood and the formation of fibrin clots both in vitro and in vivo. Enoxaparin acts at multiple sites in the normal coagulation system. Small amounts of enoxaparin in combination with antithrombin III (enoxaparin cofactor) can inhibit thrombosis by inactivating activated Factor X and inhibiting the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. Once active thrombosis has developed, larger amounts of enoxaparin can inhibit further coagulation by inactivating thrombin and preventing the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. Enoxaparin also prevents the formation of a stable fibrin clot by inhibiting the activation of the fibrin stabilizing factor. Its use should be avoided in patients with a creatinine clearance less than 20mL/min. In these patients, unfractionated heparin should only be used. As for monitoring, active partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) will only increase at high doses of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH). Therefore, monitoring aPTT is not recommended. However, anti-Xa activity can be measured to monitor the efficacy of the LMWH.

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action of enoxaparin is antithrombin-dependent. It acts mainly by accelerating the rate of the neutralization of certain activated coagulation factors by antithrombin, but other mechanisms may also be involved. The antithrombotic effect of enoxaparin is well correlated to the inhibition of factor Xa. Enoxaparin interacts with Antithrombin III, Prothrombin and Factor X. Enoxaparin binds to and accelerates the activity of antithrombin III. By activating antithrombin III, enoxaparin preferentially potentiates the inhibition of coagulation factors Xa and IIa.

TargetActionsOrganism
AAntithrombin-III
potentiator
Human
ACoagulation factor X
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Mean absolute bioavailability of enoxaparin, after 1.5 mg/kg given subcutaneously, based on anti-Factor Xa activity is approximately 100% in healthy volunteers.

Volume of distribution
  • 4.3 L
Protein binding

80% bound-albumin

Metabolism

Undergoes desulfation and polymerization via the liver

Route of elimination

Enoxaparin sodium is primarily metabolized in the liver by desulfation and/or depolymerization to lower molecular weight species with much reduced biological potency. Renal clearance of active fragments represents about 10% of the administered dose and total renal excretion of active and non-active fragments 40% of the dose.

Half life

4.5 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Mouse, median lethal dose greater than 5000 mg/kg. Another side effect is heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT syndrome). HIT is caused by an immunological reaction that makes platelets form clots within the blood vessels, thereby using up coagulation factors.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(4R)-limonene(4R)-limonene may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
AbciximabThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Abciximab is combined with Enoxaparin.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Enoxaparin is combined with Acebutolol.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Enoxaparin is combined with Acemetacin.
AcenocoumarolEnoxaparin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Enoxaparin.
AlclofenacAlclofenac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
AliskirenEnoxaparin may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Aliskiren.
AllylestrenolThe therapeutic efficacy of Enoxaparin can be decreased when used in combination with Allylestrenol.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid danshen, dong quai, evening primrose oil, gingko, policosanol, willow bark

References

Synthesis Reference

Jorgen I. Nielsen, "Process of using light absorption to control enzymatic depolymerization of heparin to produce low molecular weight heparin." U.S. Patent US5106734, issued May, 1981.

US5106734
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB14551
KEGG Drug
D07510
PubChem Substance
46507450
ChemSpider
751
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201685
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000616
PharmGKB
PA449463
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Enoxaparin_sodium
ATC Codes
B01AB05 — Enoxaparin
AHFS Codes
  • 20:12.04.16 — Heparins
FDA label
Download (1.44 MB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedPreventionDeep Venous Thrombosis / Pulmonary Embolism (PE)1
0RecruitingTreatmentAntiphospholipid Syndrome in Pregnancy / Pregnancy Loss1
1Active Not RecruitingPreventionDeep Venous Thrombosis / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
1CompletedNot AvailableClexane is Administered to Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableEnoxaparin Sodium is Administered to Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Complications; Cesarean Section / Obesity, Morbid / Postpartum Deep Phlebothrombosis / Pregnancy / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
1CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
1CompletedTreatmentHaemorrhage1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedTreatmentInfertilities1
1CompletedTreatmentThrombosis1
1RecruitingOtherVenous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI) / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas1
1, 2CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAntithrombotic1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentDeep Venous Thrombosis1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionKnee Arthroplasty, Total1
2CompletedNot AvailableStaphylococcus Aureus Bacteraemia1
2CompletedPreventionAdvanced Pancreatic, Colon, Lung, Gastric and Ovarian Cancer1
2CompletedPreventionArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Embolism and Thrombosis / Thromboembolism / Thrombosis / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
2CompletedPreventionColorectal Cancers / Hepatic Metastases / Irradiation Damage / Radiation Induced Liver Disease1
2CompletedPreventionKnee Replacement Surgery1
2CompletedPreventionKnee Replacement Surgery / Total Hip Replacement1
2CompletedPreventionPrevention / Thromboembolism1
2CompletedPreventionThromboembolism2
2CompletedPreventionThrombosis, Venous1
2CompletedPreventionTotal Knee Replacement Surgery1
2CompletedPreventionVenous Thromboembolism (VTE)6
2CompletedTreatmentCatheter-Related Infections / Catheter-related Occlusion / Central Venous Catheterization / Childhood Cancers / Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)1
2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedTreatmentRecurrent Abortion1
2CompletedTreatmentSubmassive Pulmonary Embolism1
2CompletedTreatmentVulvodynia1
2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionCancer of the Ovary1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCerebral Venous Thrombosis1
2RecruitingOtherDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
2RecruitingOtherDeep Venous Thrombosis / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) / Reconstructive Surgery / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
2RecruitingPreventionDeep Venous Thrombosis1
2RecruitingPreventionGynecologic Cancers / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
2RecruitingTreatmentThrombosis1
2RecruitingTreatmentVenous Thormboembolism1
2TerminatedPreventionPortal Vein Thrombosis / Splenic Vein Thrombosis1
2TerminatedSupportive CareCancers / Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) / Thrombosis / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
2TerminatedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
2Unknown StatusPreventionEmbolic Stroke1
2WithdrawnPreventionThrombotic Disorders1
2WithdrawnTreatmentLung Cancer Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)1
2, 3CompletedPreventionArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
2, 3CompletedPreventionPercutaneous Coronary Intervention1
2, 3CompletedPreventionPulmonary Embolism (PE) / Thrombosis, Venous1
2, 3CompletedPreventionThrombosis, Venous1
2, 3CompletedPreventionVenous Thromboembolism (VTE)2
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentCorrection of Cancer-related Coagulopathy With Novel Oral Anticoagulant (Edoxaban)1
3CompletedNot AvailableCancers1
3CompletedPreventionAcute ST-Segment Elevation / Myocardial Infarction1
3CompletedPreventionArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip1
3CompletedPreventionArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / Thromboembolism1
3CompletedPreventionArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Thromboembolism2
3CompletedPreventionDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)1
3CompletedPreventionDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Pulmonary Embolism (PE)2
3CompletedPreventionHigh Risk Pregnant Women / Placental Insufficiency / Preeclampsia1
3CompletedPreventionNeoplasms, Abdominal1
3CompletedPreventionPreeclampsia1
3CompletedPreventionPrevention / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)2
3CompletedPreventionPulmonary Embolism (PE) / Thrombosis, Venous1
3CompletedPreventionPulmonary Embolism (PE) / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
3CompletedPreventionVenous Thromboembolism (VTE)13
3CompletedSupportive CareGastrooesophageal Cancer / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)1
3CompletedTreatmentDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)1
3CompletedTreatmentDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Pulmonary Embolism (PE)1
3CompletedTreatmentHip Fractures1
3CompletedTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
3CompletedTreatmentLung Cancer Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)1
3CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction3
3CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction / Myocardial Ischemia / Unstable Angina (UA)1
3CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction / Thromboembolism1
3CompletedTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
3CompletedTreatmentPrevention / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
3CompletedTreatmentPrimary PCI - STEMI1
3CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Embolism (PE)1
3CompletedTreatmentSystemic Embolism / Thrombosis1
3CompletedTreatmentThromboprophylaxis in Hospitalized Obese Patients1
3CompletedTreatmentThrombosis, Venous2
3CompletedTreatmentVenous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHCC1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionTunnelled Hemodialysis Catheter Infection1
3RecruitingPreventionAnticoagulant Drugs / Cardiac Diseases1
3RecruitingPreventionBlood Clots / Traumas1
3RecruitingPreventionDeep Venous Thrombosis / Hemorrhagic Strokes / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
3RecruitingPreventionVenous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
3RecruitingTreatmentDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
3RecruitingTreatmentIntrauterine Growth Retardation1
3SuspendedPreventionMalignant Female Reproductive System Neoplasm1
3TerminatedPreventionNon-major Orthopaedic Surgery1
3TerminatedPreventionVenous Thromboembolism (VTE)2
3TerminatedTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
3TerminatedTreatmentNeoplasms / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
3TerminatedTreatmentNon ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) / Unstable Angina (UA)1
3TerminatedTreatmentPulmonary Embolism (PE)1
3WithdrawnTreatmentAsymptotic Venous Thrombosis1
4CompletedPreventionAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
4CompletedPreventionAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS)1
4CompletedPreventionAnticoagulants / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Thrombosis, Venous1
4CompletedPreventionAntiphospholipid Syndrome / Recurrent Miscarriages1
4CompletedPreventionBrain Injury / Thrombosis, Venous1
4CompletedPreventionDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) / Venous Thromboembolic Diseases1
4CompletedPreventionFemur Head Necrosis / Fracture of Neck of Femur / Osteoarthritis, Hip1
4CompletedPreventionImpaired Renal Function / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
4CompletedPreventionInflammatory Reaction1
4CompletedPreventionPrimary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention1
4CompletedPreventionVenous Thromboembolism (VTE)2
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Factor X1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Illness1
4CompletedTreatmentAdverse Effect of Anticoagulants / Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Thrombosis, Venous1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentBruises1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
4CompletedTreatmentHaemorrhage / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Strokes / Thrombo-embolism1
4CompletedTreatmentMechanical Valve Replacement / Warfarin Therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4CompletedTreatmentThrombosis, Venous1
4CompletedTreatmentUnexplained Infertility1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionMyocardial Infarction1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionVenous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceAnticoagulants and Bleeding Disorders / General Surgery / Regional Anesthesia Morbidity1
4RecruitingPreventionAntiphospholipid Syndrome / Recurrent Miscarriages1
4RecruitingPreventionDeep Venous Thrombosis / Pulmonary Embolism (PE)1
4RecruitingPreventionPulmonary Embolism (PE) / Thromboprophylaxis / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
4RecruitingPreventionThromboprophylaxis / Traumas / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Myocardial Infarction / Myocardial Ischemia / Unstable Angina (UA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention1
4RecruitingTreatmentInfertility Female1
4SuspendedPreventionTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI) / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
4TerminatedPreventionDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)1
4TerminatedTreatmentUnstable Angina (UA)1
4Unknown StatusPreventionGeneral Surgery / Prevention / Thrombosis1
4Unknown StatusPreventionHemodialysis Patients1
4Unknown StatusPreventionIntracerebral Hemorrhage1
4Unknown StatusPreventionThromboembolism1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAbortions spontaneous / Pregnancy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPulmonary Embolism (PE) / Thrombosis, Venous1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentCancer Patients First-ever Acute Ischemic Stroke1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMalignant Lymphomas / Thromboembolism / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableThrombosis, Venous1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableUnsuspected Pulmonary Embolism1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) / Coronary Artery Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDeep Vein Thrombosis of Lower Limb / Haemorrhage / Pulmonary Embolism (PE)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionEnd Stage Renal Failure on Dialysis1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionFetal Demise / Intrauterine Growth Retardation / Preeclampsia / Premature separation of placenta / Thromboembolism1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionTraumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionVenous Thromboembolic Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareBone Metastases / Musculoskeletal Cancer / Soft Tissue Sarcoma (STS) / Thromboembolism1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) Surgery / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Pulmonary Embolism (PE)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentVenous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentAcute DVT of Lower Extremity1
Not AvailableNo Longer AvailableNot AvailableDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionHemorrhage, Gastrointestinal / Post Polypectomy Bleeding in Anticoagulated Patients1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute Exacerbation Copd / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Pregnancy Losses / Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchNeoplasms / Thrombosis, Venous1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Other Specified Risk Factors in Pregnancy / Perioperative/Postoperative Complications / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) / Thrombophilia Associated With Pregnancy / Thrombosis, Venous1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionTraumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBlood Clots / Cancers / Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionThrombosis, Venous1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentSoft Tissue Neoplasms1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / General Surgery / Thromboembolic Events / Traumas1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionThrombosis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareBlood Loss / Osteoarthritis, Hip1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHeart; Complications, Valve, Prosthesis / Pregnancy1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Non ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction / ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction / Unstable Angina (UA)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionLower Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Cardinal Health
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Neuman Distributors Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Sanofi-Aventis Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionSubcutaneous100 mg/1mL
InjectionSubcutaneous120 mg/0.8mL
InjectionSubcutaneous150 mg/1mL
InjectionSubcutaneous30 mg/0.3mL
InjectionSubcutaneous300 mg/3mL
InjectionSubcutaneous40 mg/0.4mL
InjectionSubcutaneous60 mg/0.6mL
InjectionSubcutaneous80 mg/0.8mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous100 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous120 mg/0.8mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous150 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous30 mg/0.3mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous40 mg/0.4mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous60 mg/0.6mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous80 mg/0.8mL
InjectionIntravenous; Subcutaneous100 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous; Subcutaneous120 mg/0.8mL
InjectionIntravenous; Subcutaneous150 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous; Subcutaneous30 mg/0.3mL
InjectionIntravenous; Subcutaneous300 mg/3mL
InjectionIntravenous; Subcutaneous40 mg/0.4mL
InjectionIntravenous; Subcutaneous60 mg/0.6mL
InjectionIntravenous; Subcutaneous80 mg/0.8mL
SolutionSubcutaneous100 mg
SolutionSubcutaneous30 mg
SolutionSubcutaneous40 mg
SolutionSubcutaneous60 mg
SolutionSubcutaneous80 mg
SolutionSubcutaneous120 mg
SolutionSubcutaneous150 mg
SolutionSubcutaneous90 mg
SolutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous100 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Lovenox 300 mg/3ml Solution 3ml Vial281.47USD vial
Lovenox 150 mg/ml Solution 1ml Syringe140.94USD syringe
Lovenox 100 mg/ml Solution 1ml Syringe93.93USD syringe
Lovenox 80 mg/0.8ml Solution 0.8ml Syringe75.14USD syringe
Lovenox 60 mg/0.6ml Solution 0.6ml Syringe56.36USD syringe
Lovenox 40 mg/0.4ml Solution 0.4ml Syringe37.53USD syringe
Lovenox Hp (0.8Ml/1Ml Syringe) 150 mg/ml Syringe34.63USD syringe
Lovenox 30 mg/0.3ml Solution 0.3ml Syringe28.15USD syringe
Lovenox (0.4 - 1 Ml Syringe) 100 mg/ml Syringe23.09USD syringe
Lovenox 100 mg/ml23.09USD syringe
Lovenox (0.3 Ml Syringe) 30 mg/syr Syringe6.97USD syringe
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5389618No1995-02-142012-02-14Us
CA2045433No2002-07-302011-06-25Canada

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility> 200 mg/mLNot Available
logP-13.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.9215
Blood Brain Barrier-0.8366
Caco-2 permeable-0.6496
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.698
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5818
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9771
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9454
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.6694
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8196
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5842
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8157
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.771
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8869
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7655
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9194
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9232
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5957
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.694
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.851
Rat acute toxicity2.3846 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9589
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7157
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Most important serine protease inhibitor in plasma that regulates the blood coagulation cascade. AT-III inhibits thrombin, matriptase-3/TMPRSS7, as well as factors IXa, Xa and XIa. Its inhibitory a...
Gene Name
SERPINC1
Uniprot ID
P01008
Uniprot Name
Antithrombin-III
Molecular Weight
52601.935 Da
References
  1. Peng K, Wang C, Pang BS, Yang YH: [Effects of thrombolysis and anticoagulation on the functions of vascular endothelial cells and coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with pulmonary thromboembolism]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2005 Sep;28(9):596-9. [PubMed:16207425]
  2. Lee S, Gibson CM: Enoxaparin in acute coronary syndromes. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2007 May;5(3):387-99. [PubMed:17489664]
  3. Bisio A, Vecchietti D, Citterio L, Guerrini M, Raman R, Bertini S, Eisele G, Naggi A, Sasisekharan R, Torri G: Structural features of low-molecular-weight heparins affecting their affinity to antithrombin. Thromb Haemost. 2009 Nov;102(5):865-73. doi: 10.1160/TH09-02-0081. [PubMed:19888521]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Factor Xa is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein that converts prothrombin to thrombin in the presence of factor Va, calcium and phospholipid during blood clotting.
Gene Name
F10
Uniprot ID
P00742
Uniprot Name
Coagulation factor X
Molecular Weight
54731.255 Da
References
  1. Graff J, Picard-Willems B, Harder S: Monitoring effects of direct FXa-inhibitors with a new one-step prothrombinase-induced clotting time (PiCT) assay: comparative in vitro investigation with heparin, enoxaparin, fondaparinux and DX 9065a. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Apr;45(4):237-43. [PubMed:17474542]
  2. Berges A, Laporte S, Epinat M, Zufferey P, Alamartine E, Tranchand B, Decousus H, Mismetti P: Anti-factor Xa activity of enoxaparin administered at prophylactic dosage to patients over 75 years old. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Oct;64(4):428-38. Epub 2007 May 17. [PubMed:17509040]
  3. Sanchez-Pena P, Hulot JS, Urien S, Ankri A, Collet JP, Choussat R, Lechat P, Montalescot G: Anti-factor Xa kinetics after intravenous enoxaparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a population model analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Oct;60(4):364-73. [PubMed:16187968]
  4. Dalmora SL, Junior LB, Schmidt CA, Vaccari SF, Oliveira PR, Codevilla CF: Validation of the anti-factor Xa assay for the potency assessment of enoxaparin in pharmaceutical formulations. J AOAC Int. 2004 Nov-Dec;87(6):1305-8. [PubMed:15675440]
  5. Paige JT, Gouda BP, Gaitor-Stampley V, Scalia PG, Klainer TE, Raum WJ, Martin LF: No correlation between anti-factor Xa levels, low-molecular-weight heparin, and bleeding after gastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2007 Jul-Aug;3(4):469-75. Epub 2007 Jun 12. [PubMed:17567541]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other
General Function
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function
Part of the host defense system of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It is responsible for microbicidal activity against a wide range of organisms. In the stimulated PMN, MPO catalyzes the production o...
Gene Name
MPO
Uniprot ID
P05164
Uniprot Name
Myeloperoxidase
Molecular Weight
83867.71 Da
References
  1. Rudolph TK, Rudolph V, Witte A, Klinke A, Szoecs K, Lau D, Heitzer T, Meinertz T, Baldus S: Liberation of vessel adherent myeloperoxidase by enoxaparin improves endothelial function. Int J Cardiol. 2010 Apr 1;140(1):42-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2008.10.035. Epub 2008 Dec 2. [PubMed:19049846]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 21, 2018 00:10