Angiotensin-converting enzyme

Details

Name
Angiotensin-converting enzyme
Synonyms
  • 3.2.1.-
  • ACE
  • DCP
  • DCP1
  • Dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase I
  • Kininase II
Gene Name
ACE
Organism
Humans
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0000441|Angiotensin-converting enzyme
MGAASGRRGPGLLLPLPLLLLLPPQPALALDPGLQPGNFSADEAGAQLFAQSYNSSAEQV
LFQSVAASWAHDTNITAENARRQEEAALLSQEFAEAWGQKAKELYEPIWQNFTDPQLRRI
IGAVRTLGSANLPLAKRQQYNALLSNMSRIYSTAKVCLPNKTATCWSLDPDLTNILASSR
SYAMLLFAWEGWHNAAGIPLKPLYEDFTALSNEAYKQDGFTDTGAYWRSWYNSPTFEDDL
EHLYQQLEPLYLNLHAFVRRALHRRYGDRYINLRGPIPAHLLGDMWAQSWENIYDMVVPF
PDKPNLDVTSTMLQQGWNATHMFRVAEEFFTSLELSPMPPEFWEGSMLEKPADGREVVCH
ASAWDFYNRKDFRIKQCTRVTMDQLSTVHHEMGHIQYYLQYKDLPVSLRRGANPGFHEAI
GDVLALSVSTPEHLHKIGLLDRVTNDTESDINYLLKMALEKIAFLPFGYLVDQWRWGVFS
GRTPPSRYNFDWWYLRTKYQGICPPVTRNETHFDAGAKFHVPNVTPYIRYFVSFVLQFQF
HEALCKEAGYEGPLHQCDIYRSTKAGAKLRKVLQAGSSRPWQEVLKDMVGLDALDAQPLL
KYFQPVTQWLQEQNQQNGEVLGWPEYQWHPPLPDNYPEGIDLVTDEAEASKFVEEYDRTS
QVVWNEYAEANWNYNTNITTETSKILLQKNMQIANHTLKYGTQARKFDVNQLQNTTIKRI
IKKVQDLERAALPAQELEEYNKILLDMETTYSVATVCHPNGSCLQLEPDLTNVMATSRKY
EDLLWAWEGWRDKAGRAILQFYPKYVELINQAARLNGYVDAGDSWRSMYETPSLEQDLER
LFQELQPLYLNLHAYVRRALHRHYGAQHINLEGPIPAHLLGNMWAQTWSNIYDLVVPFPS
APSMDTTEAMLKQGWTPRRMFKEADDFFTSLGLLPVPPEFWNKSMLEKPTDGREVVCHAS
AWDFYNGKDFRIKQCTTVNLEDLVVAHHEMGHIQYFMQYKDLPVALREGANPGFHEAIGD
VLALSVSTPKHLHSLNLLSSEGGSDEHDINFLMKMALDKIAFIPFSYLVDQWRWRVFDGS
ITKENYNQEWWSLRLKYQGLCPPVPRTQGDFDPGAKFHIPSSVPYIRYFVSFIIQFQFHE
ALCQAAGHTGPLHKCDIYQSKEAGQRLATAMKLGFSRPWPEAMQLITGQPNMSASAMLSY
FKPLLDWLRTENELHGEKLGWPQYNWTPNSARSEGPLPDSGRVSFLGLDLDAQQARVGQW
LLLFLGIALLVATLGLSQRLFSIRHRSLHRHSHGPQFGSEVELRHS
Number of residues
1306
Molecular Weight
149713.675
Theoretical pI
6.36
GO Classification
Functions
actin binding / bradykinin receptor binding / carboxypeptidase activity / chloride ion binding / drug binding / endopeptidase activity / exopeptidase activity / metallopeptidase activity / mitogen-activated protein kinase binding / mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase binding / peptidyl-dipeptidase activity / tripeptidyl-peptidase activity / zinc ion binding
Processes
angiotensin catabolic process in blood / angiotensin maturation / antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I / arachidonic acid secretion / beta-amyloid metabolic process / blood vessel remodeling / cell proliferation in bone marrow / cellular protein metabolic process / heart contraction / hematopoietic stem cell differentiation / hormone catabolic process / kidney development / mononuclear cell proliferation / negative regulation of gap junction assembly / neutrophil mediated immunity / peptide catabolic process / positive regulation of peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylation / positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine autophosphorylation / positive regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity / regulation of angiotensin metabolic process / regulation of blood pressure / regulation of hematopoietic stem cell proliferation / regulation of renal output by angiotensin / regulation of smooth muscle cell migration / regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by renin-angiotensin / regulation of vasoconstriction / regulation of vasodilation / spermatogenesis
Components
endosome / external side of plasma membrane / extracellular exosome / extracellular region / extracellular space / integral component of membrane / lysosome / plasma membrane
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II by release of the terminal His-Leu, this results in an increase of the vasoconstrictor activity of angiotensin. Also able to inactivate bradykinin, a potent vasodilator. Has also a glycosidase activity which releases GPI-anchored proteins from the membrane by cleaving the mannose linkage in the GPI moiety.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
1257-1277
Cellular Location
Secreted
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0018929|Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)
ATGGGGGCCGCCTCGGGCCGCCGGGGGCCGGGGCTGCTGCTGCCGCTGCCGCTGCTGTTG
CTGCTGCCGCCGCAGCCCGCCCTGGCGTTGGACCCCGGGCTGCAGCCCGGCAACTTTTCT
GCTGACGAGGCCGGGGCGCAGCTCTTCGCGCAGAGCTACAACTCCAGCGCCGAACAGGTG
CTGTTCCAGAGCGTGGCCGCCAGCTGGGCGCACGACACCAACATCACCGCGGAGAATGCA
AGGCGCCAGGAGGAAGCAGCCCTGCTCAGCCAGGAGTTTGCGGAGGCCTGGGGCCAGAAG
GCCAAGGAGCTGTATGAACCGATCTGGCAGAACTTCACGGACCCGCAGCTGCGCAGGATC
ATCGGAGCTGTGCGCACCCTGGGCTCTGCCAACCTGCCCCTGGCTAAGCGGCAGCAGTAC
AACGCCCTGCTAAGCAACATGAGCAGGATCTACTCCACCGCCAAGGTCTGCCTCCCCAAC
AAGACTGCCACCTGCTGGTCCCTGGACCCAGATCTCACCAACATCCTGGCTTCCTCGCGA
AGCTACGCCATGCTCCTGTTTGCCTGGGAGGGCTGGCACAACGCTGCGGGCATCCCGCTG
AAACCGCTGTACGAGGATTTCACTGCCCTCAGCAATGAAGCCTACAAGCAGGACGGCTTC
ACAGACACGGGGGCCTACTGGCGCTCCTGGTACAACTCCCCCACCTTCGAGGACGATCTG
GAACACCTCTACCAACAGCTAGAGCCCCTCTACCTGAACCTCCATGCCTTCGTCCGCCGC
GCACTGCATCGCCGATACGGAGACAGATACATCAACCTCAGGGGACCCATCCCTGCTCAT
CTGCTGGGAGACATGTGGGCCCAGAGCTGGGAAAACATCTACGACATGGTGGTGCCTTTC
CCAGACAAGCCCAACCTCGATGTCACCAGTACTATGCTGCAGCAGGGCTGGAACGCCACG
CACATGTTCCGGGTGGCAGAGGAGTTCTTCACCTCCCTGGAGCTCTCCCCCATGCCTCCC
GAGTTCTGGGAAGGGTCGATGCTGGAGAAGCCGGCCGACGGGCGGGAAGTGGTGTGCCAC
GCCTCGGCTTGGGACTTCTACAACAGGAAAGACTTCAGGATCAAGCAGTGCACACGGGTC
ACGATGGACCAGCTCTCCACAGTGCACCATGAGATGGGCCATATACAGTACTACCTGCAG
TACAAGGATCTGCCCGTCTCCCTGCGTCGGGGGGCCAACCCCGGCTTCCATGAGGCCATT
GGGGACGTGCTGGCGCTCTCGGTCTCCACTCCTGAACATCTGCACAAAATCGGCCTGCTG
GACCGTGTCACCAATGACACGGAAAGTGACATCAATTACTTGCTAAAAATGGCACTGGAA
AAAATTGCCTTCCTGCCCTTTGGCTACTTGGTGGACCAGTGGCGCTGGGGGGTCTTTAGT
GGGCGTACCCCCCCTTCCCGCTACAACTTCGACTGGTGGTATCTTCGAACCAAGTATCAG
GGGATCTGTCCTCCTGTTACCCGAAACGAAACCCACTTTGATGCTGGAGCTAAGTTTCAT
GTTCCAAATGTGACACCATACATCAGGTACTTTGTGAGTTTTGTCCTGCAGTTCCAGTTC
CATGAAGCCCTGTGCAAGGAGGCAGGCTATGAGGGCCCACTGCACCAGTGTGACATCTAC
CGGTCCACCAAGGCAGGGGCCAAGCTCCGGAAGGTGCTGCAGGCTGGCTCCTCCAGGCCC
TGGCAGGAGGTGCTGAAGGACATGGTCGGCTTAGATGCCCTGGATGCCCAGCCGCTGCTC
AAGTACTTCCAGCCAGTCACCCAGTGGCTGCAGGAGCAGAACCAGCAGAACGGCGAGGTC
CTGGGCTGGCCCGAGTACCAGTGGCACCCGCCGTTGCCTGACAACTACCCGGAGGGCATA
GACCTGGTGACTGATGAGGCTGAGGCCAGCAAGTTTGTGGAGGAATATGACCGGACATCC
CAGGTGGTGTGGAACGAGTATGCCGAGGCCAACTGGAACTACAACACCAACATCACCACA
GAGACCAGCAAGATTCTGCTGCAGAAGAACATGCAAATAGCCAACCACACCCTGAAGTAC
GGCACCCAGGCCAGGAAGTTTGATGTGAACCAGTTGCAGAACACCACTATCAAGCGGATC
ATAAAGAAGGTTCAGGACCTAGAACGGGCAGCACTGCCTGCCCAGGAGCTGGAGGAGTAC
AACAAGATCCTGTTGGATATGGAAACCACCTACAGCGTGGCCACTGTGTGCCACCCGAAT
GGCAGCTGCCTGCAGCTCGAGCCAGATCTGACGAATGTGATGGCCACGTCCCGGAAATAT
GAAGACCTGTTATGGGCATGGGAGGGCTGGCGAGACAAGGCGGGGAGAGCCATCCTCCAG
TTTTACCCGAAATACGTGGAACTCATCAACCAGGCTGCCCGGCTCAATGGCTATGTAGAT
GCAGGGGACTCGTGGAGGTCTATGTACGAGACACCATCCCTGGAGCAAGACCTGGAGCGG
CTCTTCCAGGAGCTGCAGCCACTCTACCTCAACCTGCATGCCTACGTGCGCCGGGCCCTG
CACCGTCACTACGGGGCCCAGCACATCAACCTGGAGGGGCCCATTCCTGCTCACCTGCTG
GGGAACATGTGGGCGCAGACCTGGTCCAACATCTATGACTTGGTGGTGCCCTTCCCTTCA
GCCCCCTCGATGGACACCACAGAGGCTATGCTAAAGCAGGGCTGGACGCCCAGGAGGATG
TTTAAGGAGGCTGATGATTTCTTCACCTCCCTGGGGCTGCTGCCCGTGCCTCCTGAGTTC
TGGAACAAGTCGATGCTGGAGAAGCCAACCGACGGGCGGGAGGTGGTCTGCCACGCCTCG
GCCTGGGACTTCTACAACGGCAAGGACTTCCGGATCAAGCAGTGCACCACCGTGAACTTG
GAGGACCTGGTGGTGGCCCACCACGAAATGGGCCACATCCAGTATTTCATGCAGTACAAA
GACTTACCTGTGGCCTTGAGGGAGGGTGCCAACCCCGGCTTCCATGAGGCCATTGGGGAC
GTGCTAGCCCTCTCAGTGTCTACGCCCAAGCACCTGCACAGTCTCAACCTGCTGAGCAGT
GAGGGTGGCAGCGACGAGCATGACATCAACTTTCTGATGAAGATGGCCCTTGACAAGATC
GCCTTTATCCCCTTCAGCTACCTCGTCGATCAGTGGCGCTGGAGGGTATTTGATGGAAGC
ATCACCAAGGAGAACTATAACCAGGAGTGGTGGAGCCTCAGGCTGAAGTACCAGGGCCTC
TGCCCCCCAGTGCCCAGGACTCAAGGTGACTTTGACCCAGGGGCCAAGTTCCACATTCCT
TCTAGCGTGCCTTACATCAGGTACTTTGTCAGCTTCATCATCCAGTTCCAGTTCCACGAG
GCACTGTGCCAGGCAGCTGGCCACACGGGCCCCCTGCACAAGTGTGACATCTACCAGTCC
AAGGAGGCCGGGCAGCGCCTGGCGACCGCCATGAAGCTGGGCTTCAGTAGGCCGTGGCCG
GAAGCCATGCAGCTGATCACGGGCCAGCCCAACATGAGCGCCTCGGCCATGTTGAGCTAC
TTCAAGCCGCTGCTGGACTGGCTCCGCACGGAGAACGAGCTGCATGGGGAGAAGCTGGGC
TGGCCGCAGTACAACTGGACGCCGAACTCCGCTCGCTCAGAAGGGCCCCTCCCAGACAGC
GGCCGCGTCAGCTTCCTGGGCCTGGACCTGGATGCGCAGCAGGCCCGCGTGGGCCAGTGG
CTGCTGCTCTTCCTGGGCATCGCCCTGCTGGTAGCCACCCTGGGCCTCAGCCAGCGGCTC
TTCAGCATCCGCCACCGCAGCCTCCACCGGCACTCCCACGGGCCCCAGTTCGGCTCCGAG
GTGGAGCTGAGACACTCCTGA
Chromosome Location
17
Locus
17q23.3
External Identifiers
ResourceLink
UniProtKB IDP12821
UniProtKB Entry NameACE_HUMAN
GenBank Protein ID178286
GenBank Gene IDJ04144
GenAtlas IDACE
HGNC IDHGNC:2707
General References
  1. Soubrier F, Alhenc-Gelas F, Hubert C, Allegrini J, John M, Tregear G, Corvol P: Two putative active centers in human angiotensin I-converting enzyme revealed by molecular cloning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Dec;85(24):9386-90. [PubMed:2849100]
  2. Lattion AL, Soubrier F, Allegrini J, Hubert C, Corvol P, Alhenc-Gelas F: The testicular transcript of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme encodes for the ancestral, non-duplicated form of the enzyme. FEBS Lett. 1989 Jul 31;252(1-2):99-104. [PubMed:2547653]
  3. Ehlers MR, Fox EA, Strydom DJ, Riordan JF: Molecular cloning of human testicular angiotensin-converting enzyme: the testis isozyme is identical to the C-terminal half of endothelial angiotensin-converting enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Oct;86(20):7741-5. [PubMed:2554286]
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  7. Takeuchi K, Shimizu T, Ohishi N, Seyama Y, Takaku F, Yotsumoto H: Purification of human lung angiotensin-converting enzyme by high-performance liquid chromatography: properties and N-terminal amino acid sequence. J Biochem. 1989 Sep;106(3):442-5. [PubMed:2558109]
  8. Sugimura K, Tian XL, Hoffmann S, Ganten D, Bader M: Alternative splicing of the mRNA coding for the human endothelial angiotensin-converting enzyme: a new mechanism for solubilization. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Jun 18;247(2):466-72. [PubMed:9642152]
  9. Ehlers MR, Riordan JF: Angiotensin-converting enzyme: zinc- and inhibitor-binding stoichiometries of the somatic and testis isozymes. Biochemistry. 1991 Jul 23;30(29):7118-26. [PubMed:1649623]
  10. Sturrock ED, Yu XC, Wu Z, Biemann K, Riordan JF: Assignment of free and disulfide-bonded cysteine residues in testis angiotensin-converting enzyme: functional implications. Biochemistry. 1996 Jul 23;35(29):9560-6. [PubMed:8755737]
  11. Yu XC, Sturrock ED, Wu Z, Biemann K, Ehlers MR, Riordan JF: Identification of N-linked glycosylation sites in human testis angiotensin-converting enzyme and expression of an active deglycosylated form. J Biol Chem. 1997 Feb 7;272(6):3511-9. [PubMed:9013598]
  12. Woodman ZL, Oppong SY, Cook S, Hooper NM, Schwager SL, Brandt WF, Ehlers MR, Sturrock ED: Shedding of somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is inefficient compared with testis ACE despite cleavage at identical stalk sites. Biochem J. 2000 May 1;347 Pt 3:711-8. [PubMed:10769174]
  13. Donoghue M, Hsieh F, Baronas E, Godbout K, Gosselin M, Stagliano N, Donovan M, Woolf B, Robison K, Jeyaseelan R, Breitbart RE, Acton S: A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9. Circ Res. 2000 Sep 1;87(5):E1-9. [PubMed:10969042]
  14. Tipnis SR, Hooper NM, Hyde R, Karran E, Christie G, Turner AJ: A human homolog of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Cloning and functional expression as a captopril-insensitive carboxypeptidase. J Biol Chem. 2000 Oct 27;275(43):33238-43. [PubMed:10924499]
  15. Eyries M, Michaud A, Deinum J, Agrapart M, Chomilier J, Kramers C, Soubrier F: Increased shedding of angiotensin-converting enzyme by a mutation identified in the stalk region. J Biol Chem. 2001 Feb 23;276(8):5525-32. Epub 2000 Nov 13. [PubMed:11076943]
  16. Kohlstedt K, Shoghi F, Muller-Esterl W, Busse R, Fleming I: CK2 phosphorylates the angiotensin-converting enzyme and regulates its retention in the endothelial cell plasma membrane. Circ Res. 2002 Oct 18;91(8):749-56. [PubMed:12386153]
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  30. Linnebank M, Kesper K, Jeub M, Urbach H, Wullner U, Klockgether T, Schmidt S: Hereditary elevation of angiotensin converting enzyme suggesting neurosarcoidosis. Neurology. 2003 Dec 23;61(12):1819-20. [PubMed:14694062]
  31. Casas JP, Hingorani AD, Bautista LE, Sharma P: Meta-analysis of genetic studies in ischemic stroke: thirty-two genes involving approximately 18,000 cases and 58,000 controls. Arch Neurol. 2004 Nov;61(11):1652-61. [PubMed:15534175]
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  33. Gribouval O, Gonzales M, Neuhaus T, Aziza J, Bieth E, Laurent N, Bouton JM, Feuillet F, Makni S, Ben Amar H, Laube G, Delezoide AL, Bouvier R, Dijoud F, Ollagnon-Roman E, Roume J, Joubert M, Antignac C, Gubler MC: Mutations in genes in the renin-angiotensin system are associated with autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis. Nat Genet. 2005 Sep;37(9):964-8. Epub 2005 Aug 14. [PubMed:16116425]
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Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB00790PerindoprilapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB01180RescinnamineapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB02032EpicaptoprilexperimentalunknownDetails
DB03740N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB00492FosinoprilapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB00542Benazeprilapproved, investigationalyesinhibitorDetails
DB01197CaptoprilapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB00584Enalaprilapproved, vet_approvedyesinhibitorDetails
DB00722Lisinoprilapproved, investigationalyesinhibitorDetails
DB00691MoexiprilapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB00881Quinaprilapproved, investigationalyesinhibitorDetails
DB00178RamiprilapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB00519TrandolaprilapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB00886OmapatrilatinvestigationalunknownDetails
DB01348SpiraprilapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB01340CilazaprilapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB00616CandoxatrilexperimentalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB08836Temocaprilexperimental, investigationalunknowninhibitorDetails
DB09477EnalaprilatapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB13166ZofenoprilapprovedyesinhibitorDetails
DB15565CilazaprilatexperimentalyesDetails