|DB00316||Acetaminophen||Acetaminophen (paracetamol), also commonly known as _Tylenol_, is the most commonly taken analgesic worldwide and is recommended as first-line therapy in pain conditions by the World Health Organization (WHO) [A176318]. It is also used for its antipyretic effects, helping to reduce fever [F4124]. This drug was initially approved by the U.S. FDA in 1951 [FDA label] and is available in a variety of forms including syrup form, regular tablets, effervescent tablets, injection, suppository, and other forms [L5756, L5774, F4124], [FDA label].
Acetaminophen is often found combined with other drugs in more than 600 over the counter (OTC) allergy medications, cold medications, sleep medications, pain relievers, and other products [L5783]. Confusion about dosing of this drug may be caused by the availability of different formulas, strengths, and dosage instructions for children of different ages [L5783]. Due to the possibility of fatal overdose and liver failure associated with the incorrect use of acetaminophen, it is important to follow current and available national and manufacturer dosing guidelines while this drug is taken or prescribed [L5786, L5789], [FDA label].|
|DB01401||Choline magnesium trisalicylate||Choline magnesium trisalicylate is a non-acetylated salicylate used widely as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Trisalicylate significantly reduces methotrexate renal clearance, displacing methotrexate from protein, increasing the fraction unbound by 28% [A19653, A19654].|
|DB00318||Codeine||The relief of pain (analgesia) is a primary goal for enhancing the quality of life of patients and for increasing the ability of patients to engage in day to day activities. Codeine, an opioid analgesic, was originally approved in the US in 1950 and is a drug used to decrease pain by increasing the threshold for pain without impairing consciousness or altering other sensory functions. Opiates such as codeine are derived from the poppy plant, _Papaver somniferum_ (Papaveraceae) [A175096].
Codeine is utilized as a central analgesic, sedative, hypnotic, antinociceptive, and antiperistaltic agent, and is also recommended in certain diseases with incessant coughing [FDA label], [A175096].|
|DB00861||Diflunisal||Diflunisal, a salicylate derivative, is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAIA) with pharmacologic actions similar to other prototypical NSAIAs. Diflunisal possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. Though its mechanism of action has not been clearly established, most of its actions appear to be associated with inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis via the arachidonic acid pathway. Diflunisal is used to relieve pain accompanied with inflammation and in the symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.|
|DB00573||Fenoprofen||An anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic highly bound to plasma proteins. It is pharmacologically similar to aspirin, but causes less gastrointestinal bleeding.|
|DB01050||Ibuprofen||Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) derived from propionic acid and it is considered the first of the propionics.[A39074] The formula of ibuprofen is 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid and its initial development was in 1960 while researching for a safer alternative for aspirin.[A39075] Ibuprofen was finally patented in 1961 and this drug was first launched against rheumatoid arthritis in the UK in 1969 and USA in 1974. It was the first available over-the-counter NSAID.[A39076]
On the available products, ibuprofen is administered as a racemic mixture. Once administered, the R-enantiomer undergoes extensive interconversion to the S-enantiomer _in vivo_ by the activity of the alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase. In particular, it is generally proposed that the S-enantiomer is capable of eliciting stronger pharmacological activity than the R-enantiomer.[A39194]|
|DB00825||Levomenthol||Menthol is a covalent organic compound made synthetically or obtained from peppermint or other mint oils. Forming clear or white waxy, crystalline substance, menthol is typically solid at room temperature. (-)-Menthol is the naturally-occurring and main form of menthol, and is assigned the (1R,2S,5R) configuration. Menthol mediates anesthetic properties and anti-irritating properties locally, thus it is widely used to relieve minor throat irritations.|
|DB00939||Meclofenamic acid||A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.|
|DB00784||Mefenamic acid||A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase.|
|DB00652||Pentazocine||The first mixed agonist-antagonist analgesic to be marketed. It is an agonist at the kappa and sigma opioid receptors and has a weak antagonist action at the mu receptor. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1991, p97)|