Identification

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Name
Acetaminophen
Accession Number
DB00316  (APRD00252)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Acetaminophen (paracetamol), also commonly known as Tylenol, is the most commonly taken analgesic worldwide and is recommended as first-line therapy in pain conditions by the World Health Organization (WHO) 10. It is also used for its antipyretic effects, helping to reduce fever 22. This drug was initially approved by the U.S. FDA in 1951 Label and is available in a variety of forms including syrup form, regular tablets, effervescent tablets, injection, suppository, and other forms 15,16,22, Label.

Acetaminophen is often found combined with other drugs in more than 600 over the counter (OTC) allergy medications, cold medications, sleep medications, pain relievers, and other products 19. Confusion about dosing of this drug may be caused by the availability of different formulas, strengths, and dosage instructions for children of different ages 19. Due to the possibility of fatal overdose and liver failure associated with the incorrect use of acetaminophen, it is important to follow current and available national and manufacturer dosing guidelines while this drug is taken or prescribed 20,21, Label.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 4-(Acetylamino)phenol
  • 4-acetamidophenol
  • 4'-hydroxyacetanilide
  • Acenol
  • Acetaminofén
  • Acétaminophène
  • APAP
  • N-acetyl-p-aminophenol
  • p-acetamidophenol
  • p-acetaminophenol
  • p-Acetylaminophenol
  • p-hydroxy-acetanilid
  • p-hydroxyacetanilide
  • p-hydroxyphenolacetamide
  • Paracétamol
  • Paracetamol
  • Paracetamolum
External IDs
NSC-109028 / NSC-3991
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AcetaminophenTablet325 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2011-03-092012-08-16Us
Acetaminophen InjectionSolution10 mgIntravenousAvir Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Childrens SilapapLiquid160 mg/5mLOralbryant ranch prepack1994-09-05Not applicableUs
OfirmevInjection, solution10 mg/1mLIntravenousMallinckrodt Hospital Products Inc.2010-11-08Not applicableUs
OfirmevSolution10 mgIntravenousMallinckrodt Hospital Products IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
OfirmevInjection, solution10 mg/1mLIntravenousCardinal Health2010-11-082019-02-28Us
Regular Strength QPAPTablet325 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack1996-02-01Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AcephenSuppository325 mg/1RectalRemedy Repack2015-01-162016-01-16Us
Good Neighbor Pharmacy Pain ReliefTablet, film coated, extended release650 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2008-11-03Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
222 AF Extra Strength Caplet (500mg)Tablet500 mgOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1992-12-311997-08-14Canada
222 AF Regular Strength Caplet (325mg)Tablet325 mgOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1992-12-311997-08-14Canada
222af Extra Strength 500mgTablet500 mgOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1978-12-311997-08-14Canada
222af Regular Strength 325mgTablet325 mgOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1977-12-311997-08-14Canada
365 Everyday Value AcetaminophenTablet500 mg/1OralWhole Foods Market, Inc.2018-08-23Not applicableUs
7 Select AcetaminophenTablet500 mg/1Oral7 Eleven2014-05-14Not applicableUs
7 Select Childrens Pain ReliefSuspension160 mg/5mLOral7 Eleven2014-08-13Not applicableUs
8 Hour Pain ReliefTablet, film coated, extended release650 mg/1OralHyvee2005-09-23Not applicableUs
8 Hour Pain ReliefTablet, film coated, extended release650 mg/1OralCVS Health2008-08-272017-12-18Us
8HR Arthritis Pain ReliefTablet, film coated, extended release650 mg/1OralCVS PHARMACY2000-05-31Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
(extra Strength) Acetaminophen, Caffeine & 8mg Codeine Phosphate CapletsAcetaminophen (500 mg) + Caffeine (15 mg) + Codeine phosphate (8 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1998-07-222002-07-31Canada
10 Person ANSIAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Lidocaine (0.5 1/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitGenuine First Aid2010-04-24Not applicableUs
25 Person ANSIAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 g/100g) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Isopropyl alcohol (70 mL/100mL) + Lidocaine (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitGenuine First Aid2010-04-25Not applicableUs
4017 First Aid KitAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4022 First Aid KitAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4056 First Aid KitAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-182018-12-30Us
4068 First Aid KitAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-182018-12-30Us
4069 First Aid KitAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-182019-03-10Us
4076 First Aid KitAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4081 First Aid KitAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-182018-12-30Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
4017 First Aid KitAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4022 First Aid KitAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4056 First Aid KitAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-182018-12-30Us
4068 First Aid KitAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-182018-12-30Us
4069 First Aid KitAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-182019-03-10Us
4076 First Aid KitAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4081 First Aid KitAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-182018-12-30Us
4082 First Aid KitAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-182018-12-30Us
4083 First Aid KitAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-182018-12-30Us
4084 First Aid KitAcetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmic; Oral; TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-182018-12-30Us
International/Other Brands
Acamol (Teva) / Aceta Elixir / Aceta Tablets / Acetalgin / Actamin / Actimol / Algotropyl / Alvedon / Aminofen / Anacin-3 / Anhiba / Apacet / Banesin / Calpol / Conacetol / Dafalgan / Dapa X-S / Disprol / Dolprone / Dymadon / Dypap / Enelfa / Febridol / Febrilix / Finimal / Gelocatil / Genapap / Genebs / Injectapap / Liquiprin / Napafen / Oraphen-PD / Paldesic / Panofen / Paraspen / Parmol / Redutemp / Rounox / Salzone / Snaplets-FR / St. Joseph Fever Reducer / Suppap / Tapanol / Valorin
Categories
UNII
362O9ITL9D
CAS number
103-90-2
Weight
Average: 151.1626
Monoisotopic: 151.063328537
Chemical Formula
C8H9NO2
InChI Key
RZVAJINKPMORJF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H9NO2/c1-6(10)9-7-2-4-8(11)5-3-7/h2-5,11H,1H3,(H,9,10)
IUPAC Name
N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide
SMILES
CC(=O)NC1=CC=C(O)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

In general, acetaminophen is used for the treatment of mild to moderate pain and reduction of fever 22. It is available over the counter in various forms, the most common being oral forms.

Acetaminophen injection is indicated for Label:

• Management of mild to moderate pain

• Management of moderate to severe pain with adjunctive opioid analgesics

• Reduction of fever

Because of its low risk of causing allergic reactions, this drug can be administered in patients who are intolerant to salicylates and those with allergic tendencies, including bronchial asthmatics 22. Specific dosing guidelines should be followed when administering acetaminophen to children 18.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Animal and clinical studies have determined that acetaminophen has both antipyretic and analgesic effects. This drug has been shown to lack anti-inflammatory effects. As opposed to the salicylate drug class, acetaminophen does not disrupt tubular secretion of uric acid and does not affect acid-base balance if taken at the recommended doses 22. Acetaminophen does not disrupt hemostasis and does not have inhibitory activities against platelet aggregation Label, 22. Allergic reactions are rare occurrences following acetaminophen use 22.

Mechanism of action

Although acetaminophen's exact mechanism of action has not been fully established, according to the FDA label Label, it is categorized as an NSAID (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) due to that fact that it inhibits the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways 14, and it is thought to exert central actions which ultimately lead to the alleviation of pain symptoms Label.

One theory is that acetaminophen increases the pain threshold by inhibiting two isoforms of cyclooxygenase, COX-1 and COX-2, which are involved in prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. Prostaglandins are responsible for eliciting pain sensations 13. Acetaminophen does not inhibit cyclooxygenase in peripheral tissues and, therefore, has no peripheral anti-inflammatory effects. Though acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is an irreversible inhibitor of COX and directly blocks the active site of this enzyme, studies have shown that acetaminophen (paracetamol) blocks COX indirectly 23. Studies also suggest that acetaminophen selectively blocks a variant type of the COX enzyme 6 that is unique from the known variants COX-1 and COX-2. This enzyme has been referred to as COX-3. The antipyretic actions of acetaminophen are likely attributed to direct action on heat-regulating centers in the brain, resulting in peripheral vasodilation, sweating, and loss of body heat 23. The exact mechanism of action of this drug is not fully understood at this time, but future research may contribute to deeper knowledge 23.

TargetActionsOrganism
AProstaglandin G/H synthase 2
inhibitor
Humans
AProstaglandin G/H synthase 1
inhibitor
Humans
UProstaglandin G/H synthase 3
inhibitor
Mouse
UFatty-acid amide hydrolase 1
substrate
Humans
UTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1
activator
Humans
UGlutathione S-transferase PNot AvailableHumans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

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Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Blackbox Warnings

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Absorption

Acetaminophen has 88% oral bioavailability and reaches its highest plasma concentration 90 minutes after ingestion 9. Peak blood levels of free acetaminophen are not reached until 3 hours after rectal administration of the suppository form of acetaminophen and the peak blood concentration is approximately 50% of the observed concentration after the ingestion of an equivalent oral dose (10-20 mcg/mL) 22.

The percentage of a systemically absorbed rectal dose of acetaminophen is inconsistent, demonstrated by major differences in the bioavailability of acetaminophen after a dose administered rectally. Higher rectal doses or an increased frequency of administration may be used to attain blood concentrations of acetaminophen similar to those attained after oral acetaminophen administration Label.

Volume of distribution

Volume of distribution is about 0.9L/kg. 10 to 20% of the drug is bound to red blood cells 11.

Acetaminophen appears to be widely distributed throughout most body tissues except in fat Label.

Protein binding

The binding of acetaminophen to plasma proteins is low (ranging from 10% to 25%), when given at therapeutic doses Label.

Metabolism

Acetaminophen is the major metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilid 22. Acetaminophen is mainly metabolized in the liver by first-order kinetics and its metabolism of comprised of 3 pathways: conjugation with glucuronide, conjugation with sulfate, and oxidation through the cytochrome P450 enzyme pathway, mainly CYP2E1, to produce a reactive metabolite (N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine or NAPQI). At normal therapeutic doses, NAPQI undergoes fast conjugation with glutathione and is subsequently metabolized to produce both cysteine and mercapturic acid conjugates Label.

High doses of acetaminophen (overdoses) can lead to hepatic necrosis due to the depletion of glutathione and of binding of high levels of reactive metabolite (NAPQI) to important parts of liver cells. The abovementioned damage to the liver can be prevented by the early administration of sulfhydryl compounds, for example, methionine and N-acetylcysteine 12.

Route of elimination

Acetaminophen metabolites are mainly excreted in the urine. Less than 5% is excreted in the urine as free (unconjugated) acetaminophen and at least 90% of the administered dose is excreted within 24 hours 22.

Half life

The half-life for adults is 2.5 h after an intravenous dose of 15 mg/kg Label. After an overdose, the half-life can range from 4 to 8 hours depending on the severity of injury to the liver, as it heavily metabolizes acetaminophen 9. More information on half-life for neonates and other populations may be found on the acetaminophen FDA label Label.

Clearance

Adults: 0.27 L/h/kg following a 15 mg/kg intravenous (IV) dose Label. Children: 0.34 L/h/kg following a 15 mg/kg intravenous (IV dose) Label.

More clearance information for a variety of populations is available on the acetaminophen FDA label Label.

Toxicity

LD50 = 338 mg/kg (oral, mouse); LD50 = 1944 mg/kg (oral, rat) 23

Overdose and liver toxicity

Acetaminophen overdose may be manifested by renal tubular necrosis, hypoglycemic coma, and thrombocytopenia. Sometimes, liver necrosis can occur as well as liver failure. Death and the requirement of a liver transplant may also occur Label. Metabolism by the CYP2E1 pathway releases a toxic acetaminophen metabolite known as N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine(NAPQI). The toxic effects caused by this drug are attributed to NAPQI, not acetaminophen alone 23.

Carcinogenesis

Long-term studies in mice and rats have been completed by the National Toxicology Program to study the carcinogenic risk of acetaminophen. In 2-year feeding studies, F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice consumed a diet containing acetaminophen up to 6,000 ppm. Female rats showed evidence of carcinogenic activity demonstrated by a higher incidence of mononuclear cell leukemia at doses 0.8 times the maximum human daily dose (MHDD). No evidence of carcinogenesis in male rats (0.7 times) or mice (1.2 to 1.4 times the MHDD) was noted Label. The clinical relevance of this finding in humans is unknown.

Mutagenesis

Acetaminophen was not found to be mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test). Despite this finding, acetaminophen tested positive in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay as well as the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay using human lymphocytes. In published studies, acetaminophen has been reported to be clastogenic (disrupting chromosomes) when given a high dose of 1,500 mg/kg/day to the rat model (3.6 times the MHDD). No clastogenicity was observed at a dose of 750 mg/kg/day (1.8 times the MHDD), indicating that this drug has a threshold before it may cause mutagenesis Label. The clinical relevance of this finding in humans is unknown.

Impairment of Fertility

In studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program, fertility assessments have been performed in Swiss mice in a continuous breeding study. No effects on fertility were seen Label.

Use in pregnancy and nursing

The FDA label for acetaminophen considers it a pregnancy category C drug, meaning this drug has demonstrated adverse effects in animal studies. No human clinical studies in pregnancy have been done to this date for intravenous acetaminophen Label. Use acetaminophen only when necessary during pregnancy Label. Epidemiological data on oral acetaminophen use in pregnant women demonstrate no increase in the risk of major congenital malformations Label. While prospective clinical studies examining the results of nursing with acetaminophen use have not been conducted, acetaminophen is found secreted in human milk at low concentrations after oral administration. Data from more than 15 nursing mothers taking acetaminophen was obtained, and the calculated daily dose of acetaminophen that reaches the infant is about 1 to 2% of the maternal dose. Caution should be observed when acetaminophen is taken by a nursing woman Label.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Acetaminophen Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Acetaminophen Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be increased when combined with Acetaminophen.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when combined with Acetaminophen.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be increased when combined with Acetaminophen.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe metabolism of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Acetaminophen.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Acetaminophen.
8-azaguanineThe metabolism of 8-azaguanine can be decreased when combined with Acetaminophen.
8-chlorotheophyllineThe metabolism of 8-chlorotheophylline can be decreased when combined with Acetaminophen.
9-DeazaguanineThe metabolism of 9-Deazaguanine can be decreased when combined with Acetaminophen.
9-MethylguanineThe metabolism of 9-Methylguanine can be decreased when combined with Acetaminophen.
AbacavirAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
Additional Data Available
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    Extended Description

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

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  • Action
    Action

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Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol (may increase risk of hepatotoxicity).
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference

Jeffrey L. Finnan, Rudolph E. Lisa, Douglass N. Schmidt, "Process for preparing spray dried acetaminophen powder and the powder prepared thereby." U.S. Patent US4710519, issued October, 1975.

US4710519
General References
  1. Kis B, Snipes JA, Busija DW: Acetaminophen and the cyclooxygenase-3 puzzle: sorting out facts, fictions, and uncertainties. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Oct;315(1):1-7. Epub 2005 May 6. [PubMed:15879007]
  2. Aronoff DM, Oates JA, Boutaud O: New insights into the mechanism of action of acetaminophen: Its clinical pharmacologic characteristics reflect its inhibition of the two prostaglandin H2 synthases. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Jan;79(1):9-19. [PubMed:16413237]
  3. Bertolini A, Ferrari A, Ottani A, Guerzoni S, Tacchi R, Leone S: Paracetamol: new vistas of an old drug. CNS Drug Rev. 2006 Fall-Winter;12(3-4):250-75. [PubMed:17227290]
  4. Graham GG, Scott KF: Mechanism of action of paracetamol. Am J Ther. 2005 Jan-Feb;12(1):46-55. [PubMed:15662292]
  5. Ohki S, Ogino N, Yamamoto S, Hayaishi O: Prostaglandin hydroperoxidase, an integral part of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase from bovine vesicular gland microsomes. J Biol Chem. 1979 Feb 10;254(3):829-36. [PubMed:104998]
  6. Chandrasekharan NV, Dai H, Roos KL, Evanson NK, Tomsik J, Elton TS, Simmons DL: COX-3, a cyclooxygenase-1 variant inhibited by acetaminophen and other analgesic/antipyretic drugs: cloning, structure, and expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Oct 15;99(21):13926-31. Epub 2002 Sep 19. [PubMed:12242329]
  7. Adjei AA, Gaedigk A, Simon SD, Weinshilboum RM, Leeder JS: Interindividual variability in acetaminophen sulfation by human fetal liver: implications for pharmacogenetic investigations of drug-induced birth defects. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2008 Mar;82(3):155-65. doi: 10.1002/bdra.20535. [PubMed:18232020]
  8. Hazai E, Vereczkey L, Monostory K: Reduction of toxic metabolite formation of acetaminophen. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Mar 8;291(4):1089-94. [PubMed:11866476]
  9. Mazaleuskaya LL, Sangkuhl K, Thorn CF, FitzGerald GA, Altman RB, Klein TE: PharmGKB summary: pathways of acetaminophen metabolism at the therapeutic versus toxic doses. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2015 Aug;25(8):416-26. doi: 10.1097/FPC.0000000000000150. [PubMed:26049587]
  10. Ennis ZN, Dideriksen D, Vaegter HB, Handberg G, Pottegard A: Acetaminophen for Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review on Efficacy. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016 Mar;118(3):184-9. doi: 10.1111/bcpt.12527. Epub 2015 Dec 28. [PubMed:26572078]
  11. Bannwarth B, Pehourcq F: [Pharmacologic basis for using paracetamol: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic issues]. Drugs. 2003;63 Spec No 2:5-13. [PubMed:14758786]
  12. Forrest JA, Clements JA, Prescott LF: Clinical pharmacokinetics of paracetamol. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1982 Mar-Apr;7(2):93-107. [PubMed:7039926]
  13. Ricciotti E, FitzGerald GA: Prostaglandins and inflammation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011 May;31(5):986-1000. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.110.207449. [PubMed:21508345]
  14. Valerie Gerriets; Thomas M. Nappe (2019). Acetaminophen. StatPearls publishing.
  15. Acetaminophen tablet, DailyMed [Link]
  16. Acetaminophen effervescent tablets, Cleveland Clinic [Link]
  17. FDA safety communication: FDA has reviewed possible risks of pain medicine use during pregnancy [Link]
  18. U.S. National Medical Library: MedlinePlus- Acetaminophen dosing for children [Link]
  19. FDA consumer health information: Acetaminophen [Link]
  20. FDA : Acetaminophen Information [Link]
  21. Using Acetaminophen and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Safely [Link]
  22. Acetaminophen monograph, suppository [File]
  23. Acetaminophen data sheet, ebi.ac.uk [File]
  24. Tylenol arthritis pain label, OTC [File]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0001859
KEGG Drug
D00217
KEGG Compound
C06804
PubChem Compound
1983
PubChem Substance
46506142
ChemSpider
1906
BindingDB
26197
ChEBI
46195
ChEMBL
CHEMBL112
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001436
PharmGKB
PA448015
HET
TYL
Wikipedia
Acetaminophen
ATC Codes
N02BE71 — Paracetamol, combinations with psycholepticsN02BE01 — ParacetamolN02AJ13 — Tramadol and paracetamolN02AJ17 — Oxycodone and paracetamolN02BE51 — Paracetamol, combinations excl. psycholepticsN02AJ06 — Codeine and paracetamolN02AJ01 — Dihydrocodeine and paracetamol
AHFS Codes
  • 28:08.92 — Miscellaneous Analgesics and Antipyretics
PDB Entries
1tyl / 1tym / 2dpz / 2ocu / 3py4 / 4a9j / 4a9k / 4cut / 4gn6 / 4yji
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FDA label
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingOtherHealthy Adult Volunteers1
0CompletedTreatmentEmergence Agitation / Pain NOS1
0CompletedTreatmentFracture, Ankle1
0CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma1
0CompletedTreatmentImpacted Third Molar Tooth1
0CompletedTreatmentLumbar Spinal Instability / Lumbar Spine Degeneration / Spinal Stenosis of Lumbar Region1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentObesity, Morbid1
0RecruitingDiagnosticStage IIB Esophageal Cancer / Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage III Esophageal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer / Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer / Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer / Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer AJCC v71
0RecruitingPreventionAcetaminophen / Delirium in Old Age1
0RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Postoperative pain1
0RecruitingTreatmentCannabis Use Disorders1
0RecruitingTreatmentConcussion Post Syndrome1
0RecruitingTreatmentMeniscus Disorder / Narcotic Use1
0WithdrawnTreatmentOrthopaedic Related Pain (Musculoskeletal Pain) / Pain NOS1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) / Non Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma / Oral Mucositis1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM)1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentProgressive Multiple Sclerosis1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTransplantation, Liver1
1CompletedNot AvailableAnalgesia1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedNot AvailablePain NOS1
1CompletedNot AvailableTo Determine Bioequivalence Under Fasting Conditions1
1CompletedBasic ScienceAdministration, Oral / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) / Pharmacokinetics1
1CompletedBasic ScienceFetal Testing / Transplacental Transfer of Acetaminophen1
1CompletedBasic ScienceFocus of Study: Pharmacokinetics Analysis, in Vivo Dissolution Studies1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteer Study1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers3
1CompletedBasic ScienceObesity, Morbid1
1CompletedBasic ScienceUpper gastrointestinal motility disorders1
1CompletedDiagnosticOsteoarthritis (OA)1
1CompletedDiagnosticOsteoarthritis (OA) / Osteoporosis1
1CompletedOtherAcetaminophen Toxicity1
1CompletedOtherBioequivalence / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedOtherTo Determine Bioequivalence Under Fed Conditions1
1CompletedPreventionHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedSupportive CareBalanitis / Paraphimosis / Phimosis / Postoperative pain1
1CompletedTreatmentBrain Injured Patients1
1CompletedTreatmentChronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)1
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedTreatmentElderly / Pain, Chronic1
1CompletedTreatmentFevers / Headache Disorders / Pain NOS1
1CompletedTreatmentFevers / Pain NOS1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Participants / Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1)-Related Plexiform Neurofibromas (PNs)1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers7
1CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
1CompletedTreatmentNeonates / Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
1CompletedTreatmentPain NOS4
1CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
1CompletedTreatmentTumors, Solid1
1Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentComplications; Cesarean Section1
1Not Yet RecruitingOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1Not Yet RecruitingOtherNicotine Use Disorder1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPharmacological Action (PA)1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1RecruitingOtherImpacted Third Molar Tooth / Pain, Acute1
1RecruitingOtherNicotine Use Disorder1
1RecruitingPreventionInfections, Respiratory Syncytial Virus1
1RecruitingTreatmentGraft Versus Host Disease (GVHD) / Sickle Cell Disorders1
1RecruitingTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
1RecruitingTreatmentPompe's Disease1
1RecruitingTreatmentTumors, Solid1
1TerminatedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
1TerminatedTreatmentViral Hepatitis B1
1WithdrawnTreatmentOpioid-Related Disorders / Pain, Acute / Postoperative pain2
1WithdrawnTreatmentTonsillectomy With or Without Adenoidectomy1
1, 2CompletedSupportive CarePain Management / Phase 1: Pain Management / Phase 2: Pain Management1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentKidney Diseases / Transplantation, Kidney1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentLeukemia, Acute Lymphocytic (ALL) / Leukemia, Acute Myelogenous (AML) / Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous (CML) / Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPain, Fracture, Sprain1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPostpartum disorder1
1, 2Enrolling by InvitationPreventionAnalgesic Drugs / Pain Relief1
1, 2RecruitingPreventionLow Birthweight, Extremely (999 Grams or Less) / Prematurity; Extreme1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome / Acute, recurrent Myeloid Leukemia / Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia / TP53 Gene Mutation Negative1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAdenotonsillectomy / Analgesia, Postoperative / Opioids Use1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAdult Living Donor Kidney Transplant Recipients / Living Kidney Donors / Transplant, Kidney1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentCancer of the Ovary1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Cancers / Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma / Lung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) / Transitional Cell Carcinoma / Tumors, Solid1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentFevers / Intracerebral Hemorrhage / Stroke, Ischemic / Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / Subdural haematoma / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentLiver Transplanted Patients / Living Donor (of the Respective Liver Transplant Recipient)1
2Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceBorderline Personality Disorder (BPD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdenotonsillitis / Tonsillitis1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Stage Diffuse Large B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAplastic Anaemia (AA) / Congenital Hypoplastic Anemia / Thrombocytopenias1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentImpacted Wisdom Teeth1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain Management1
2CompletedNot AvailablePostoperative pain1
2CompletedHealth Services ResearchOsteoarthritis (OA)1
2CompletedPreventionAnalgesia1
2CompletedPreventionCleft Palates1
2CompletedPreventionComplications of Prematurity / Pain or Discomfort in Intensive Care of Preterm Infants / Persistent Ductus Arteriosus1
2CompletedPreventionIrreversible Pulpitis1
2CompletedSupportive CareMucositis1
2CompletedSupportive CarePost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentAdenoidectomy / Tonsillectomy1
2CompletedTreatmentAdverse Drug Events / Allergic Rhinitis (AR) / Quality of Life1
2CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer Dementia (AD) / Behavioural Disturbances / Dementia, Vascular / Dementias / Pain NOS1
2CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
2CompletedTreatmentBlood Cancers / Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) / Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD) / Hodgkins Disease (HD) / Leukemias / Malignancies / NHL / Smith-Magenis Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentBlood and Marrow Transplant (BMT) / Multiple Myeloma (MM) / Transplantation, Autologous / Transplantation, Homologous1
2CompletedTreatmentCervical Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentDental Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentGastrointestinal Diseases1
2CompletedTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis1
2CompletedTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis / Pain NOS / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentLeukemia, Mast-Cell / Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL)1
2CompletedTreatmentLymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL) / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas1
2CompletedTreatmentMelanoma (Skin)1
2CompletedTreatmentMigraine1
2CompletedTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM)1
2CompletedTreatmentNephritis, Lupus1
2CompletedTreatmentOther Acute Postoperative Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS9
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
2CompletedTreatmentPerineal Laceration (Obstetric) / Perineal Tears1
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
2CompletedTreatmentRejection, Transplant1
2CompletedTreatmentRenal Colic1
2CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
2CompletedTreatmentSevere Sepsis1
2CompletedTreatmentSoft Tissue Injury1
2CompletedTreatmentTonsillectomy1
2CompletedTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Rhinitis1
2Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CareGingivostomatitis / Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) / Herpangina1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAdenoid Hypertrophy1
2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionAdenoidectomy / Tonsillectomy1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) / Cystic tumour of the ganglia / De Quervain's Disease / Dupuytren's Contracture of the Hand (Viking's Disease) / Trigger Digit1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareErector Spinae Plane Block / Scoliosis Idiopathic / Scoliosis; Adolescence1
2Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentConcussion, Brain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFevers / Post-operative Cognitive Dysfunction / Surgery, Cardiac1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentObstetrical analgesia therapy1
2RecruitingOtherDrug Effect / Drug Reaction / Fevers / Pain NOS1
2RecruitingPreventionPain, Neuropathic1
2RecruitingSupportive CareCancer of the Breast / Cancer, Breast / Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
2RecruitingSupportive CareCancer, Breast1
2RecruitingSupportive CareCraniotomy1
2RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL)1
2RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast / Estrogen Receptor Positive Tumor / Her2-Positive Breast Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentChronic Lung Disease of Prematurity / Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) / Preterm, Infant1
2RecruitingTreatmentComatose / Hyperpyrexia / Parasitemia / Plasmodium Infections / Seizures1
2RecruitingTreatmentDiffuse Sclerosis Systemic / Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) / Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) / Sclerosis, Progressive Systemic1
2RecruitingTreatmentDouble-hit Lymphoma / Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL) / Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) / Peripheral T Cell Lymphoma (PTCL)1
2RecruitingTreatmentFevers / Oxidative Stress1
2RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery1
2RecruitingTreatmentHernia, Abdominal / Pain NOS1
2RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Wounds Injuries1
2RecruitingTreatmentMusculoskeletal Injuries1
2RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Upper Aerodigestive Tract / Uterine Cervical Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentOrthopaedic Related Pain (Musculoskeletal Pain)1
2RecruitingTreatmentPain Management1
2RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
2RecruitingTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
2RecruitingTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
2RecruitingTreatmentPreeclampsia Postpartum / Severe Preeclampsia1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute, recurrent Myeloid Leukemia / Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia / Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia1
2RecruitingTreatmentRotator Cuff Syndrome1
2RecruitingTreatmentTransplant, Kidney1
2TerminatedTreatmentBlood and Marrow Transplant (BMT) / Diffuse Large B-Cell / Lymphoma, B-Cell / Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL) / Lymphomas: Non-Hodgkin / Malignant Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
2TerminatedTreatmentT-cell Type Acute Leukemia-Precursor T-lymphoblastic Lymphoma/Leukaemia1
2TerminatedTreatmentToothache1
2TerminatedTreatmentTransplantation, Kidney1
2Unknown StatusSupportive CareMetastatic Cancers / Pain NOS / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentArnold-Chiari Malformation / Posterior Fossa Tumors1
2WithdrawnTreatmentCleft Palates1
2WithdrawnTreatmentDental Pain1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
2, 3CompletedSupportive CareHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAcute Agitation / Dementias / Pain NOS1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentFevers / Pain NOS1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentNo Liver and Kidney Problem / No Sign of Infection / Patients With Body Temperature Between 37.8-38.51
2, 3CompletedTreatmentSystemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture / Muscle Weakness1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPityriasis Alba1
2, 3RecruitingBasic ScienceCesarean Section; Infection / Surgical Site Infections1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Injury1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Rhinosinusitis (Diagnosis)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentFeeling Anxious / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentHemodynamically Significant Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm Infants / Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentNarcotic Use1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) / Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentSystemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBrachial Plexus Block / Postoperative pain1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPaget Disease, Extramammary1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain2
3CompletedPreventionFevers1
3CompletedPreventionFevers / Infections, Rotavirus1
3CompletedPreventionMumps / Rubella / Rubeola1
3CompletedPreventionNausea / Pain NOS / Vomiting1
3CompletedSupportive CareAnalgesia After ED Discharge for Extremity Injuries1
3CompletedSupportive CareNon-Melanoma Skin Cancer (NMSC)1
3CompletedSupportive CarePain NOS1
3CompletedTreatmentAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Abdomen / Children1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Low Back Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Migraine1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Nonlymphocytic Leukemia / Leukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) / Leukemias1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Traumatic Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Wheezing1
3CompletedTreatmentBack Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
3CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic4
3CompletedTreatmentBreech Presentation / Pregnancy1
3CompletedTreatmentCerebrovascular Accidents / Heart Diseases / Migraine Disorders / Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD) / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA) / Vascular Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentDental Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Neuropathies1
3CompletedTreatmentDrug Resistant Malaria Due to Plasmodium Falciparum1
3CompletedTreatmentFevers4
3CompletedTreatmentFevers / Pain NOS1
3CompletedTreatmentFevers / Pain, Acute1
3CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
3CompletedTreatmentHysterectomy / Postoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
3CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Osteoarthritis, Hip1
3CompletedTreatmentLabour Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentLong-bone Fractures / Pain NOS1
3CompletedTreatmentMalignancies / Pain NOS1
3CompletedTreatmentMeningitis, Bacterial1
3CompletedTreatmentMigraine Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentModerate to Severe Chronic, Non-malignant Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentMyopia1
3CompletedTreatmentNasal Stuffiness / Rhinorrhea / Sneezing / Upper Respiratory Tract Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentNausea / Pain NOS / Vomiting2
3CompletedTreatmentNephritis, Lupus1
3CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)4
3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS7
3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Postoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute2
3CompletedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
3CompletedTreatmentPharyngitis1
3CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Dental Pain / Tooth Extraction Status Nos1
3CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPost-surgical Pain Following Extraction of Molar Teeth1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Dental Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain7
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Rhinitis1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnalgesia1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute Pyelonephritis / Complicated Urinary Tract Infections1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Shock, Septic1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia / Back Pain / Caudal epidural block therapy / Fusion of Spine (Disease) / General Surgery / Local Anesthesia / Postoperative pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMechanical Low Back Pain / Postural Low Back Pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Postoperative pain1
3RecruitingDiagnosticAcetaminophen1
3RecruitingPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Anaesthesia therapy / Analgesics / Analgesics, Opioid / Dexmedetomidine / Gabapentin / Ketamine / Lidocaine / Narcotics / Obstructive Sleep Apnea of Child / Oximetry, Pulse / Pathologic Processes / Physiologic Effects of Drugs / Postoperative Complications / Respiratory Depression / Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) / Tonsillectomy1
3RecruitingPreventionIntraventricular haemorrhage neonatal1
3RecruitingSupportive CareCalcium Nephrolithiasis1
3RecruitingSupportive CareMalignant Head and Neck Neoplasm / Mucositis / Radiation-Induced Disorder1
3RecruitingTreatmentAbdominal Pain (AP)1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Pediatric1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Pain Due to Trauma1
3RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia1
3RecruitingTreatmentAortic Aneurysm, Abdominal / Local Anesthesia / Pain NOS1
3RecruitingTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
3RecruitingTreatmentBone Metastases / Malignant Lymphomas / Multiple Myeloma (MM) / Opioids Use / Pain NOS1
3RecruitingTreatmentCancer of the Ovary / Fallopian Tube Cancer / Primary Peritoneal Cancer1
3RecruitingTreatmentCervical Cancers1
3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease Requiring Chronic Dialysis / Hyperphosphataemia1
3RecruitingTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
3RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
3RecruitingTreatmentObesity, Childhood1
3RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Shoulder Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
3RecruitingTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)2
3RecruitingTreatmentPlasmodium Infections1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Radical Prostatectomy1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Surgery, Outpatient1
3SuspendedNot AvailableFevers / Sepsis1
3SuspendedTreatmentMigraine1
3TerminatedNot AvailablePost Operative Pain1
3TerminatedTreatmentHeadaches1
3TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3TerminatedTreatmentPemphigus1
3Unknown StatusPreventionInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Rhinitis / Flu-like Syndromes1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHip Arthroplasty / Knee Replacement Surgery / Spinal Anaesthesia1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Post Operative Pain1
3WithdrawnTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
3WithdrawnTreatmentHip Fractures / Pain NOS1
3WithdrawnTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
3WithdrawnTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
3WithdrawnTreatmentAcute Rhinitis1
4Active Not RecruitingNot AvailablePain NOS1
4Active Not RecruitingOtherHealthy Volunteers1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionAcetaminophen Toxicity1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionPain, Acute / Postoperative pain1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDelirium1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentEclampsia / HELLP Syndrome / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentImmune Suppression / Neoplasms, Lung / Pain NOS1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLumbar Disc Disease / Lumbar Radiculopathy / Prolapsed Lumbar Disc1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
4CompletedNot AvailableAlcohol Related Disorders2
4CompletedNot AvailableDrug Induced Liver Injury1
4CompletedNot AvailableAcute Rhinitis / Flu caused by Influenza1
4CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers / Therapeutic Agent Toxicity1
4CompletedNot AvailableModerate Alcohol Consumption (1-3 Drinks Per Day)1
4CompletedNot AvailablePain, Chronic2
4CompletedNot AvailableRheumatic Diseases1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAlcohol Abuse1
4CompletedBasic ScienceDriving Behavior1
4CompletedBasic ScienceFevers / Pain NOS / Pulmonary toxicity1
4CompletedBasic ScienceKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4CompletedBasic ScienceObesity, Morbid1
4CompletedBasic SciencePain NOS1
4CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchAnkylosing Spondylitis (AS)1
4CompletedPreventionAcute Mountain Sickness, Blood Oxygen Saturation, Headache1
4CompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedPreventionCoronary Arteriosclerosis / Endothelial Function1
4CompletedPreventionPain Measurement1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
4CompletedPreventionRecurrence of Febrile Seizure1
4CompletedPreventionShivering1
4CompletedPreventionStreptococcal Infections1
4CompletedPreventionVaccines, Pneumococcal1
4CompletedScreeningAntiphospholipid Syndrome / Deep Venous Thrombosis / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) / Strokes1
4CompletedSupportive CareAnalgesia / Fevers1
4CompletedSupportive CareCesarean Section / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareHemorrhage1
4CompletedSupportive CareOrthodontic Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CarePain NOS2
4CompletedSupportive CarePain NOS / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
4CompletedSupportive CarePost Operative Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CarePost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CarePost-Operative Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CarePost-op Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain2
4CompletedSupportive CareSymptomatic Uterine Fibroids and Adenomyosis1
4CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Hysterectomy (& Wertheim)1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Low Back Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Migraine2
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Rhinosinusitis / Respiratory Infections, Acute1
4CompletedTreatmentAirway Obstruction / Difficulty Swallowing / Tonsillitis1
4CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Dementia, Vascular / Dementias / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesics1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesics / Pain, Chronic / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentArthritis / Myocardial Infarction1
4CompletedTreatmentArthralgia/joint pain / Arthritis1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty1
4CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Rheumatic Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back2
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion1
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Obesity, Morbid1
4CompletedTreatmentBreast Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentCaesarian Section1
4CompletedTreatmentCarotid Endarterectomy and Carotid Artery Stenosis Patients / Endovascular Patients Undergoing Intracranial Intervention / Post-op Spine Patients Admitted to the NCCU / Post-operative Craniotomy Patients / Traumatic Brain Injuries NPO for at Least 12 Hours1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Release / Distal Radius Fractures / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentCatheter Related Bladder Discomfort1
4CompletedTreatmentCervical Preparation / Pain NOS / Pregnancy Termination1
4CompletedTreatmentCesarean Section; Dehiscence1
4CompletedTreatmentChildren / Postoperative pain / Recovery of Function1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Prostatitis With Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentCritical Illness / Fevers1
4CompletedTreatmentDelayed Onset Muscle Soreness1
4CompletedTreatmentDental Implants / Tooth Socket1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Neuropathies1
4CompletedTreatmentDiseases of Mitral Valve / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentDysmenorrhea1
4CompletedTreatmentFevers2
4CompletedTreatmentFevers / Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI)1
4CompletedTreatmentFibromyalgia / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentFlu caused by Influenza1
4CompletedTreatmentFracture Bone1
4CompletedTreatmentGall Stone Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentGastrointestinal Mucosal Damage1
4CompletedTreatmentGeneral Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Rhinitis / Headaches / Nasal Stuffiness1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentHospital Costs / Length of Stay / Patients Satisfaction / Postoperative Pain Score1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperalgesia / Pain, Acute1
4CompletedTreatmentHypertension, Pregnancy-Induced / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia1
4CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
4CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentInjection Site Irritation1
4CompletedTreatmentLabour Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentMalignancies1
4CompletedTreatmentNSAIDs / Pain Management1
4CompletedTreatmentNarcotic Use / Nausea / Occasional Constipation / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentOocyte Retrieval / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentOpioids Use / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentOrthopaedic Related Pain (Musculoskeletal Pain)2
4CompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Orthopedic Procedures / Shoulder1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)2
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoporosis1
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS16
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Sprains and Strains1
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Tonsillitis1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute4
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Migraine1
4CompletedTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
4CompletedTreatmentPelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Rhinitis / Pharyngitis / Tonsillitis1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative Function Level / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPost-surgical Dental Pain2
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain12
4CompletedTreatmentRecession, Gingival1
4CompletedTreatmentRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
4CompletedTreatmentRenal Colic1
4CompletedTreatmentRenal Colic / Urinary Calculi1
4CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
4CompletedTreatmentRib Fractures / Wounds and Injuries1
4CompletedTreatmentThroat Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentToothache1
4CompletedTreatmentUnilateral Knee Arthroplasty1
4CompletedTreatmentUrolithiasis1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Rhinitis1
4Enrolling by InvitationPreventionPost Electrophysiology Procedure Pain1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentHeadaches1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentMultimodal Analgesic Approach1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentNon-steroidal Ant Inflammatory Drugs / Opioids Use / Rhinoplasty1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceBariatric Surgery Candidate1
4Not Yet RecruitingOtherOpioid Substitution Treatment1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Pain, Neuropathic / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDistal Radius Fractures / Metacarpal Fractures / Pain Management1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDysmenorrhea1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFlu caused by Influenza1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHeadaches / Occipital Nerve Block / Pregnancy Related1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentInfertility, Female / Postoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLimb Deformities1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNarcotic Use / Opioid Abuse / Opioids Use / Otolaryngologic Disease / Pain NOS / Postoperative pain / Sinusitis1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS2
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS / Surgical Wound1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentTooth Lost1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceCerebral Palsy (CP) / SMA II1
4RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Hip Fractures1
4RecruitingPreventionDisseminated Sclerosis1
4RecruitingPreventionFebrile Convulsions1
4RecruitingPreventionVideo-assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS)1
4RecruitingScreeningAcetaminophen Exposure1
4RecruitingSupportive CareBlood Pressures1
4RecruitingSupportive CareCarpal Tunnel1
4RecruitingSupportive CareColon Diverticulosis / Colonic Neoplasms / Constipation Drug Induced / Diverticulitis, Colonic / Ileus / Ileus paralytic / Ileus; Mechanical / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Occasional Constipation / Postoperative pain / Rectum Cancer / Rectum Neoplasm1
4RecruitingSupportive CareNeoplasms, Thyroid / Parathyroid Adenomas / Parathyroid Diseases / Parathyroid Hyperplasia / Thyroid Cancers / Thyroid Diseases / Thyroid Goitre / Thyroid Nodules1
4RecruitingSupportive CareRecovery Following Cholecystectomy1
4RecruitingSupportive CareTonsillitis1
4RecruitingTreatmentAbdominal Wall Hernia / Bowel Diseases / Gastric Diseases / Gastric Outlet Obstruction / Pancreatic Diseases1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcetaminophen / Arthroplasties, Hip Replacement / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Diverticulitis1
4RecruitingTreatmentAdenoidectomy / Tonsillectomy1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Analgesia, Patient-Controlled / Anesthetics, Local / Fascia / Femoral Fractures / Humans / Local Anesthesia / Medicine, Emergency / Morphine / Pain Management / Pain NOS / Ultrasonography1
4RecruitingTreatmentBody Weight Changes / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative Hemorrhages / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentBrain Injury1
4RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Pain Management / Pain, Neuropathic1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiseases of Mitral Valve / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentDistal Radius Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentFacet Joint Pain / Vertebral Compression Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentFevers1
4RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers / Osteoarthritis of Multiple Joints of Ankle or Foot1
4RecruitingTreatmentHip Arthroscopy1
4RecruitingTreatmentInfants, Premature / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentKnee Injuries / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentLigament Injury1
4RecruitingTreatmentNephrectomy1
4RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentOsteotomy1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain Control After Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery and Septoplasty1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain Management1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS / Prostatectomy1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost-Cesarean Section / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost-Dural Puncture Headache1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Urethral Strictures1
4RecruitingTreatmentPsychiatric Disorder NOS1
4RecruitingTreatmentRib Fracture Multiple / Rib Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)1
4RecruitingTreatmentSciatica2
4RecruitingTreatmentSepsis1
4RecruitingTreatmentSickle Cell Anemia Crisis1
4RecruitingTreatmentSupracondylar Humerus Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentNo Reconstructive Breast Surgery1
4SuspendedNot AvailableLabor, First Stage1
4SuspendedTreatmentAcute Renal Colic / Renal Colic1
4SuspendedTreatmentRotator Cuff Syndrome1
4TerminatedOtherPain NOS1
4TerminatedPreventionHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4TerminatedSupportive CareEmergence Agitation / Pain NOS1
4TerminatedSupportive CareMedication Side Effects / Narcotic Requirement / Postoperative pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentAcute Pain, Postoperative1
4TerminatedTreatmentAdverse Reaction to Drug / Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) / Recurrent Tonsillitis / Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB)1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnesthesia Recovery Period / Postoperative pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnkylosing Spondylitis (AS) / Pain NOS1
4TerminatedTreatmentArthritis / Cognitive Impairments / Pain NOS1
4TerminatedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)1
4TerminatedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel / Cystic tumour of the ganglia / De Quervain's Disease / Trigger Finger1
4TerminatedTreatmentCircumcision / Pain NOS1
4TerminatedTreatmentCritical Illness / Fevers1
4TerminatedTreatmentFevers1
4TerminatedTreatmentFusion of Spine, Lumbar Region1
4TerminatedTreatmentHip Fractures1
4TerminatedTreatmentMigraine1
4TerminatedTreatmentPain NOS2
4TerminatedTreatmentPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4TerminatedTreatmentStrokes / Subarachnoid Hemorrhage1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
4Unknown StatusPreventionOral Hemorrhage1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBrain Surgery / Craniotomy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCancer, Advanced / Opioid Use, Unspecified1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDementias / Depression / Pain NOS1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDysmenorrhea1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentFalciparum / Plasmodium Infections1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentFevers2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPatellofemoral Pain Syndrome1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative Laminectomy Pain / Postoperative pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentVitiligo1
4WithdrawnPreventionIntraoperative and Postoperative Opioid Requirements / Postoperative pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentGallbladder Inflammation / Gallstone formation / Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPain, Acute / Postoperative pain / Surgery, Colorectal1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPain, Chronic1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPost Operative Pain Control1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPostoperative pain / Renal Stones1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableAAT Deficiency / AATD / Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency / Fibrosis, Liver1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableAdverse Events / Drug Overdose1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CarePain NOS1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentAmniocentesis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableConcussions / Headaches1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDrug Half Life / Pharmacokinetics / Placebo Effect1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDysmenorrhea / Pain, Acute1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers4
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableOsteoarthritis of the Hands1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePyloric Stenosis1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAnalgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBasic Science Study of the Mechanisms of Attentional Enhancement by Compounds Acting on the Nicotinic Receptor1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceEmotional Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHypovolaemia / Temperature Change, Body1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceNarcotic Abuse1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceObesity, Morbid1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePlatelet Aggregation1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceTo Assess the Impact of Bile Acids on Human Glukagon-like-peptide-1 Secretion1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Postoperative; Parotitis / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticRespiratory Insufficiency1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPost-operative Swallowing Disorders / Thyroidectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostpartum Period / Pregnancy / Sleep Disturbances1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionProlonged Apnea / Prolonged Bradycardia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareChronic Rhinosinusitis1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareElbow Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain, Acute1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePerforated Appendicitis1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcetaminophen / Analgesia / Curettage / Paracervical Block1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdverse Anesthesia Outcome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnal Condyloma / Fissure in Ano / Hemorrhoids / Rectal Fistulas1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAntiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArthritis Knee1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCardiopulmonary Bypass Induced Lipid Peroxidation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCervical Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChildren / Laceration / Pain NOS / Procedures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCleft Palates1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentContraception / Inhalation of Nitrous Oxide1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDengue Fever / Transaminitis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiverticulitis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDrug Drug Interaction (DDI)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentElbow Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFevers / Reduction in Temperature1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFibromyalgia / Widespread Chronic Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFlail Chest / General Surgery / Rib Fractures / Traumas1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHeadaches / Muscle Soreness / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHip Fracture Surgery / Post Operative Pain Control1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)5
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Pain, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOpen Heart Surgery / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOther Chronic Postoperative Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain Control Post Colorectal Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPeriapical Abscess1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPeriodontitis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPlasmodium Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPlasmodium Infections / Pneumonia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Cesarean Pain Management1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostcesarean Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain4
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPregnancy Termination1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSkin Laxity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Stenosis of Lumbar Region1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableAppetite Disorders / Delayed Gastric Emptying / Dumping Syndrome / Esophageal Cancers / General Surgery / Nutrition Disorders1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionAnalgesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionCaudal epidural block therapy / Postoperative pain / Surgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareOpioids Use1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentDysmenorrhea1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentInfection NOS1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentLiver Diseases / Neoplasms, Hepatic / Secondary Malignant Neoplasm of Liver1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentMusculoskeletal Injuries1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSurgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAspirin Allergy / Aspirin Sensitivity / Aspirin-exacerbated Respiratory Disease / Aspirin-Induced Anaphylactoid Reaction / Aspirin-Induced Angioedema-Urticaria / NSAID-Induced Anaphylactoid Reaction / NSAID-Induced Angioedema-Urticaria / NSAID-Induced Asthma1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableChildren;Infection1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableMultimodal Analgesia / Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableObesity, Morbid1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableSepsis and Septic Shock1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceNeonatal Diabetes1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticHepatic Disease / Paracetamol Causing Adverse Effects in Therapeutic Use1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherPain Management in Pregnant Women1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionCytoreductive Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionOculocardiac Reflex / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain / Vitreoretinal Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareGeneral Surgery / Lower Extremity Problem / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain / Undescended Testis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAcute Renal Colic / Ureteric Stone1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic / Lumbar Facet Syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section; Dehiscence1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Pain NOS / Rib Fractures / Traumas1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentGynecologic Diseases / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHip Pain Chronic1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHypertension, Pregnancy-Induced1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLumbar Disc Disease / Lumbar Osteoarthritis / Spinal Stenosis / Spondylosis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentVaginal Bleeding During Pregnancy1
Not AvailableTerminatedDiagnosticBMI >30 kg/m2 / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentFevers / Heart Rate, Fetal (FHR)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentInfants, Premature / Retinal Disorders1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLaparoscopic Colorectal Resection1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentSevere Traumatic Brain Injury / Subarachnoid Hemorrhage1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableHip Fractures1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceAsthma Bronchial1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionPharyngitis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionPoisoning1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareRetinopathy of Prematurity1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentFevers1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentFracture Bone / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentObesity, Morbid1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPleuro-pneumonia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailablePain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnBasic SciencePharmacokinetics1
Not AvailableWithdrawnOtherNon-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnOtherPost-thoracotomy Pain Syndrome1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionAcute fulminant liver failure / Drug Induced Liver Injury / Fevers / Hepatic Failure / Prevention & Control1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareToothache1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentCaesarean Delivery1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPostoperative pain1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Ortho mcneil pharmaceutical inc
  • G and w laboratories inc
  • Able laboratories inc
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Perrigo new york inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Polymedica industries inc
  • Mcneil consumer healthcare
  • Ohm laboratories inc
  • L perrigo co
  • Ranbaxy inc
Packagers
  • Actavis Group
  • Advent Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Amneal Pharmaceuticals
  • Aristos Pharmaceuticals
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Bergen Brunswig
  • Chain Drug
  • Concord Labs
  • CVS Pharmacy
  • DRX Pharmaceuticals
  • Equaline Vitamins
  • G & W Labs
  • International Ethical Labs Inc.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Kroger Co.
  • Letco Medical Inc.
  • Longs Drug Store
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mallinckrodt Inc.
  • Maneesh Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
  • McNeil Laboratories
  • Medique Products
  • Medtech Labs
  • Nexgen Pharma Inc.
  • Novartis AG
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • PCA LLC
  • Perrigo Co.
  • Pharmpak Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Prescript Pharmaceuticals
  • Qualitest
  • Quality Care
  • Rite Aid Corp.
  • S&P Healthcare
  • Schwarz Pharma Inc.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Valeant Ltd.
  • Walgreen Co.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
KitOphthalmic; Oral; Topical
SuppositoryRectal325 mg/1
SuppositoryRectal120 mg
SuppositoryRectal160 mg
SuppositoryRectal325 mg
SuppositoryRectal650 mg
SuppositoryRectal120 mg/1
SuspensionOral160 mg/100mL
TabletNot applicable650 mg/1
TabletOral325 mg/1
TabletOral80 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral325 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral650 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral500 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral325 mg/1
TabletOral500.0 mg
ElixirOral
TabletOral500.4 mg/556mg
Suspension / dropsOral80 mg/0.8mL
SolutionOral325 mg/10.15mL
SolutionOral650 mg/20.3mL
ElixirOral32 mg
SolutionOral80 mg
SolutionOral160 mg
SuppositoryRectal650 mg/1
CapsuleOral325 mg
TabletOral324.9 mg/361mg
SyrupOral160 mg
TabletOral500 mg
TabletOral325 mg
TabletOral
KitTopical
Capsule, liquid filledNot applicable
Granule, effervescentOral
CapsuleNot applicable
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral325 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
SolutionOral500 mg/5mL
CapsuleOral500 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral650.0 mg
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral325 mg/1
SyrupOral
LiquidTopical
TabletOral80.0 mg
ElixirOral160 mg
ElixirOral80 mg
LiquidOral160 mg
SuspensionOral160 mg
SyrupOral80 mg
TabletOral80 mg
Tablet, chewableOral80 mg
SuspensionOral
ElixirOral160 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral32 mg/1mL
SuspensionOral325 mg/10.15mL
SuspensionOral650 mg/20.3mL
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral80 mg/1
SolutionOral160 mg/5mL
LiquidOral160 mg/5mL
LiquidOral80 mg/2.5mL
Capsule; kitOral
Kit; tabletOral
PowderNot applicable90 mg/100mg
Tablet, coatedOral
LiquidOral
CapsuleOral
SolutionOral
Kit97.5 mg/1
SuspensionOral80 mg/0.8mL
Capsule, coatedOral500 mg/1
KitOral; Topical
Tablet, delayed releaseOral650 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseOral500 mg/1
LiquidOral500 mg/5mL
TabletOral500 mg/1
CapsuleOral500 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral500 mg
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral500 mg/1
SuspensionOral500 mg/15mL
Capsule, liquid filledOral500 mg/1
Tablet, chewableOral500.0 mg
Powder, for solutionOral
SolutionOral500 mg
SuppositoryRectal80 mg/1
Powder, for suspensionOral
GranuleOral
LiquidOral675 mg/675mL
LiquidOral1000 mg/60mL
TabletTopical
Kit; powderOral
PowderOral
Kit; powder, for solutionOral
SuspensionOral80 mg
SuspensionOral200 mg/2mL
SuspensionOral160 mg/1.6mL
Solution / dropsOral80 mg/0.8mL
Tablet, chewableOral160 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral160 mg/1
TabletOral160 mg
Tablet, chewableOral160 mg
TabletOral160.0 mg
TabletOral160 mg/1
Tablet, chewableOral
Capsule, delayed release pelletsOral
LiquidOral.8 mL/1mL
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral650 mg/1
Tablet, chewableOral80 mg/1
PowderNot applicable1 kg/1kg
Capsule, liquid filledOral
Capsule, coatedOral
TabletOral500 1/1
Tablet, multilayerOral
Injection, solutionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
SolutionIntravenous10 mg
Granule, for solutionOral
SuspensionOral160 mg/5mL
Tablet, effervescentOral
LiquidOral80 mg/0.8mL
Liquid; solution / dropsOral80 mg
Solution / dropsOral80 mg
TabletOral650 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral
SyrupOral80 mg/0.8mL
Tablet, film coatedOral325 mg/1
LiquidOral80 mg
TabletOral750 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral
TabletOral500 mg/583mg
LiquidOral100 mg/1mL
KitOral
Kit
SyrupOral160 mg/5mL
Tablet, film coatedOral650 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral650 mg
SolutionOral500 mg/15mL
LiquidOral500 mg/15mL
Tablet, coatedOral500 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseOral1000 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseOral
SuspensionOral1000 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral12.5 mg/5mL
SolutionOral650 mg
SolutionOral120 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Tylenol 100 325 mg tablet Bottle16.98USD bottle
Phrenilin Forte 50-650 mg capsule5.24USD capsule
Phrenilin forte capsule4.46USD capsule
Norco 7.5-325 tablet2.77USD tablet
Norco 10-325 tablet2.76USD tablet
Propoxyphen-apap 100-325 mg tablet2.66USD tablet
Darvocet-N 100 100-650 mg tablet2.33USD tablet
Norco 10-325 mg tablet2.14USD tablet
Ultracet 37.5-325 mg tablet1.95USD tablet
Propoxyphen-apap 100-500 mg tablet1.85USD tablet
Ultracet tablet1.79USD tablet
Darvocet-n 100 tablet1.72USD tablet
Tylenol with Codeine #4 300-60 mg tablet1.65USD tablet
Phrenilin 50-325 mg tablet1.63USD tablet
Norco 7.5-325 mg tablet1.61USD tablet
Darvocet a500 tablet1.5USD tablet
Norco 5-325 mg tablet1.43USD tablet
Darvocet A500 100-500 mg tablet1.38USD tablet
Phrenilin tablet1.32USD tablet
Norco 5-325 tablet1.19USD tablet
Darvocet-n 50 tablet1.14USD tablet
Hydrocodone-apap 10-750 tablet1.12USD tablet
Tylenol with Codeine #3 300-30 mg tablet1.1USD tablet
Tencon tablet1.01USD tablet
Hydrocodone-apap 7.5-650 tablet0.93USD tablet
Propoxyphene-apap 50-325 mg tablet0.93USD tablet
Co-gesic 5-500 tablet0.92USD each
Sedapap 50-650 mg tablet0.92USD tablet
Clemastine fum 2.68 mg tablet0.86USD tablet
Feverall 120 mg suppository0.8USD suppository
Feverall 325 mg suppository0.8USD suppository
Feverall 80 mg suppository0.8USD suppository
Tavist nd 10 mg tablet0.74USD tablet
Darvocet-N 50 50-325 mg tablet0.73USD tablet
Hydrocodone-apap 10-325 tablet0.7USD tablet
Hydrocodone-apap 7.5-325 tablet0.62USD tablet
Hydrocodone-apap 10-660 tablet0.61USD tablet
Acephen 650 mg suppository0.55USD suppository
Propoxyphen-apap 100-650 mg tablet0.55USD tablet
Acephen 120 mg suppository0.54USD suppository
Acephen 325 mg suppository0.54USD suppository
Hydrocodone-apap 5-325 tablet0.54USD tablet
Hydrocodone-apap 10-500 tablet0.53USD tablet
Tavist-1 1.34 mg tablet0.5USD tablet
Acetaminophen 325 mg suppository0.44USD suppository
Feverall 650 mg suppository0.43USD suppository
Drixoral cold & allergy tablet sa0.4USD tablet
Acetaminophen 650 mg suppository0.39USD suppository
Acetaminophen 120 mg suppository0.38USD suppository
Apap-butalbital 325-50 tablet0.38USD tablet
Hydrocodone-apap 10-650 tablet0.37USD each
Hydrocodone-apap 2.5-500 tablet0.33USD tablet
Tylenol flu max-strn gelcap0.24USD capsule
Momentum caplet0.23USD caplet
Tylenol cold gelcap0.23USD capsule
Tylenol cold head congestion0.23USD each
Tylenol cold multi-symp gelcap0.23USD capsule
Tylenol allergy m-s caplet0.22USD caplet
Tylenol cold multi-symptom caplet0.22USD caplet
Tylenol cold head cong caplet0.21USD caplet
Tylenol cold multi-symp caplet0.21USD caplet
Tylenol cold severe congestion0.21USD each
Tylenol sinus caplet0.21USD caplet
Excedrin quicktabs0.2USD tablet
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Pain reliever 160 mg tablet0.08USD tablet
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Acetaminophen 80 mg tablet chew0.07USD tablet
Acetaminophen powder dense0.07USD g
Apap 325 mg tablet0.07USD tablet
Apap child's 80 mg tablet chew0.07USD tablet
Soba pain rel xs 500 mg tablet0.07USD tablet
Tylenol 325 mg tablet0.07USD tablet
Acetaminophen 500 mg gelcap0.06USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy non-aspirin 500 mg caplet0.06USD caplet
CVS Pharmacy non-aspirin 500 mg tablet0.06USD tablet
CVS Pharmacy pain relief 500 mg gelcap0.06USD capsule
CVS Pharmacy pain rlf cool ice caplet0.06USD caplet
Eql pain relief 325 mg tablet0.06USD tablet
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Pain reliever 325 mg tablet0.06USD tablet
Soba pain reliever 500 mg tablet0.06USD tablet
Child tylenol cough-runny nose0.05USD ml
Child tylenol cough-sore thrt0.05USD ml
Childs tylenol cold-cough susp0.05USD ml
Mapap 325 mg tablet0.05USD tablet
Non-aspirin 500 mg geltab0.05USD tablet
Pain relief without asa tablet0.05USD tablet
Tylenol ex-str 500 mg gelcap0.05USD capsule
Childs tylenol cold-aller susp0.04USD ml
Childs tylenol plus cold susp0.04USD ml
Childs tylenol plus flu susp0.04USD ml
CVS Pharmacy acetaminophen 325 mg tablet0.04USD tablet
Non-aspirin 500 mg tablet0.04USD tablet
Pain reliever 500 mg geltab0.04USD tablet
Q-pap ex-str 500 mg tablet0.04USD tablet
Ra acetaminophen pm caplet0.04USD caplet
Acetaminophen 325 mg tablet0.03USD tablet
Acetaminophen 500 mg caplet0.03USD caplet
Genapap 325 mg tablet0.03USD tablet
Genapap 500 mg tablet0.03USD tablet
Pain relief 500 mg tablet0.03USD each
Pain reliever 500 mg gelcap0.03USD capsule
Pain reliever 500 mg tablet0.03USD tablet
Pain relief 325 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
Pain reliever w-o asa 325 mg0.02USD each
Tylenol cold & flu severe liq0.02USD ml
Tylenol cold m-s severe day liquid0.02USD ml
Tylenol cough & sore throat lq0.02USD ml
Tylenol nighttime liquid0.02USD ml
Tylenol pm liquid0.02USD ml
Tylenol sore throat liquid0.02USD ml
Maxapap 325 mg tablet0.01USD tablet
Maxapap 500 mg caplet0.01USD each
Maxapap 500 mg tablet0.01USD tablet
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Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
USRE39221No2006-08-012011-08-09Us
US5972916No1999-10-262017-07-14Us
US6488962No2002-12-032020-06-20Us
US6028222Yes2000-02-222018-02-05Us
US6992218Yes2006-01-312021-12-06Us
US8372432No2013-02-122029-03-11Us
US8668929No2014-03-112029-03-11Us
US8377453No2013-02-192029-11-19Us
US7976870No2011-07-122027-06-01Us
US8741885No2014-06-032032-05-16Us
US8992975No2015-03-312032-05-16Us
US8597681No2013-12-032030-12-21Us
US8980319No2015-03-172030-12-21Us
US8394408No2013-03-122029-03-11Us
US9050335No2015-06-092032-05-16Us
US8658631No2014-02-252032-05-16Us
US9399012Yes2016-07-262032-03-11Us
US9610265Yes2017-04-042029-05-13Us
US9468636No2016-10-182032-05-16Us
US9132125No2015-09-152030-07-01Us
US8828978No2014-09-092030-07-01Us
US9549923No2017-01-242030-07-01Us
US8748413No2014-06-102030-07-01Us
US8461137No2013-06-112031-02-22Us
US9987238Yes2018-06-052029-05-13Us
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)170MSDS
boiling point (°C)>500http://www.inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics1330.htm
water solubilityvery slightly soluble in cold water but greater solubility in hot waterhttp://www.inchem.org/documents/pims/pharm/pim396.htm
logP0.91http://www.t3db.ca/toxins/T3D2571
logS-1.6http://www.t3db.ca/toxins/T3D2571
pKa-4.4 (strongest basic)http://www.t3db.ca/toxins/T3D2571
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.15 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.51ALOGPS
logP0.91ChemAxon
logS-1.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.46ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area49.33 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity42.9 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability15.52 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9921
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9544
Caco-2 permeable+0.8285
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8202
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.982
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9781
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9292
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7259
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5554
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9755
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9161
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8496
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8842
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8767
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7654
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.6342
Rat acute toxicity1.8596 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9717
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9597
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.63 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0a4i-4971200000-17e6e1373f10ba4ec138
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0a4i-1900000000-df97f74a81da3a46a697
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0a4i-4900000000-ef277124e1b50b5f010e
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-7aa6a54b74b345d91e37
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0a4i-4971200000-17e6e1373f10ba4ec138
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0a4i-4900000000-ffdd0f8a1e6e450fc162
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0w29-3900000000-97741eddc3be9c7eaea8
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0ik9-1900000000-1ddd59340d1db920fa66
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-00kf-9000000000-148fa91ce08e13165712
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-1900000000-5997c3f6cdebc5326b65
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (Unknown) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-4900000000-ef277124e1b50b5f010e
MS/MS Spectrum - CI-B (Unknown) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-7aa6a54b74b345d91e37
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0zfr-0900000000-125e44ce332576a1e155
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-7e46df4b4b653c90c258
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-bb6e34d2d574a249d721
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-2f45dd7efce38361f806
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0pb9-0900000000-e48b48d64b6b985ab455
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-b72b0e33fd35512fe6de
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-97bcaa95f26159307d03
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-c50b4b79792e2c2e68f9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-7e46df4b4b653c90c258
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-2b07cd2813d3f23e88f1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0pb9-0900000000-5b92f09589afe838f23a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-f0ca5ff6526b9f005034
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-7e45ef71674dcdde9068
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0w29-1900000000-38d21a339e82f461beac
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-d953f92b362e4b262210
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-3170dca3f927500ea230
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-f835e92fb0bae0c7b8bc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0w29-0900000000-4e01c7ff07665fcdb218
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-a3c279c288bb690496b3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-2900000000-4435e0230105d5d28a94
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-6900000000-76671cc7ad1df1b5983d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-9895c5f2b10912092523
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-d73797c93a4ef79ea79e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0w29-0900000000-22d62a7732ed3d99e87d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-c652f4f179daa6465678
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-2900000000-0e7e745540d8ec7b99f4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-6900000000-2a4263b38fa30bc64dd0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0w29-0900000000-cf0ac615ec636ce7a253
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-428d8023ee5761fed84c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-ed26fb95b6aea6986085
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-1900000000-5b942e17f1e66a3832b8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-d6a7498b8d87d4e00028
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-9ff40d4cd8c0f46836c2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0w29-0900000000-fcf8e62537bd6db11b3a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0w29-0900000000-c27e8f1522f41492aae3
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids. These are phenols that a unsubstituted at the 2-position.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Phenols
Sub Class
1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids
Direct Parent
1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids
Alternative Parents
Benzene and substituted derivatives / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Carboximidic acid derivative / Carboximidic acid / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
phenols, acetamides (CHEBI:46195) / a small molecule (CPD-7669)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and...
Gene Name
PTGS2
Uniprot ID
P35354
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
Molecular Weight
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Lee YS, Kim H, Brahim JS, Rowan J, Lee G, Dionne RA: Acetaminophen selectively suppresses peripheral prostaglandin E2 release and increases COX-2 gene expression in a clinical model of acute inflammation. Pain. 2007 Jun;129(3):279-86. Epub 2006 Dec 18. [PubMed:17175104]
  3. Hinz B, Cheremina O, Brune K: Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor in man. FASEB J. 2008 Feb;22(2):383-90. Epub 2007 Sep 20. [PubMed:17884974]
  4. Weinheimer EM, Jemiolo B, Carroll CC, Harber MP, Haus JM, Burd NA, LeMoine JK, Trappe SW, Trappe TA: Resistance exercise and cyclooxygenase (COX) expression in human skeletal muscle: implications for COX-inhibiting drugs and protein synthesis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007 Jun;292(6):R2241-8. Epub 2007 Feb 22. [PubMed:17322116]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
3. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 3
Kind
Protein
Organism
Mouse
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
References
  1. Botting R, Ayoub SS: COX-3 and the mechanism of action of paracetamol/acetaminophen. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2005 Feb;72(2):85-7. [PubMed:15626590]
  2. Chandrasekharan NV, Dai H, Roos KL, Evanson NK, Tomsik J, Elton TS, Simmons DL: COX-3, a cyclooxygenase-1 variant inhibited by acetaminophen and other analgesic/antipyretic drugs: cloning, structure, and expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Oct 15;99(21):13926-31. Epub 2002 Sep 19. [PubMed:12242329]
  3. Data sheet, Acetaminophen, ebi.ac.uk [File]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Fatty acid amide hydrolase activity
Specific Function
Degrades bioactive fatty acid amides like oleamide, the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide and myristic amide to their corresponding acids, thereby serving to terminate the signaling functions of t...
Gene Name
FAAH
Uniprot ID
O00519
Uniprot Name
Fatty-acid amide hydrolase 1
Molecular Weight
63065.28 Da
References
  1. Hogestatt ED, Jonsson BA, Ermund A, Andersson DA, Bjork H, Alexander JP, Cravatt BF, Basbaum AI, Zygmunt PM: Conversion of acetaminophen to the bioactive N-acylphenolamine AM404 via fatty acid amide hydrolase-dependent arachidonic acid conjugation in the nervous system. J Biol Chem. 2005 Sep 9;280(36):31405-12. Epub 2005 Jun 29. [PubMed:15987694]
  2. Zaitone SA, El-Wakeil AF, Abou-El-Ela SH: Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase by URB597 attenuates the anxiolytic-like effect of acetaminophen in the mouse elevated plus-maze test. Behav Pharmacol. 2012 Aug;23(4):417-25. doi: 10.1097/FBP.0b013e3283566065. [PubMed:22750843]
  3. Bertolini A, Ferrari A, Ottani A, Guerzoni S, Tacchi R, Leone S: Paracetamol: new vistas of an old drug. CNS Drug Rev. 2006 Fall-Winter;12(3-4):250-75. [PubMed:17227290]
  4. Muramatsu S, Shiraishi S, Miyano K, Sudo Y, Toda A, Mogi M, Hara M, Yokoyama A, Kawasaki Y, Taniguchi M, Uezono Y: Metabolism of AM404 From Acetaminophen at Human Therapeutic Dosages in the Rat Brain. Anesth Pain Med. 2016 Jan 17;6(1):e32873. doi: 10.5812/aapm.32873. eCollection 2016 Feb. [PubMed:27110534]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function
Ligand-activated non-selective calcium permeant cation channel involved in detection of noxious chemical and thermal stimuli. Seems to mediate proton influx and may be involved in intracellular aci...
Gene Name
TRPV1
Uniprot ID
Q8NER1
Uniprot Name
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1
Molecular Weight
94955.33 Da
References
  1. Hogestatt ED, Jonsson BA, Ermund A, Andersson DA, Bjork H, Alexander JP, Cravatt BF, Basbaum AI, Zygmunt PM: Conversion of acetaminophen to the bioactive N-acylphenolamine AM404 via fatty acid amide hydrolase-dependent arachidonic acid conjugation in the nervous system. J Biol Chem. 2005 Sep 9;280(36):31405-12. Epub 2005 Jun 29. [PubMed:15987694]
  2. Mallet C, Barriere DA, Ermund A, Jonsson BA, Eschalier A, Zygmunt PM, Hogestatt ED: TRPV1 in brain is involved in acetaminophen-induced antinociception. PLoS One. 2010 Sep 17;5(9). pii: e12748. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012748. [PubMed:20862299]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Curator comments
Possible target
General Function
S-nitrosoglutathione binding
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name
GSTP1
Uniprot ID
P09211
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase P
Molecular Weight
23355.625 Da
References
  1. Boerma JS, Vermeulen NP, Commandeur JN: Application of CYP102A1M11H as a tool for the generation of protein adducts of reactive drug metabolites. Chem Res Toxicol. 2011 Aug 15;24(8):1263-74. doi: 10.1021/tx2001515. Epub 2011 Jun 16. [PubMed:21639118]
  2. Arakawa S, Maejima T, Fujimoto K, Yamaguchi T, Yagi M, Sugiura T, Atsumi R, Yamazoe Y: Resistance to acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in glutathione S-transferase Mu 1-null mice. J Toxicol Sci. 2012;37(3):595-605. [PubMed:22687999]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Dong H, Haining RL, Thummel KE, Rettie AE, Nelson SD: Involvement of human cytochrome P450 2D6 in the bioactivation of acetaminophen. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Dec;28(12):1397-400. [PubMed:11095574]
  2. Manyike PT, Kharasch ED, Kalhorn TF, Slattery JT: Contribution of CYP2E1 and CYP3A to acetaminophen reactive metabolite formation. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Mar;67(3):275-82. doi: 10.1067/mcp.2000.104736. [PubMed:10741631]
  3. Acetaminophen FDA label [File]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Raucy JL, Lasker JM, Lieber CS, Black M: Acetaminophen activation by human liver cytochromes P450IIE1 and P450IA2. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989 Jun;271(2):270-83. [PubMed:2729995]
  2. Patten CJ, Thomas PE, Guy RL, Lee M, Gonzalez FJ, Guengerich FP, Yang CS: Cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in acetaminophen activation by rat and human liver microsomes and their kinetics. Chem Res Toxicol. 1993 Jul-Aug;6(4):511-8. [PubMed:8374050]
  3. Li Y, Wang E, Patten CJ, Chen L, Yang CS: Effects of flavonoids on cytochrome P450-dependent acetaminophen metabolism in rats and human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 1994 Jul-Aug;22(4):566-71. [PubMed:7956731]
  4. Tassaneeyakul W, Birkett DJ, Veronese ME, McManus ME, Tukey RH, Quattrochi LC, Gelboin HV, Miners JO: Specificity of substrate and inhibitor probes for human cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1A2. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Apr;265(1):401-7. [PubMed:8474022]
  5. Mazaleuskaya LL, Sangkuhl K, Thorn CF, FitzGerald GA, Altman RB, Klein TE: PharmGKB summary: pathways of acetaminophen metabolism at the therapeutic versus toxic doses. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2015 Aug;25(8):416-26. doi: 10.1097/FPC.0000000000000150. [PubMed:26049587]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Feierman DE, Melnikov Z, Zhang J: The paradoxical effect of acetaminophen on CYP3A4 activity and content in transfected HepG2 cells. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002 Feb 1;398(1):109-17. doi: 10.1006/abbi.2001.2677. [PubMed:11811955]
  2. Cao L, Kwara A, Greenblatt DJ: Metabolic interactions between acetaminophen (paracetamol) and two flavonoids, luteolin and quercetin, through in-vitro inhibition studies. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2017 Dec;69(12):1762-1772. doi: 10.1111/jphp.12812. Epub 2017 Sep 5. [PubMed:28872689]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Dong H, Haining RL, Thummel KE, Rettie AE, Nelson SD: Involvement of human cytochrome P450 2D6 in the bioactivation of acetaminophen. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Dec;28(12):1397-400. [PubMed:11095574]
  2. Cao L, Kwara A, Greenblatt DJ: Metabolic interactions between acetaminophen (paracetamol) and two flavonoids, luteolin and quercetin, through in-vitro inhibition studies. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2017 Dec;69(12):1762-1772. doi: 10.1111/jphp.12812. Epub 2017 Sep 5. [PubMed:28872689]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Const...
Gene Name
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID
P11509
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A6
Molecular Weight
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Cao L, Kwara A, Greenblatt DJ: Metabolic interactions between acetaminophen (paracetamol) and two flavonoids, luteolin and quercetin, through in-vitro inhibition studies. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2017 Dec;69(12):1762-1772. doi: 10.1111/jphp.12812. Epub 2017 Sep 5. [PubMed:28872689]
  2. Kalsi SS, Wood DM, Waring WS, Dargan PI: Does cytochrome P450 liver isoenzyme induction increase the risk of liver toxicity after paracetamol overdose? Open Access Emerg Med. 2011 Oct 13;3:69-76. doi: 10.2147/OAEM.S24962. eCollection 2011. [PubMed:27147854]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the...
Gene Name
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID
P22309
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1
Molecular Weight
59590.91 Da
References
  1. Bock KW, Forster A, Gschaidmeier H, Bruck M, Munzel P, Schareck W, Fournel-Gigleux S, Burchell B: Paracetamol glucuronidation by recombinant rat and human phenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 May 5;45(9):1809-14. [PubMed:8494539]
  2. Tankanitlert J, Morales NP, Howard TA, Fucharoen P, Ware RE, Fucharoen S, Chantharaksri U: Effects of combined UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1*28 and 1A6*2 on paracetamol pharmacokinetics in beta-thalassemia/HbE. Pharmacology. 2007;79(2):97-103. doi: 10.1159/000097908. Epub 2006 Dec 12. [PubMed:17164591]
  3. Mehboob H, Tahir IM, Iqbal T, Saleem S, Perveen S, Farooqi A: Effect of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A Polymorphism (rs8330 and rs10929303) on Glucuronidation Status of Acetaminophen. Dose Response. 2017 Sep 11;15(3):1559325817723731. doi: 10.1177/1559325817723731. eCollection 2017 Jul-Sep. [PubMed:28932176]
  4. Court MH, Duan SX, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Patten CJ, Miners JO, Mackenzie PI: Interindividual variability in acetaminophen glucuronidation by human liver microsomes: identification of relevant acetaminophen UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Dec;299(3):998-1006. [PubMed:11714888]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 3 lacks trans...
Gene Name
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID
P19224
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6
Molecular Weight
60750.215 Da
References
  1. Court MH, Duan SX, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Patten CJ, Miners JO, Mackenzie PI: Interindividual variability in acetaminophen glucuronidation by human liver microsomes: identification of relevant acetaminophen UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Dec;299(3):998-1006. [PubMed:11714888]
  2. Nagar S, Zalatoris JJ, Blanchard RL: Human UGT1A6 pharmacogenetics: identification of a novel SNP, characterization of allele frequencies and functional analysis of recombinant allozymes in human liver tissue and in cultured cells. Pharmacogenetics. 2004 Aug;14(8):487-99. [PubMed:15284531]
  3. Navarro SL, Chen Y, Li L, Li SS, Chang JL, Schwarz Y, King IB, Potter JD, Bigler J, Lampe JW: UGT1A6 and UGT2B15 polymorphisms and acetaminophen conjugation in response to a randomized, controlled diet of select fruits and vegetables. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011 Sep;39(9):1650-7. doi: 10.1124/dmd.111.039149. Epub 2011 Jun 10. [PubMed:21666065]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 2 lacks trans...
Gene Name
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID
O60656
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9
Molecular Weight
59940.495 Da
References
  1. Court MH, Duan SX, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Patten CJ, Miners JO, Mackenzie PI: Interindividual variability in acetaminophen glucuronidation by human liver microsomes: identification of relevant acetaminophen UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Dec;299(3):998-1006. [PubMed:11714888]
  2. Linakis MW, Cook SF, Kumar SS, Liu X, Wilkins DG, Gaedigk R, Gaedigk A, Sherwin CMT, van den Anker JN: Polymorphic Expression of UGT1A9 is Associated with Variable Acetaminophen Glucuronidation in Neonates: A Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacogenetic Study. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2018 Apr 13. pii: 10.1007/s40262-018-0634-9. doi: 10.1007/s40262-018-0634-9. [PubMed:29654492]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme displays activity toward several classes of xeno...
Gene Name
UGT2B15
Uniprot ID
P54855
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15
Molecular Weight
61035.815 Da
References
  1. Navarro SL, Chen Y, Li L, Li SS, Chang JL, Schwarz Y, King IB, Potter JD, Bigler J, Lampe JW: UGT1A6 and UGT2B15 polymorphisms and acetaminophen conjugation in response to a randomized, controlled diet of select fruits and vegetables. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011 Sep;39(9):1650-7. doi: 10.1124/dmd.111.039149. Epub 2011 Jun 10. [PubMed:21666065]
  2. Mutlib AE, Goosen TC, Bauman JN, Williams JA, Kulkarni S, Kostrubsky S: Kinetics of acetaminophen glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A1, 1A6, 1A9 and 2B15. Potential implications in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Chem Res Toxicol. 2006 May;19(5):701-9. doi: 10.1021/tx050317i. [PubMed:16696573]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sulfotransferase activity
Specific Function
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of catecholamines, phenolic drugs and neurotransmitters. Has also estroge...
Gene Name
SULT1A1
Uniprot ID
P50225
Uniprot Name
Sulfotransferase 1A1
Molecular Weight
34165.13 Da
References
  1. Adjei AA, Gaedigk A, Simon SD, Weinshilboum RM, Leeder JS: Interindividual variability in acetaminophen sulfation by human fetal liver: implications for pharmacogenetic investigations of drug-induced birth defects. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2008 Mar;82(3):155-65. doi: 10.1002/bdra.20535. [PubMed:18232020]
  2. Yamamoto A, Liu MY, Kurogi K, Sakakibara Y, Saeki Y, Suiko M, Liu MC: Sulphation of acetaminophen by the human cytosolic sulfotransferases: a systematic analysis. J Biochem. 2015 Dec;158(6):497-504. doi: 10.1093/jb/mvv062. Epub 2015 Jun 11. [PubMed:26067475]
  3. Cohen IV, Cirulli ET, Mitchell MW, Jonsson TJ, Yu J, Shah N, Spector TD, Guo L, Venter JC, Telenti A: Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use Modifies the Sulfation of Sex Hormones. EBioMedicine. 2018 Feb;28:316-323. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2018.01.033. Epub 2018 Feb 15. [PubMed:29398597]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of phenolic monoamines (neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) and phenolic and catechol drugs.
Specific Function
Amine sulfotransferase activity
Gene Name
SULT1A3
Uniprot ID
P0DMM9
Uniprot Name
Sulfotransferase 1A3
Molecular Weight
34195.96 Da
References
  1. Adjei AA, Gaedigk A, Simon SD, Weinshilboum RM, Leeder JS: Interindividual variability in acetaminophen sulfation by human fetal liver: implications for pharmacogenetic investigations of drug-induced birth defects. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2008 Mar;82(3):155-65. doi: 10.1002/bdra.20535. [PubMed:18232020]
  2. Yamamoto A, Liu MY, Kurogi K, Sakakibara Y, Saeki Y, Suiko M, Liu MC: Sulphation of acetaminophen by the human cytosolic sulfotransferases: a systematic analysis. J Biochem. 2015 Dec;158(6):497-504. doi: 10.1093/jb/mvv062. Epub 2015 Jun 11. [PubMed:26067475]
  3. Bairam AF, Rasool MI, Alherz FA, Abunnaja MS, El Daibani AA, Kurogi K, Liu MC: Effects of human SULT1A3/SULT1A4 genetic polymorphisms on the sulfation of acetaminophen and opioid drugs by the cytosolic sulfotransferase SULT1A3. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2018 Jun 15;648:44-52. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2018.04.019. Epub 2018 Apr 26. [PubMed:29705271]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Arylamine n-acetyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Participates in the detoxification of a plethora of hydrazine and arylamine drugs. Catalyzes the N- or O-acetylation of various arylamine and heterocyclic amine substrates and is able to bioactivat...
Gene Name
NAT2
Uniprot ID
P11245
Uniprot Name
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2
Molecular Weight
33542.235 Da
References
  1. Rothen JP, Haefeli WE, Meyer UA, Todesco L, Wenk M: Acetaminophen is an inhibitor of hepatic N-acetyltransferase 2 in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacogenetics. 1998 Dec;8(6):553-9. [PubMed:9918139]
  2. Tahir IM, Iqbal T, Saleem S, Mehboob H, Akhter N, Riaz M: Effect of acetaminophen on sulfamethazine acetylation in male volunteers. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2016 Mar;29(1):17-22. doi: 10.1177/0394632015593238. Epub 2015 Oct 30. [PubMed:26519524]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Wang E, Lew K, Barecki M, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Quantitative distinctions of active site molecular recognition by P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4. Chem Res Toxicol. 2001 Dec;14(12):1596-603. [PubMed:11743742]
  2. Faassen F, Vogel G, Spanings H, Vromans H: Caco-2 permeability, P-glycoprotein transport ratios and brain penetration of heterocyclic drugs. Int J Pharm. 2003 Sep 16;263(1-2):113-22. [PubMed:12954186]
  3. Novak A, Carpini GD, Ruiz ML, Luquita MG, Rubio MC, Mottino AD, Ghanem CI: Acetaminophen inhibits intestinal p-glycoprotein transport activity. J Pharm Sci. 2013 Oct;102(10):3830-7. doi: 10.1002/jps.23673. Epub 2013 Jul 29. [PubMed:23897240]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on June 24, 2019 13:09