Identification

Name
Ibuprofen
Accession Number
DB01050  (APRD00372)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Ibuprofen, a propionic acid derivative, is a prototypical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAIA) with analgesic and antipyretic properties.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (±)-2-(p-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid
  • (±)-ibuprofen
  • (±)-p-isobutylhydratropic acid
  • (±)-α-methyl-4-(2-methylpropyl)benzeneacetic acid
  • (4-isobutylphenyl)-α-methylacetic acid
  • (RS)-ibuprofen
  • 2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propanoic acid
  • 4-isobutylhydratropic acid
  • Ibuprofene
  • Ibuprofeno
  • Ibuprofenum
  • Ibuprophen
  • α-(4-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid
  • α-(p-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Ibuprofen aluminumD0YGZ1VO1B61054-06-6QAZIXAUMDFPQRW-UHFFFAOYSA-K
Ibuprofen lysineN01ORX9D6S57469-77-9IHHXIUAEPKVVII-ZSCHJXSPSA-N
Ibuprofen potassium48304089JJ79261-49-7XJELUCTZEAQYGF-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Ibuprofen sodiumRM1CE97Z4N527688-20-6VTGPMVCGAVZLQI-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo Ibuprofen Tab 600mgTablet600 mgOralApotex Corporation1984-12-31Not applicableCanada
CaldolorInjection800 mg/8mLIntravenousCumberland Pharmaceuticals2009-06-11Not applicableUs
CaldolorSolution100 mgIntravenousAlveda Pharmaceuticals Inc2012-06-15Not applicableCanada
CaldolorInjection400 mg/4mLIntravenousCumberland Pharmaceuticals2009-06-112011-12-01Us
IbuprofenTablet600 mg/1OralApace Packaging, Llc2013-01-10Not applicableUs
IbuprofenTablet400 mg/1OralApace Packaging, Llc2013-01-10Not applicableUs
IbuprofenTablet800 mg/1OralApace Packaging, Llc2013-01-10Not applicableUs
Ibuprofen-600 Tab 600mgTablet600 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1986-12-312014-07-24Canada
MotrinTablet, film coated600 mg/1OralPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1974-09-172009-12-31Us
MotrinSuspension100 mg/5mLOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2000-07-262011-06-30Us
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AlivioTablet600 mg/600mgOralAlivio Medical Products, Llc2015-07-01Not applicableUs
AlivioTablet800 mg/800mgOralAlivio Medical Products, Llc2015-07-01Not applicableUs
AlivioTablet400 mg/400mgOralAlivio Medical Products, Llc2015-07-01Not applicableUs
Alti-ibuprofen Tab 600mgTablet600 mgOralAltimed Pharma Inc.1984-12-311999-09-17Canada
Comfort Pac with IbuprofenKit800 mg/1Pd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-09-06Not applicableUs
IbuTablet800 mg/1OralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Buisness Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2009-06-172015-08-31Us
IbuTablet600 mg/1OralDr Reddy's Laboratories2008-11-20Not applicableUs
IbuTablet600 mg/1OralNucare Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2008-11-20Not applicableUs
IbuTablet800 mg/1OralUnit Dose Services2008-11-20Not applicableUs70786 068420180907 15195 1b9x5qc
IbuTablet600 mg/1OralKaiser Foundations Hospitals2012-05-09Not applicableUs
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
365 Everyday Value IbuprofenTablet, film coated200 mg/1OralWhole Foods Market, Inc.2018-08-29Not applicableUs
7 Select Childrens IbuprofenSuspension100 mg/5mLOral7 Eleven2014-08-05Not applicableUs
7 Select IbuprofenCapsule, liquid filled200 mg/1Oral7 Eleven2018-02-02Not applicableUs
7 Select IbuprofenTablet, film coated200 mg/1Oral7 Eleven2014-08-07Not applicableUs
7 Select IbuprofenTablet, coated200 mg/1Oral7 Eleven2014-05-13Not applicableUs
Actiprofen - Caplet 200mgTablet200 mgOralBayer Inc Consumer Care1996-12-311999-11-03Canada
AdvilTablet, coated200 mg/1OralWyeth Consumer Healthcare Llc1984-05-18Not applicableUs
AdvilTablet, coated256 mg/1OralWyeth Consumer Healthcare Llc2013-07-08Not applicableUs
AdvilTablet, coated200 mg/1OralWyeth Consumer Healthcare Llc1984-05-18Not applicableUs
AdvilTablet200 mg/1OralNavajo Manuracturing Company2016-09-20Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
10 Person ANSIIbuprofen (200 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Lidocaine (0.5 1/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B Sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitGenuine First Aid2010-04-24Not applicableUs
25 Person ANSIIbuprofen (200 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 g/100g) + Isopropyl Alcohol (70 mL/100mL) + Lidocaine (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B Sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitGenuine First Aid2010-04-25Not applicableUs
50 Person ANSIIbuprofen (200 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 g/100g) + Isopropyl Alcohol (70 mL/100mL) + Lidocaine (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B Sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.16 mL/100mL)KitGenuine First Aid2010-06-02Not applicableUs
7 Select Ibuprofen PMIbuprofen (200 mg/1) + Diphenhydramine citrate (38 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOral7 Eleven2014-08-05Not applicableUs
7-Select Advil PMIbuprofen (200 mg/1) + Diphenhydramine citrate (38 mg/1)Tablet, coatedOralLil' Drug Store Products, Inc.2011-06-012017-12-31Us
Adventure Medical Kits 1-2 Person First AidIbuprofen (200 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (500 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B Sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g)KitTopicalTender Corp Dba Adventure Medical Kits2010-08-26Not applicableUs
Adventure Medical Kits 1-2 Person National Ski Patrol First AidIbuprofen (200 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (500 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B Sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g)KitTender Corp Dba Adventure Medical Kits2010-08-26Not applicableUs
Adventure Medical Kits 1-4 Person First AidIbuprofen (200 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (500 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B Sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g)KitTopicalTender Corp Dba Adventure Medical Kits2010-08-26Not applicableUs
Advil Allergy and Congestion ReliefIbuprofen (200 mg/1) + Chlorpheniramine maleate (4 mg/1) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (10 mg/1)Tablet, coatedOralPfizer2012-07-23Not applicableUs
Advil Allergy and Congestion ReliefIbuprofen (200 mg/1) + Chlorpheniramine maleate (4 mg/1) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (10 mg/1)TabletOralNavajo Manuracturing Company2016-09-16Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
IbuprofenIbuprofen (400 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralDr Reddy's Laboratories2007-03-08Not applicableUs
IbuprofenIbuprofen (200 mg/1)TabletOralRemedy Repack2010-12-082010-12-15Us
IbuprofenIbuprofen (800 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralDr Reddy's Laboratories2007-03-08Not applicableUs
IbuprofenIbuprofen (600 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralDr Reddy's Laboratories2007-03-08Not applicableUs
IbuprofenIbuprofen (200 mg/1)TabletOralCardinal Health2011-06-02Not applicableUs
PrasteraIbuprofen (400 mg/1) + Prasterone (200 mg/1)KitOralHealth Science Funding, Llc2014-04-04Not applicableUs
Theraprofen-60Ibuprofen (600 mg/1) + gamma-Aminobutyric acid (100 mg/1)KitPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-07-19Not applicableUs
Theraprofen-800Ibuprofen (800 mg/1) + gamma-Aminobutyric acid (100 mg/1)KitPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-02-07Not applicableUs
Theraprofen-90Ibuprofen (600 mg/1) + gamma-Aminobutyric acid (100 mg/1)KitPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-02-07Not applicableUs
Topical PainIbuprofen (0.1 g/100mL) + Diazepam (0.1 g/100mL) + Hydrocodone (0.1 g/100mL) + Tramadol (0.1 g/100mL)CreamTopicalDr Marc's Manufacturing And Sales2016-02-23Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Act-3 (Healthcare Logistics) / Actiprofen (Sterling Health) / Adex (Dexxon) / Adran / Aktren (Bayer) / Alges-X (Axapharm) / Algoflex (Chinoin) / Algofren (Intermed) / Alivium (Bristol-Myers Squibb) / Artofen (Teva) / Betagesic (Adcock Ingram Pharmaceuticals) / Betaprofen (Be-Tabs Pharmaceuticals) / Bluton / Bonifen (Krka) / Brufen (Abbott) / Buburone (Towa Yakuhin) / Bugesic / Buprovil / Burana (Orion) / Butylenin / Calprofen (McNeil) / Cap-Profen (PERRIGO) / Children's Elixsure (Pfizer) / Children's Ibuprofen (Pfizer) / Dalsy (Abbott) / Dismenol (Merz) / Diverin / Dolgirid / Dolgit (Dolorgiet) / Dolofort / Doloraz / Dolormin / Dorival / Ebufac / EmuProfen / Epobron / Espidifen / Eve / Femadon / Fenbid / Fenpaed / Finalflex / Galprofen / Haltran / Herron Blue / i-profen / Ibalgin / Ibu-Attritin / IBU-Ratiopharm / Ibu-Vivimed / Ibuflam / Ibugel / Ibugesic / IbuHEXAL / Ibuleve / Ibum / Ibumax / Ibumetin / Ibumidol / Ibupain / Ibuprocin / Ibuprom / Ibuprosyn / Ibuprox / Ibustar / Ibutid / Ibux / Ibuxin / Inabrin / Inoven / Ipren / Junior Strength Motrin / Kratalgin / Lamidon / Lebrufen / Liptan / Lotem / Medicol / Medipren / Midol IB / Motrin / Mynosedin / Mypaid / Myprodol / Narfen / Naron Ace / Neobrufen / Nobfen / Nobgen / Norvectan / Nuprin / Nureflex / Nurofen / Orbifen / Panafen / Pediaprofen / Perifar / Profin / Ranfen / Rapidol / Ratiodolor / Rimafen / Roidenin / Rufen / Salvarina / Seclodin / Solpaflex / Speedpain NANO / Spidifen (Zambon) / Suspren / Tabalon / Tefin / Trendar / Unafen / Upfen / Urem
Categories
UNII
WK2XYI10QM
CAS number
15687-27-1
Weight
Average: 206.2808
Monoisotopic: 206.13067982
Chemical Formula
C13H18O2
InChI Key
HEFNNWSXXWATRW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H18O2/c1-9(2)8-11-4-6-12(7-5-11)10(3)13(14)15/h4-7,9-10H,8H2,1-3H3,(H,14,15)
IUPAC Name
2-[4-(2-methylpropyl)phenyl]propanoic acid
SMILES
CC(C)CC1=CC=C(C=C1)C(C)C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. May be used to treat mild to moderate pain and for the management of dysmenorrhea. May be used to reduce fever. Has been used with some success for treating ankylosing spondylitis, gout and psoriatic arthritis. May reduce pain, fever and inflammation of pericarditis. May be used IV with opiates to relieve moderate to severe pain. Ibuprofen lysine may be used IV to treat patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature neonates.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAIA) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Ibuprofen has pharmacologic actions similar to those of other prototypical NSAIAs, which are thought to act through inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis.

Mechanism of action

The exact mechanism of action of ibuprofen is unknown. Ibuprofen is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, an enzyme invovled in prostaglandin synthesis via the arachidonic acid pathway. Its pharmacological effects are believed to be due to inhibition cylooxygenase-2 (COX-2) which decreases the synthesis of prostaglandins involved in mediating inflammation, pain, fever and swelling. Antipyretic effects may be due to action on the hypothalamus, resulting in an increased peripheral blood flow, vasodilation, and subsequent heat dissipation. Inhibition of COX-1 is thought to cause some of the side effects of ibuprofen including GI ulceration. Ibuprofen is administered as a racemic mixture. The R-enantiomer undergoes extensive interconversion to the S-enantiomer in vivo. The S-enantiomer is believed to be the more pharmacologically active enantiomer.

TargetActionsOrganism
AProstaglandin G/H synthase 2
inhibitor
Human
AProstaglandin G/H synthase 1Not AvailableHuman
UApoptosis regulator Bcl-2
modulator
Human
UThrombomodulin
modulator
Human
UTissue-type plasminogen activator
negative modulator
Human
UFatty acid-binding protein, intestinal
binder
Human
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
activator
Human
UCystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
inhibitor
Human
USolute carrier family 15 member 1Not AvailableHuman
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
activator
Human
Absorption

~ 80% absorbed from GI tract

Time to reach peak plasma concentration = 47 minutes (suspension), 62 minutes (chewable tablets), 120 minutes (conventional tablets)

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

90-99% to whole human plasma and site II of purified albumin, binding appears to be saturable and becomes non-linear at concentrations exceeding 20 mcg/ml.

Metabolism

R-enanatiomer undergoes extensive enantiomeric conversion (53-65%) to the more active S-enantiomer in vivo. Metablized by oxidation to 2 inactive metabolites: (+)-2[4´-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)phenyl]propionic acid and (+)-2-[4´-(2-carboxypropyl)phenyl]propionic acid. Very small amounts of 1-hydroxyibuprofen and 3-hydroxyibuprofen have been recovered from urine. Cytochrome P450 2C9 is the major catalyst in the formation of oxidative metabolites. Oxidative metabolites may be conjugated to glucuronide prior to excretion.

Route of elimination

Ibuprofen is rapidly metabolized and eliminated in the urine.

Half life

2-4 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Side effects: May cause peripheral edema and fluid retention. Use caution in patients with congestive heart failure or severe uncontrolled hypertension. May cause dyspepsia, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, constipation, stomatitis, flatulence, bloating, epigastric pain, and abdominal pain. Peptic ulcer and GI bleeding have been reported. May also cause dizziness, headache and nervousness. Acute renal failure accompanied by acute tubular necrosis has been reported.

Most common symptoms of overdose are abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, vertigo, drowsiness (somnolence), dizziness and insomnia. Other symptoms of overdose include headache, loss of consciousness, tinnitus, CNS depression, convulsions and seizures. May rarely cause metabolic acidosis, abnormal hepatic function, hyperkalemia, renal failure, dyspnea, respiratory depression, coma, acute renal failure, and apnea (primarily in very young pediatric patients).

LD50=1255mg/kg(orally in mice)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Ibuprofen Action PathwayDrug action
Ibuprofen Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ibuprofen is combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ibuprofen is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ibuprofen is combined with 4-hydroxycoumarin.
AbacavirIbuprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AbciximabThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ibuprofen is combined with Abciximab.
AbemaciclibThe serum concentration of Abemaciclib can be increased when it is combined with Ibuprofen.
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Ibuprofen can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.
AcarboseIbuprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Acarbose which could result in a higher serum level.
AcebutololIbuprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Acebutolol.
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibuprofen is combined with Aceclofenac.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol
  • Food delays the time to reach peak plasma concentrations by 30-60 minutes and reduces peak plasma concentrations by 30-50%. Extent of absorption is unaffected.
  • Take with food to reduce gastric irritation.

References

General References
  1. Zawada ET Jr: Renal consequences of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Postgrad Med. 1982 May;71(5):223-30. [PubMed:7041104]
  2. Townsend KP, Pratico D: Novel therapeutic opportunities for Alzheimer's disease: focus on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. FASEB J. 2005 Oct;19(12):1592-601. [PubMed:16195368]
  3. Chen H, Jacobs E, Schwarzschild MA, McCullough ML, Calle EE, Thun MJ, Ascherio A: Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use and the risk for Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 2005 Dec;58(6):963-7. [PubMed:16240369]
  4. Geisslinger G, Dietzel K, Bezler H, Nuernberg B, Brune K: Therapeutically relevant differences in the pharmacokinetical and pharmaceutical behavior of ibuprofen lysinate as compared to ibuprofen acid. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1989 Jul;27(7):324-8. [PubMed:2777420]
  5. Bergner T, Przybilla B: Photosensitization caused by ibuprofen. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992 Jan;26(1):114-6. [PubMed:1531054]
  6. Dill J, Patel AR, Yang XL, Bachoo R, Powell CM, Li S: A molecular mechanism for ibuprofen-mediated RhoA inhibition in neurons. J Neurosci. 2010 Jan 20;30(3):963-72. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5045-09.2010. [PubMed:20089905]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0001925
KEGG Drug
D00126
KEGG Compound
C01588
PubChem Compound
3672
PubChem Substance
46507255
ChemSpider
3544
BindingDB
50009859
ChEBI
5855
ChEMBL
CHEMBL521
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000780
PharmGKB
PA449957
IUPHAR
2713
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Ibuprofen
ATC Codes
M02AA13 — IbuprofenR02AX02 — IbuprofenC01EB16 — IbuprofenM01AE51 — Ibuprofen, combinationsM01AE01 — IbuprofenG02CC01 — Ibuprofen
AHFS Codes
  • 28:08.04.92 — Other Nonsteroidal Antiimflammatory Agents
FDA label
Download (1.77 MB)
MSDS
Download (73.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedTreatmentFracture, Ankle1
0CompletedTreatmentPrimary Dysmenorrhoea1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1CompletedNot AvailableAutonomic Failure / Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension1
1CompletedNot AvailableBioequivalence1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers8
1CompletedBasic ScienceBioequivalence of the Test Formulation1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteer Study2
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers5
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Inflammatory Reaction / Pain1
1CompletedBasic ScienceInflammatory Reaction / Pain1
1CompletedBasic SciencePain4
1CompletedBasic SciencePharmacokinetics1
1CompletedDiagnosticBone destruction / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
1CompletedOtherModerate Pain1
1CompletedPreventionGastroduodenal Erosions1
1CompletedPreventionOther and unspecified effects of high altitude1
1CompletedSupportive CareBalanitis / Paraphimosis / Phimosis / Postoperative pain1
1CompletedTreatmentAllergic Rhinitis (AR)1
1CompletedTreatmentBioequivalency2
1CompletedTreatmentDuchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers11
1CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
1CompletedTreatmentNSAID Related Gastric Irritation1
1CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
1CompletedTreatmentPain1
1CompletedTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentTonsillectomy With or Without Adenoidectomy1
1RecruitingTreatmentNeonates / Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
1RecruitingTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
1TerminatedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1Unknown StatusBasic ScienceKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
1Unknown StatusBasic ScienceOther and unspecified effects of high altitude1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentTemporomandibular Joint Disorders1
1, 2Enrolling by InvitationPreventionAnalgesic Drugs / Pain Relief1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdenotonsillectomy / Opioids Use / Post-operative Analgesia1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentChoroidal Melanoma / Eye Neoplasms / Melanoma1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentInfant, Extremely Premature / IV Ibuprofen / Oral Ibuprofen / Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionRetinopathy of Prematurity1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentImpacted Wisdom Teeth1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTuberculosis1
2CompletedBasic ScienceSkeletal Muscle Mass Regulation1
2CompletedOtherComplication Due to Immunization1
2CompletedSupportive CareStomatitis, Aphthous1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Sore Throat Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentAdenoidectomy / Tonsillectomy1
2CompletedTreatmentCervical Strain1
2CompletedTreatmentContraception1
2CompletedTreatmentDelayed Onset Muscle Soreness1
2CompletedTreatmentDelayed Onset Muscle Soreness, DOMS1
2CompletedTreatmentDental Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2CompletedTreatmentDysmenorrhea1
2CompletedTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis / Pain / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentMigraines1
2CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
2CompletedTreatmentPain6
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
2CompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Dental Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentSoft Tissue Injury1
2Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CareGingivostomatitis / Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease / Herpangina1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) / Cystic tumour of the ganglia / De Quervain's Disease / Dupuytren's Contracture / Trigger Digit1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute Gouty Arthritis1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentConcussion, Brain1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceChronic Granulomatous Disease X-linked (X-CGD)1
2RecruitingPreventionFertilization in Vitro/Methods / Ovulation / Ovulation Inhibition / Ovulation Inhibition/Drug Effects / Pregnancy1
2RecruitingPreventionPost-ERCP Acute Pancreatitis1
2RecruitingSupportive CareCognitive Impairments / Stage 0 Colorectal Cancer / Stage I Colorectal Cancer / Stage II Colorectal Cancer / Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer / Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer / Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer / Stage III Colorectal Cancer / Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer / Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer / Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentCancer-related Cognitive Difficulties1
2RecruitingTreatmentComatose / Hyperpyrexia / Parasitemia / Plasmodium Infections / Seizures1
2RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery1
2RecruitingTreatmentPain Management1
2RecruitingTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
2RecruitingTreatmentSunburn1
2RecruitingTreatmentPainful musculoskeletal conditions1
2TerminatedTreatmentCervical Spondylosis / Lumbar Spondylosis1
2TerminatedTreatmentPost-surgical Dental Pain1
2TerminatedTreatmentPostsurgical Pain Due to Third Molar Extraction1
2Unknown StatusPreventionPost Bronchoscopy Fever1
2Unknown StatusPreventionSpectrum of Altitude-associated Neurologic Forms of Altitude1
2Unknown StatusSupportive CareMetastatic Cancers1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentImpacted Third Molar Tooth1
2WithdrawnTreatmentDental Pain1
2WithdrawnTreatmentHb-SS Disease With Vasoocclusive Pain / Hemoglobin SS Disease With Crisis / Hemoglobin SS Disease With Vasoocclusive Crisis / Other Sickle Cell Disease With Vaso-Occlusive Pain / Sickle Cell Disorders1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
2, 3CompletedBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2, 3CompletedSupportive CareHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCervicobrachial Neuralgia1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Rhinosinusitis (Diagnosis)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentHemodynamically Significant Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm Infants / Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) / Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Ankle Sprain1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCerebral Palsy (CP)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
3CompletedNot AvailablePain1
3CompletedPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Exercise-associated Hyponatremia / Perceived Exertion1
3CompletedPreventionAltitude Sickness1
3CompletedPreventionChronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) / Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome / Chronic Soft Tissue Pain / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Rheumatoid Arthritis1
3CompletedPreventionIUD Removal1
3CompletedPreventionPeptic Ulcers1
3CompletedPreventionUlcers1
3CompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) / Chronic Lung Diseases / Shock, Septic1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Sore Throat Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Wheezing1
3CompletedTreatmentBack Pain / Cervical Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentDelayed Onset Muscle Soreness, DOMS1
3CompletedTreatmentDental Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentDysmenorrhea1
3CompletedTreatmentFevers4
3CompletedTreatmentFevers / Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI)1
3CompletedTreatmentForearm Fractures1
3CompletedTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
3CompletedTreatmentModerate or Severe Submental Fullness1
3CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
3CompletedTreatmentPain9
3CompletedTreatmentPain / Post-Operative Pain / Third Molar Extraction1
3CompletedTreatmentPain / Pregnancy1
3CompletedTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)2
3CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Dental Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPost-surgical Pain Following Extraction of Molar Teeth1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Dental Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Tooth Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentPrimary Dysmenorrhoea1
3CompletedTreatmentTonsillectomy1
3CompletedTreatmentMinor burns1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAtopic Dermatitis (AD)1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCold1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHernia / Pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Radical Prostatectomy1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Rotator Cuff Syndrome1
3RecruitingSupportive CareMalignant Head and Neck Neoplasm / Mucositis / Radiation-Induced Disorder1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Musculoskeletal Disease / Emergency / Pain, Acute / Sprains / Sprains and Strains / Traumas / Traumatic Injuries1
3RecruitingTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
3RecruitingTreatmentLong-bone Fractures / Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
3RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Surgery, Outpatient1
3TerminatedTreatmentDysmenorrhea1
3TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3TerminatedTreatmentInfection NOS1
3TerminatedTreatmentModerate to Severe Primary Dysmenorrhea1
3TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3Unknown StatusSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHeadaches1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentMuscular Atrophy / Sprains / Tendonitis1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome1
3WithdrawnTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
3WithdrawnTreatmentPain1
3WithdrawnTreatmentAcute Rhinitis1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionPain, Acute / Postoperative pain1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentEclampsia / HELLP Syndrome / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
4CompletedNot AvailablePatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) / Prematurity of Fetus1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers2
4CompletedBasic ScienceIschaemic Heart Diseases / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4CompletedBasic SciencePain1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchPain1
4CompletedPreventionAcute Mountain Sickness, Blood Oxygen Saturation, Headache1
4CompletedPreventionArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / Osteoarthritis, Hip / Rheumatoid Arthritis1
4CompletedPreventionOsteoarthritis (OA) / Rheumatoid Arthritis1
4CompletedPreventionPain Measurement1
4CompletedPreventionRecurrence of Febrile Seizure1
4CompletedPreventionStreptococcal Infections1
4CompletedPreventionVaccines, Pneumococcal1
4CompletedSupportive CareCongenital Muscular Torticollis1
4CompletedSupportive CareOrthodontic Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CarePain1
4CompletedSupportive CarePain / Pituitary Neoplasms1
4CompletedSupportive CareSymptomatic Uterine Fibroids and Adenomyosis1
4CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Cystitis (Excl in Pregnancy)1
4CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesics1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroscopic Knee Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Obesity, Morbid1
4CompletedTreatmentBreast Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel / Cystic tumour of the ganglia / De Quervain's Disease / Trigger Finger1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Low Back Pain (CLBP)1
4CompletedTreatmentDental Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentFeeling Anxious / Nausea / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentFevers3
4CompletedTreatmentFevers / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentFracture Bone1
4CompletedTreatmentGallbladder disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentGastrointestinal Mucosal Damage1
4CompletedTreatmentGeneral Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentHeadache, Tension-Type / Headaches / Tension-Type Headache (Episodic)1
4CompletedTreatmentHeat / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentHypertension, Pregnancy-Induced / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia1
4CompletedTreatmentImpaired Renal Function / Myocardial Infarction / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentInfants, Premature / Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
4CompletedTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis1
4CompletedTreatmentJuvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)4
4CompletedTreatmentMigrainous Headache1
4CompletedTreatmentMosquito Bites1
4CompletedTreatmentMuscle Soreness1
4CompletedTreatmentNSAIDs / Pain Management1
4CompletedTreatmentNarcotic Use / Nausea / Occasional Constipation / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentOpioids Use / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis of the Hip or Knee1
4CompletedTreatmentPain8
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
4CompletedTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)2
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain4
4CompletedTreatmentRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
4CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
4CompletedTreatmentRotator Cuff Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentTraumas1
4CompletedTreatmentUrinary Tract Infections (UTIs)1
4Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CareColectomy / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain / Surgery, Colorectal1
4Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticChronic Renal Failure (CRF)1
4Not Yet RecruitingScreeningPhrenic Nerve Paralysis1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesics, Opioid / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / Child/Adolescent Problems / Emergency Service, Hospital / Fentanyl / Ibuprofen / Pain, Acute1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDistal Radius Fractures / Metacarpal Fractures / Pain Management1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Postoperative pain / Quality of Life1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
4RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Hip Fractures1
4RecruitingSupportive CareCarpal Tunnel1
4RecruitingSupportive CareImpacted Third Molar Tooth / Other Surgical Procedures / Pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentAbortion Second Trimester1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Diverticulitis1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Impaired Renal Function / Pharmacokinetics / Renal Failure1
4RecruitingTreatmentCervical Preparation / Pain / Pregnancy Termination1
4RecruitingTreatmentEpisodic Migraine1
4RecruitingTreatmentFevers / Pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentFlu caused by Influenza1
4RecruitingTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
4RecruitingTreatmentLumbar Disc Disease / Lumbar Radiculopathy / Prolapsed Lumbar Disc1
4RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancers1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost-Cesarean Section / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain3
4RecruitingTreatmentRib Fracture Multiple / Rib Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentRib Fractures / Wounds and Injuries1
4RecruitingTreatmentSciatica1
4RecruitingTreatmentSickle Cell Anemia Crisis1
4SuspendedTreatmentRotator Cuff Syndrome1
4TerminatedPreventionHeart Transplantation / Transplantation, Kidney / Transplantation, Liver1
4TerminatedPreventionHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4TerminatedTreatmentAdverse Reaction to Drug / Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) / Recurrent Tonsillitis / Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB)1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnalgesia / Aspiration / Pain / Tibial Fractures1
4TerminatedTreatmentDepression / Depression, Myalgia1
4TerminatedTreatmentHematologic Diseases / Sickle Cell Disorders1
4TerminatedTreatmentInflammatory Responses1
4TerminatedTreatmentPain1
4TerminatedTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
4TerminatedTreatmentPeriodontitis1
4TerminatedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareChronic Pelvic Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDental Extraction1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentFevers3
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPharyngitis1
4WithdrawnTreatmentArthritic Knee Pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) / Very Low Birth Weight Infants1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentColles Fracture1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAging / Physical Fitness1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableConcussions / Headaches1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAsthma, Allergic1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m21
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceIschemic Reperfusion Injury1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePlatelet Aggregation1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceStability & Variability of Lipid-derived Molecules in Sweat1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticDermatitis, Photocontact1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherAnti Inflammatory Non-Steroidal / Cystic Fibrosis (CF) / Neutrophils1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain / Wisdom Tooth1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBone destruction / Sarcopenia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareElbow Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareHyperalgesia / Ibuprofen / Postoperative pain / Remifentanil1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareInfertilities / Subfertility1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareRespiration Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnalgesia Post Fracture / Upper Extremity Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiverticulitis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDysmenorrhea1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFracture Bone1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGlaucoma / Ocular Hypertension1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHemophilia A / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHernia, Abdominal / Inguinal Hernias / Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy / Umbilical Hernias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) / Perinatal Asphyxia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInduction of Labour1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)4
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMusculoskeletal Injuries1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain3
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)3
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPneumonia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSkin Laxity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Stenosis of Lumbar Region1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpondyloarthritis, Axial1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentTemporomandibular Disorders1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationOtherKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableMultimodal Analgesia / Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherLocal Anesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionCachexia / Neoplasms1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionDisorder of Urinary Stent / Ureteral Spasm / Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction / Urolithiasis1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionImmune System and Related Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBiliary Colic1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHigh Altitude Headache / Other and unspecified effects of high altitude1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHypertension, Pregnancy-Induced1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentInguinal Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentRotator Cuff Tear Arthropathy1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentLaceration / Pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionPain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentCachexia / Cancer, Advanced1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) / Premature Babies1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) / Preterm Infants1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentSevere Traumatic Brain Injury / Subarachnoid Hemorrhage1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentSoft Tissue Injury1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableFevers1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceMalignant Neoplasm of Colon1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionOral Ibuprofen Prophylaxis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CarePrimary Post Tonsillectomy Hemorrhage / Secondary Post Tonsillectomy Hemorrhage1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentFevers1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentFlail Chest / General Surgery / Rib Fractures / Traumas1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentFracture Bone / Pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPleuro-pneumonia1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareToothache1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPsychiatric Disorder NOS1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Abbott Laboratories Ltd.
  • Actavis Group
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Aidarex Pharmacuticals LLC
  • Altura Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Amneal Pharmaceuticals
  • Apotheca Inc.
  • Apothecary Shop Wholesale
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Ascend Laboratories LLC
  • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
  • BASF Corp.
  • Bayer Healthcare
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • Blenheim Pharmacal
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceuticals
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Bv Pharbita
  • Cardinal Health
  • Caremark LLC
  • Central Texas Community Health Centers
  • Centrix Pharmaceuticals
  • Chain Drug
  • Corepharma LLC
  • Coupler Enterprises Inc.
  • Cumberland Pharmaceuticals
  • CVS Pharmacy
  • Darby Dental Supply Co. Inc.
  • Dept Health Central Pharmacy
  • DHHS Program Support Center Supply Service Center
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Doctor Reddys Laboratories Ltd.
  • Dorx LLC
  • Eckerd
  • Equaline Vitamins
  • Gm Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Golden State Medical Supply Inc.
  • Greenstone LLC
  • Group Health Cooperative
  • H and H Laboratories
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Hawthorn Pharmaceuticals
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Hl Moore Drug Exchange
  • Imiren Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Keltman Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Kowa Pharmaceuticals America Inc.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • LeaderPharma
  • Legacy Pharmaceuticals Packaging LLC
  • Liberty Pharmaceuticals
  • Lundbeck Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • McNeil Laboratories
  • Medicine Shop
  • Medique Products
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Medvantx Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Par Pharmaceuticals
  • Particle Dynamics Co.
  • Patient First Corp.
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Perrigo Co.
  • Pharmaceutical Association
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Pharmacia Inc.
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Poly Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Prescript Pharmaceuticals
  • Prescription Dispensing Service Inc.
  • Publix Super Markets
  • Qualitest
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Redpharm Drug
  • Remedy Repack
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Rite Aid Corp.
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Shanghai Ziyuan Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.
  • Shasun Chemicals & Drugs Ltd.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • St Mary's Medical Park Pharmacy
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Sunmark
  • Talbert Medical Management Corp.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • UDL Laboratories
  • Ultras Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Va Cmop Dallas
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Veratex Corp.
  • Vintage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Vistapharm Inc.
  • Walgreen Co.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • Wyeth Pharmaceuticals
  • Xactdose Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Kit
KitTopical
Tablet, extended releaseOral600 mg
CapsuleOral
TabletOral
Capsule; kitOral
CapsuleOral400 mg
CapsuleOral200 mg
Tablet, coatedOral256 mg/1
TabletOral400 mg/400mg
TabletOral600 mg/600mg
TabletOral800 mg/800mg
TabletOral300 mg
TabletOral600 mg
TabletOral200 mg
InjectionIntravenous400 mg/4mL
InjectionIntravenous800 mg/8mL
SolutionIntravenous100 mg
SuspensionOral100 mg
Tablet, chewableOral50 mg
SuspensionOral
TabletOral50 mg
SolutionOral100 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral200 mg/10mL
Suspension / dropsOral100 mg/5mL
Kit; tabletOral
Kit800 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral256 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral200 mg/1
SuspensionOral50 mg/1.25mL
Tablet, film coatedOral
Capsule, coatedOral200 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral220 mg/1
LiquidOral100 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral100 mg/5mL
Suspension / dropsOral50 mg/1.25mL
TabletOral200 mg/1
TabletOral400 mg/1
TabletOral600 mg/1
TabletOral800 1/1
TabletOral800 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral400 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral600 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral800 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral200 1/1
Tablet, film coatedOral200 mg/1 1
Tablet, film coatedOral200 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral400 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral400 mg/400mg
Tablet, film coatedOral400 mg/301
Tablet, film coatedOral600 mg/600mg
Tablet, film coatedOral600 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral800 mg/800mg
Tablet, film coatedOral800 mg/1
Tablet, sugar coatedOral200 mg/1
Tablet, sugar coatedOral
CapsuleOral200 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral200 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral
SuspensionOral40 mg
KitOral; Topical
Tablet, chewableOral100 mg
Tablet, coatedOral100 mg/1
TabletOral100 mg
Tablet, chewableOral100 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mg/1
Injection, solutionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
SolutionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous5 mg/ml
LiquidOral50 mg/1.25mL
Kit600 mg/1
TabletOral400 mg
KitOral
TabletOral400 mg/537mg
Tablet, film coatedOral200 1/2001
CreamTopical
KitOral600 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Neoprofen 20 mg/2 ml vial304.5USD ml
Caldolor 400 mg/4 ml vial2.21USD ml
Caldolor 800 mg/8 ml vial1.58USD ml
Nuprin arthritis patch1.11USD patch
Ibuprofen powder1.04USD g
Nuprin muscle & joint patch1.03USD patch
Profen II 45-800 mg 12 Hour tablet0.69USD tablet
Motrin 800 mg tablet0.59USD tablet
Advil allergy sinus caplet0.5USD caplet
Ibu-drops 40 mg/ml suspension drops0.42USD ml
Motrin 600 mg tablet0.4USD tablet
Ibuprofen 800 mg tablet0.36USD tablet
Ibuprofen 400 mg tablet0.35USD tablet
Infant's motrin 50 mg/1.25 ml0.34USD ml
Childs ibuprofen susp drp0.33USD ml
Ibuprofen 600 mg tablet0.33USD tablet
Wal-profen cold & sinus cplt0.3USD caplet
Infant ibuprofen susp drop0.29USD ml
Motrin 400 mg tablet0.29USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy infant ibuprofen susp drop0.25USD ml
Infants medi-profen susp0.23USD ml
Advil cold & sinus caplet0.22USD caplet
Advil pm caplet0.22USD caplet
Soba profen cold-sinus tablet0.22USD tablet
Midol caplet0.21USD caplet
Advil migraine 200 mg capsule0.2USD capsule
Ibuprofen cold-sinus caplet0.2USD caplet
Motrin 100 mg caplet0.2USD caplet
Motrin pm caplet0.2USD caplet
Advil 200 mg liqui-gel capsule0.19USD capsule
Soba profen ib caplet0.19USD caplet
Motrin 100 mg tablet chew0.18USD tablet
Pub infants profenib drops0.18USD ml
Sm ibuprofen ib 100 mg tablet0.18USD tablet
Eck ibuprofen jr caplet0.17USD caplet
Ibuprofen pm caplet0.17USD caplet
Advil 200 mg caplet0.15USD capsule
Advil 200 mg gel caplet0.15USD caplet
Advil 200 mg tablet0.15USD tablet
Ibuprofen 100 mg tablet chew0.15USD tablet
Motrin ib 200 mg caplet0.15USD caplet
Apo-Ibuprofen 600 mg Tablet0.14USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy ibuprofen jr str 100 mg tablet0.14USD tablet
Nu-Ibuprofen 600 mg Tablet0.14USD tablet
Motrin ib 200 mg tablet0.13USD tablet
Motrin ib 200 mg gelcap0.12USD capsule
Nuprin 200 mg caplet0.12USD caplet
Wal-profen 200 mg caplet0.12USD caplet
Wal-profen 200 mg tablet0.12USD tablet
Eql ibuprofen 200 mg tablet0.1USD tablet
Nuprin 200 mg tablet0.1USD tablet
Apo-Ibuprofen 400 mg Tablet0.08USD tablet
Ibuprofen ib 200 mg tablet0.08USD tablet
Novo-Profen 400 mg Tablet0.08USD tablet
Apo-Ibuprofen 300 mg Tablet0.07USD tablet
Medi-profen 200 mg tablet0.07USD tablet
Ibuprofen 100 mg/5ml Suspension0.06USD ml
Ibuprofen 200 mg caplet0.06USD caplet
Child ibuprofen susp0.05USD ml
Children's medi-profen susp0.05USD ml
Children's motrin cold suspension0.05USD ml
CVS Pharmacy ibuprofen 200 mg tablet0.05USD tablet
Ibuprofen cold suspension0.05USD ml
I-prin 200 mg tablet0.05USD tablet
Novo-Profen 600 mg Tablet0.05USD tablet
Children's motrin cold0.04USD ml
Pv ibuprofen 200 mg caplet0.04USD caplet
Soba children's profenib susp0.04USD ml
Ibuprofen 200 mg tablet0.03USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy ibuprofen 200 mg caplet0.02USD caplet
Pv ibuprofen 200 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5215755No1993-06-012010-06-01Us
US6599531No1997-06-102017-06-10Us
US6348216No1997-06-102017-06-10Us
US6342530No2000-11-142020-11-14Us
US6344479No2001-03-202021-03-20Us
US8415337No2012-03-022032-03-02Us
US6211246No1999-06-102019-06-10Us
US8883849No2002-01-172022-01-17Us
US9155718No2002-01-172022-01-17Us
US8263647No2002-05-302022-05-30Us
US7863287No2007-02-282027-02-28Us
US6251426No1998-06-252018-06-25Us
US6727286No2001-11-272021-11-27Us
US8735452No2009-09-302029-09-30Us
US9138404No2009-09-302029-09-30Us
US9114068No2009-09-302029-09-30Us
US8871810No2009-09-302029-09-30Us
US9012508No2010-09-142030-09-14Us
US9295639No2009-09-302029-09-30Us
US8067451No2006-07-182026-07-18Us
US8501228No2006-07-182026-07-18Us
US8318202No2006-07-182026-07-18Us
US8449910No2006-07-182026-07-18Us
US8309127No2006-07-182026-07-18Us
US8067033No2006-07-182026-07-18Us
US9649284No2009-09-302029-09-30Us
US9072710No2012-03-162032-03-16Us
US9072661No2012-03-162032-03-16Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)75-77.5U.S. Patent 3,228,831 U.S. Patent 3,385,886
water solubility21 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP3.97AVDEEF,A (1997)
logS-3.99ADME Research, USCD
Caco2 permeability-4.28ADME Research, USCD
pKa4.91SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0684 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.5ALOGPS
logP3.84ChemAxon
logS-3.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.85ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity60.73 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability23.76 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9927
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9619
Caco-2 permeable+0.8866
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.759
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9705
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9323
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9323
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7594
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6877
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9305
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9881
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9655
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9691
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9894
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.5553
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5142
Rat acute toxicity2.3092 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9719
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (11.4 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-02t9-1910000000-23f448d7be7d5cc35682
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-02t9-1910000000-cbe52d63986b68a2cec0
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00di-9300000000-cc259b7768023e4cdba8
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-03di-3910000000-618880f8fd7b8ec3d473
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-02t9-1910000000-23f448d7be7d5cc35682
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-02t9-1910000000-cbe52d63986b68a2cec0
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-9300000000-cc259b7768023e4cdba8
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-03xr-3900000000-e20ef3c30496e17720ba
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/ALC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0910000000-90bf6813134491c9fbfd
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/ALC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9800000000-56f599abc462380b648c
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6E) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-3910000000-618880f8fd7b8ec3d473
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-1900000000-f1b7a986fee133d97eb1
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0920000000-aa36b3244e32560bb9d5
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpropanoic acids. These are compounds with a structure containing a benzene ring conjugated to a propanoic acid.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Phenylpropanoids and polyketides
Class
Phenylpropanoic acids
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Phenylpropanoic acids
Alternative Parents
Monocyclic monoterpenoids / Aromatic monoterpenoids / Phenylpropanes / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
2-phenylpropanoic-acid / P-cymene / Aromatic monoterpenoid / Monocyclic monoterpenoid / Monoterpenoid / Phenylpropane / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Benzenoid / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
monocarboxylic acid (CHEBI:5855)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and...
Gene Name
PTGS2
Uniprot ID
P35354
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
Molecular Weight
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Chavez ML, DeKorte CJ: Valdecoxib: a review. Clin Ther. 2003 Mar;25(3):817-51. [PubMed:12852704]
  2. Ouellet M, Falgueyret JP, Percival MD: Detergents profoundly affect inhibitor potencies against both cyclo-oxygenase isoforms. Biochem J. 2004 Feb 1;377(Pt 3):675-84. [PubMed:14510637]
  3. Gallego-Sandin S, Novalbos J, Rosado A, Gisbert JP, Galvez-Mugica MA, Garcia AG, Pajares JM, Abad-Santos F: Effect of ibuprofen on cyclooxygenase and nitric oxide synthase of gastric mucosa: correlation with endoscopic lesions and adverse reactions. Dig Dis Sci. 2004 Sep;49(9):1538-44. [PubMed:15481334]
  4. Murphey LJ, Williams MK, Sanchez SC, Byrne LM, Csiki I, Oates JA, Johnson DH, Morrow JD: Quantification of the major urinary metabolite of PGE2 by a liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric assay: determination of cyclooxygenase-specific PGE2 synthesis in healthy humans and those with lung cancer. Anal Biochem. 2004 Nov 15;334(2):266-75. [PubMed:15494133]
  5. Sanchez-Fidalgo S, Martin-Lacave I, Illanes M, Motilva V: Angiogenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis in gastric ulcer healing. Effect of a selective cox-2 inhibitor. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Nov 28;505(1-3):187-94. [PubMed:15556152]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Chavez ML, DeKorte CJ: Valdecoxib: a review. Clin Ther. 2003 Mar;25(3):817-51. [PubMed:12852704]
  2. Patrignani P: Aspirin insensitive eicosanoid biosynthesis in cardiovascular disease. Thromb Res. 2003 Jun 15;110(5-6):281-6. [PubMed:14592549]
  3. Gupta K, Kaub CJ, Carey KN, Casillas EG, Selinsky BS, Loll PJ: Manipulation of kinetic profiles in 2-aryl propionic acid cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Feb 9;14(3):667-71. [PubMed:14741265]
  4. Martic M, Tatic I, Markovic S, Kujundzic N, Kostrun S: Synthesis, biological activity and molecular modeling studies of novel COX-1 inhibitors. Eur J Med Chem. 2004 Feb;39(2):141-51. [PubMed:14987823]
  5. Hillarp A: [Acetylsalicylic acid resistance--clinical diagnosis with unclear mechanism]. Lakartidningen. 2004 Nov 4;101(45):3504-6, 3508-9. [PubMed:15575422]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  7. Yu L, Shi D, Ma L, Zhou Q, Zeng S: Influence of CYP2C8 polymorphisms on the hydroxylation metabolism of paclitaxel, repaglinide and ibuprofen enantiomers in vitro. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2013 Jul;34(5):278-87. doi: 10.1002/bdd.1842. Epub 2013 Jun 3. [PubMed:23536207]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Modulator
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Suppresses apoptosis in a variety of cell systems including factor-dependent lymphohematopoietic and neural cells. Regulates cell death by controlling the mitochondrial membrane permeability. Appea...
Gene Name
BCL2
Uniprot ID
P10415
Uniprot Name
Apoptosis regulator Bcl-2
Molecular Weight
26265.66 Da
References
  1. Palayoor ST, J-Aryankalayil M, Makinde AY, Cerna D, Falduto MT, Magnuson SR, Coleman CN: Gene expression profile of coronary artery cells treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reveals off-target effects. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2012 Jun;59(6):487-99. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e31824ba6b5. [PubMed:22668799]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Modulator
General Function
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function
Thrombomodulin is a specific endothelial cell receptor that forms a 1:1 stoichiometric complex with thrombin. This complex is responsible for the conversion of protein C to the activated protein C ...
Gene Name
THBD
Uniprot ID
P07204
Uniprot Name
Thrombomodulin
Molecular Weight
60328.72 Da
References
  1. Palayoor ST, J-Aryankalayil M, Makinde AY, Cerna D, Falduto MT, Magnuson SR, Coleman CN: Gene expression profile of coronary artery cells treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reveals off-target effects. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2012 Jun;59(6):487-99. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e31824ba6b5. [PubMed:22668799]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Converts the abundant, but inactive, zymogen plasminogen to plasmin by hydrolyzing a single Arg-Val bond in plasminogen. By controlling plasmin-mediated proteolysis, it plays an important role in t...
Gene Name
PLAT
Uniprot ID
P00750
Uniprot Name
Tissue-type plasminogen activator
Molecular Weight
62916.495 Da
References
  1. Palayoor ST, J-Aryankalayil M, Makinde AY, Cerna D, Falduto MT, Magnuson SR, Coleman CN: Gene expression profile of coronary artery cells treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reveals off-target effects. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2012 Jun;59(6):487-99. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e31824ba6b5. [PubMed:22668799]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
FABP are thought to play a role in the intracellular transport of long-chain fatty acids and their acyl-CoA esters. FABP2 is probably involved in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein synthesis. Binds satu...
Gene Name
FABP2
Uniprot ID
P12104
Uniprot Name
Fatty acid-binding protein, intestinal
Molecular Weight
15207.165 Da
References
  1. Velkov T, Chuang S, Wielens J, Sakellaris H, Charman WN, Porter CJ, Scanlon MJ: The interaction of lipophilic drugs with intestinal fatty acid-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2005 May 6;280(18):17769-76. Epub 2005 Feb 18. [PubMed:15722357]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE...
Gene Name
PPARG
Uniprot ID
P37231
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Dill J, Patel AR, Yang XL, Bachoo R, Powell CM, Li S: A molecular mechanism for ibuprofen-mediated RhoA inhibition in neurons. J Neurosci. 2010 Jan 20;30(3):963-72. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5045-09.2010. [PubMed:20089905]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function
Involved in the transport of chloride ions. May regulate bicarbonate secretion and salvage in epithelial cells by regulating the SLC4A7 transporter. Can inhibit the chloride channel activity of ANO...
Gene Name
CFTR
Uniprot ID
P13569
Uniprot Name
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
Molecular Weight
168139.895 Da
References
  1. Devor DC, Schultz BD: Ibuprofen inhibits cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-mediated Cl- secretion. J Clin Invest. 1998 Aug 15;102(4):679-87. [PubMed:9710435]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Proton-dependent oligopeptide secondary active transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products.
Gene Name
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID
P46059
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 15 member 1
Molecular Weight
78805.265 Da
References
  1. Omkvist DH, Trangbaek DJ, Mildon J, Paine JS, Brodin B, Begtrup M, Nielsen CU: Affinity and translocation relationships via hPEPT1 of H-X aa-Ser-OH dipeptides: evaluation of H-Phe-Ser-OH as a pro-moiety for ibuprofen and benzoic acid prodrugs. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2011 Feb;77(2):327-31. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2010.12.009. Epub 2010 Dec 13. [PubMed:21147219]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleyleth...
Gene Name
PPARA
Uniprot ID
Q07869
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
Molecular Weight
52224.595 Da
References
  1. Lehmann JM, Lenhard JM, Oliver BB, Ringold GM, Kliewer SA: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma are activated by indomethacin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. J Biol Chem. 1997 Feb 7;272(6):3406-10. [PubMed:9013583]

Enzymes

Details
1. Cytochrome P450 2C9
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Mo SL, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Wei MQ, Zhou SF: New insights into the structural features and functional relevance of human cytochrome P450 2C9. Part I. Curr Drug Metab. 2009 Dec;10(10):1075-126. [PubMed:20167001]
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  4. Carlile DJ, Hakooz N, Bayliss MK, Houston JB: Microsomal prediction of in vivo clearance of CYP2C9 substrates in humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999 Jun;47(6):625-35. [PubMed:10383540]
  5. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Yu L, Shi D, Ma L, Zhou Q, Zeng S: Influence of CYP2C8 polymorphisms on the hydroxylation metabolism of paclitaxel, repaglinide and ibuprofen enantiomers in vitro. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2013 Jul;34(5):278-87. doi: 10.1002/bdd.1842. Epub 2013 Jun 3. [PubMed:23536207]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative reg...
Gene Name
UGT1A3
Uniprot ID
P35503
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3
Molecular Weight
60337.835 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 2 lacks trans...
Gene Name
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID
O60656
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9
Molecular Weight
59940.495 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as...
Gene Name
UGT2B4
Uniprot ID
P06133
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4
Molecular Weight
60512.035 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol su...
Gene Name
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID
P16662
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7
Molecular Weight
60694.12 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Palayoor ST, J-Aryankalayil M, Makinde AY, Cerna D, Falduto MT, Magnuson SR, Coleman CN: Gene expression profile of coronary artery cells treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reveals off-target effects. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2012 Jun;59(6):487-99. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e31824ba6b5. [PubMed:22668799]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and...
Gene Name
PTGS2
Uniprot ID
P35354
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
Molecular Weight
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Palayoor ST, J-Aryankalayil M, Makinde AY, Cerna D, Falduto MT, Magnuson SR, Coleman CN: Gene expression profile of coronary artery cells treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reveals off-target effects. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2012 Jun;59(6):487-99. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e31824ba6b5. [PubMed:22668799]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Yamasaki K, Rahman MH, Tsutsumi Y, Maruyama T, Ahmed S, Kragh-Hansen U, Otagiri M: Circular dichroism simulation shows a site-II-to-site-I displacement of human serum albumin-bound diclofenac by ibuprofen. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2000 May 14;1(2):E12. [PubMed:14727845]
  2. Galantini L, Leggio C, Konarev PV, Pavel NV: Human serum albumin binding ibuprofen: a 3D description of the unfolding pathway in urea. Biophys Chem. 2010 Apr;147(3):111-22. doi: 10.1016/j.bpc.2010.01.002. Epub 2010 Jan 18. [PubMed:20117876]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.
Gene Name
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID
O94956
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1
Molecular Weight
76709.98 Da
References
  1. Satoh H, Yamashita F, Tsujimoto M, Murakami H, Koyabu N, Ohtani H, Sawada Y: Citrus juices inhibit the function of human organic anion-transporting polypeptide OATP-B. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Apr;33(4):518-23. Epub 2005 Jan 7. [PubMed:15640378]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Faassen F, Vogel G, Spanings H, Vromans H: Caco-2 permeability, P-glycoprotein transport ratios and brain penetration of heterocyclic drugs. Int J Pharm. 2003 Sep 16;263(1-2):113-22. [PubMed:12954186]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification.
Gene Name
ABCC4
Uniprot ID
O15439
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4
Molecular Weight
149525.33 Da
References
  1. Reid G, Wielinga P, Zelcer N, van der Heijden I, Kuil A, de Haas M, Wijnholds J, Borst P: The human multidrug resistance protein MRP4 functions as a prostaglandin efflux transporter and is inhibited by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 5;100(16):9244-9. Epub 2003 Jun 30. [PubMed:12835412]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotre...
Gene Name
ABCC1
Uniprot ID
P33527
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1
Molecular Weight
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Reid G, Wielinga P, Zelcer N, van der Heijden I, Kuil A, de Haas M, Wijnholds J, Borst P: The human multidrug resistance protein MRP4 functions as a prostaglandin efflux transporter and is inhibited by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 5;100(16):9244-9. Epub 2003 Jun 30. [PubMed:12835412]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibit...
Gene Name
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID
P46721
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2
Molecular Weight
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Shitara Y, Sugiyama D, Kusuhara H, Kato Y, Abe T, Meier PJ, Itoh T, Sugiyama Y: Comparative inhibitory effects of different compounds on rat oatpl (slc21a1)- and Oatp2 (Slc21a5)-mediated transport. Pharm Res. 2002 Feb;19(2):147-53. [PubMed:11883641]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID
Q4U2R8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Mulato AS, Ho ES, Cihlar T: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs efficiently reduce the transport and cytotoxicity of adefovir mediated by the human renal organic anion transporter 1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Oct;295(1):10-5. [PubMed:10991954]
  2. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Hosoyamada M, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Characterization of methotrexate transport and its drug interactions with human organic anion transporters. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):666-71. [PubMed:12130730]
  3. Uwai Y, Saito H, Inui K: Interaction between methotrexate and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in organic anion transporter. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Dec 1;409(1):31-6. [PubMed:11099697]
  4. Apiwattanakul N, Sekine T, Chairoungdua A, Kanai Y, Nakajima N, Sophasan S, Endou H: Transport properties of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by organic anion transporter 1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 May;55(5):847-54. [PubMed:10220563]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad...
Gene Name
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. [PubMed:11306713]
  2. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Hosoyamada M, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Characterization of methotrexate transport and its drug interactions with human organic anion transporters. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):666-71. [PubMed:12130730]
  3. Kobayashi Y, Ohshiro N, Tsuchiya A, Kohyama N, Ohbayashi M, Yamamoto T: Renal transport of organic compounds mediated by mouse organic anion transporter 3 (mOat3): further substrate specificity of mOat3. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 May;32(5):479-83. [PubMed:15100168]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates saturable uptake of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and related compounds.
Gene Name
SLC22A11
Uniprot ID
Q9NSA0
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 11
Molecular Weight
59970.945 Da
References
  1. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Hosoyamada M, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Characterization of methotrexate transport and its drug interactions with human organic anion transporters. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):666-71. [PubMed:12130730]
  2. Cha SH, Sekine T, Kusuhara H, Yu E, Kim JY, Kim DK, Sugiyama Y, Kanai Y, Endou H: Molecular cloning and characterization of multispecific organic anion transporter 4 expressed in the placenta. J Biol Chem. 2000 Feb 11;275(6):4507-12. [PubMed:10660625]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 23, 2018 19:37