Identification

Name
Perindopril
Accession Number
DB00790  (APRD01178)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Perindopril is a nonsulfhydryl prodrug that belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class of medications. It is rapidly metabolized in the liver to perindoprilat, its active metabolite, following oral administration. Perindoprilat is a potent, competitive inhibitor of ACE, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Perindopril may be used to treat mild to moderate essential hypertension, mild to moderate congestive heart failure, and to reduce the cardiovascular risk of individuals with hypertension or post-myocardial infarction and stable coronary disease.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (2S,3AS,7as)-1-[(2S)-2-{[(2S)-1-ethoxy-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino}propanoyl]octahydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid
  • Perindoprilum
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Perindopril arginineTFT5IM1KGB612548-45-5RYCSJJXKEWBUTI-YDYAIEMNSA-N
Perindopril erbumine1964X464OJ107133-36-8IYNMDWMQHSMDDE-MHXJNQAMSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AceonTablet2 mg/1OralSymplmed Pharmaceuticals, Llc2014-10-102017-10-18Us
AceonTablet8 mg/1OralXOMA (US) LLC1993-12-30Not applicableUs
AceonTablet8 mg/1OralSymplmed Pharmaceuticals, Llc2014-10-102017-10-18Us
AceonTablet4 mg/1OralXOMA (US) LLC1993-12-30Not applicableUs
AceonTablet4 mg/1OralSymplmed Pharmaceuticals, Llc2014-10-102017-10-18Us
AceonTablet2 mg/1OralXOMA (US) LLC1993-12-30Not applicableUs
ArcosylTablet, orally disintegrating10 mgOralServierNot applicableNot applicableCanada
ArcosylTablet, orally disintegrating5 mgOralServierNot applicableNot applicableCanada
ArcosylTablet10 mgOralServierNot applicableNot applicableCanada
ArcosylTablet5 mgOralServierNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-perindoprilTablet4 mgOralApotex Corporation2018-03-08Not applicableCanada
Apo-perindoprilTablet2 mgOralApotex Corporation2018-03-08Not applicableCanada
Apo-perindoprilTablet8 mgOralApotex Corporation2007-02-02Not applicableCanada
Apo-perindopril ArginineTablet5 mgOralApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-perindopril ArginineTablet2.5 mgOralApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-perindopril ArginineTablet10 mgOralApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Auro-perindoprilTablet4 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2018-03-07Not applicableCanada
Auro-perindoprilTablet2 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2018-03-07Not applicableCanada
Auro-perindoprilTablet8 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2018-03-07Not applicableCanada
Mar-perindoprilTablet4 mgOralMarcan Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-perindopril-indapamidePerindopril erbumine (4 mg) + Indapamide (1.25 mg)TabletOralApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-perindopril-indapamidePerindopril erbumine (8 mg) + Indapamide (2.5 mg)TabletOralApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-perindopril-indapamidePerindopril erbumine (2 mg) + Indapamide (0.625 mg)TabletOralApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Arcosyl PlusPerindopril arginine (10.0 mg) + Indapamide (2.5 mg)TabletOralServierNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Arcosyl PlusPerindopril arginine (5.0 mg) + Indapamide (1.25 mg)TabletOralServierNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Arcosyl Plus LdPerindopril arginine (2.5 mg) + Indapamide (0.625 mg)TabletOralServierNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Coversyl PlusPerindopril erbumine (4 mg) + Indapamide (1.25 mg)TabletOralServier2002-12-19Not applicableCanada
Coversyl PlusPerindopril erbumine (8 mg) + Indapamide (1.25 mg)TabletOralServierNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Coversyl Plus HdPerindopril erbumine (8.0 mg) + Indapamide (2.5 mg)TabletOralServier2009-05-07Not applicableCanada
Coversyl Plus LdPerindopril erbumine (2 mg) + Indapamide (0.625 mg)TabletOralServier2003-05-16Not applicableCanada
International/Other Brands
Coversyl (Servier)
Categories
UNII
Y5GMK36KGY
CAS number
82834-16-0
Weight
Average: 368.4678
Monoisotopic: 368.231122144
Chemical Formula
C19H32N2O5
InChI Key
IPVQLZZIHOAWMC-QXKUPLGCSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H32N2O5/c1-4-8-14(19(25)26-5-2)20-12(3)17(22)21-15-10-7-6-9-13(15)11-16(21)18(23)24/h12-16,20H,4-11H2,1-3H3,(H,23,24)/t12-,13-,14-,15-,16-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S,3aS,7aS)-1-[(2S)-2-{[(2S)-1-ethoxy-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino}propanoyl]-octahydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid
SMILES
[H][C@]12C[C@H](N(C(=O)[C@H](C)N[C@@H](CCC)C(=O)OCC)[C@@]1([H])CCCC2)C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension, mild to moderate congestive heart failure, and to reduce the cardiovascular risk of individuals with hypertension or post-myocardial infarction and stable coronary disease.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Perindopril is a nonsulfhydryl prodrug that is metabolized via first pass effect (62%) and systemic hydrolysis (38%) to perindoprilat, its active metabolite, following oral administration. Perindoprilat lowers blood pressure by antagonizing the effect of the RAAS. The RAAS is a homeostatic mechanism for regulating hemodynamics, water and electrolyte balance. During sympathetic stimulation or when renal blood pressure or blood flow is reduced, renin is released from the granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidneys. In the blood stream, renin cleaves circulating angiotensinogen to ATI, which is subsequently cleaved to ATII by ACE. ATII increases blood pressure using a number of mechanisms. First, it stimulates the secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone travels to the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and collecting tubule of nephrons where it increases sodium and water reabsorption by increasing the number of sodium channels and sodium-potassium ATPases on cell membranes. Second, ATII stimulates the secretion of vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH) from the posterior pituitary gland. ADH stimulates further water reabsorption from the kidneys via insertion of aquaporin-2 channels on the apical surface of cells of the DCT and collecting tubules. Third, ATII increases blood pressure through direct arterial vasoconstriction. Stimulation of the Type 1 ATII receptor on vascular smooth muscle cells leads to a cascade of events resulting in myocyte contraction and vasoconstriction. In addition to these major effects, ATII induces the thirst response via stimulation of hypothalamic neurons. ACE inhibitors inhibit the rapid conversion of ATI to ATII and antagonize RAAS-induced increases in blood pressure. ACE (also known as kininase II) is also involved in the enzymatic deactivation of bradykinin, a vasodilator. Inhibiting the deactivation of bradykinin increases bradykinin levels and may sustain the effects of perindoprilat by causing increased vasodilation and decreased blood pressure.

Mechanism of action

There are two isoforms of ACE: the somatic isoform, which exists as a glycoprotein comprised of a single polypeptide chain of 1277; and the testicular isoform, which has a lower molecular mass and is thought to play a role in sperm maturation and binding of sperm to the oviduct epithelium. Somatic ACE has two functionally active domains, N and C, which arise from tandem gene duplication. Although the two domains have high sequence similarity, they play distinct physiological roles. The C-domain is predominantly involved in blood pressure regulation while the N-domain plays a role in hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and proliferation. ACE inhibitors bind to and inhibit the activity of both domains, but have much greater affinity for and inhibitory activity against the C-domain. Perindoprilat, the active metabolite of perindopril, competes with ATI for binding to ACE and inhibits and enzymatic proteolysis of ATI to ATII. Decreasing ATII levels in the body decreases blood pressure by inhibiting the pressor effects of ATII as described in the Pharmacology section above. Perindopril also causes an increase in plasma renin activity likely due to a loss of feedback inhibition mediated by ATII on the release of renin and/or stimulation of reflex mechanisms via baroreceptors.

TargetActionsOrganism
AAngiotensin-converting enzyme
inhibitor
Human
USecreted frizzled-related protein 4
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Rapidly absorbed with peak plasma concentrations occurring approximately 1 hour after oral administration. Bioavailability is 65-75%. Following absorption, perindopril is hydrolyzed to perindoprilat, which has an average bioavailability of 20%. The rate and extent of absorption is unaffected by food. However, food decreases the extent of biotransformation to peridoprilat and reduces its bioavailability by 35%.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Perindoprilat, 10-20% bound to plasma proteins

Metabolism

Extensively metabolized, with only 4-12% of the dose recovered in urine following oral administration. Six metabolites have been identified: perindoprilat, perindopril glucuronide, perindoprilat glucuronide, a perindopril lactam, and two perindoprilat lactams. Only perindoprilat is pharmacologically active. Peridoprilat and perindoprilat glucuronide are the two main circulating metabolites.

Route of elimination

Perindopril is extensively metabolized following oral administration, with only 4 to 12% of the dose recovered unchanged in the urine.

Half life

Perindopril, 1.2 hours; Peridoprilat, 30-120 hours. The long half life of peridoprilat is due to its slow dissociation from ACE binding sites.

Clearance
  • 219 - 362 mL/min [oral administration]
Toxicity

The most likely symptom of overdose is severe hypotension. The most common adverse effects observed in controlled clinical trials include cough, digestive symptoms, fatigue, headache, and dizziness.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Perindopril Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
(4R)-limoneneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when (4R)-limonene is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Experimental
AbacavirThe serum concentration of Abacavir can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
AcebutololPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Acebutolol.Approved, Investigational
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aceclofenac is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
AcemetacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Perindopril can be decreased when used in combination with Acemetacin.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
Acetylsalicylic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Perindopril can be decreased when used in combination with Acetylsalicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
AdapaleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Adapalene is combined with Perindopril.Approved
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
AlclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alclofenac is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Withdrawn
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Perindopril.Approved
AlfuzosinThe serum concentration of Alfuzosin can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
AliskirenAliskiren may increase the hypotensive, nephrotoxic, and hyperkalemic activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
AllopurinolThe risk of a hypersensitivity reaction to Allopurinol is increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
AlminoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alminoprofen is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
AlogliptinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alogliptin is combined with Perindopril.Approved
AloxiprinThe therapeutic efficacy of Perindopril can be decreased when used in combination with Aloxiprin.Experimental
AlprazolamThe serum concentration of Alprazolam can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AlprenololPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Alprenolol.Approved, Withdrawn
AmbrisentanPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Ambrisentan.Approved, Investigational
Ambroxol acefyllinateThe serum concentration of Ambroxol acefyllinate can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Experimental, Investigational
AmifostinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Amifostine.Approved, Investigational
AmilorideAmiloride may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Perindopril.Approved
AmineptineThe serum concentration of Amineptine can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Illicit, Withdrawn
AminophyllineThe serum concentration of Aminophylline can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
Aminosalicylic AcidThe therapeutic efficacy of Perindopril can be decreased when used in combination with Aminosalicylic Acid.Approved
AmiodaroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiodarone is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Amitriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
AmitriptylinoxideThe serum concentration of Amitriptylinoxide can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
AmlodipineAmlodipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
AmobarbitalAmobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineThe serum concentration of Amoxapine can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
AmphetamineAmphetamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
Amphotericin BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphotericin B is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
Amyl NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Amyl Nitrite.Approved
AndrographolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Andrographolide is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
AnisodamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Anisodamine is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
AntipyrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Antipyrine is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
ApocyninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apocynin is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
ApomorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
ApraclonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
ApremilastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
AprotininAprotinin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arotinolol is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
Arsenic trioxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arsenic trioxide is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
AtenololAtenolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
AtorvastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atorvastatin is combined with Perindopril.Approved
AvanafilAvanafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
AzapropazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azapropazone is combined with Perindopril.Withdrawn
AzathioprineThe risk or severity of anemia and severe leukopenia can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Azathioprine.Approved
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azelastine is combined with Perindopril.Approved
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azilsartan medoxomil is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
AzosemideAzosemide may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Investigational
BalsalazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
BarbexacloneBarbexaclone may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Experimental
BarbitalBarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Illicit
BarnidipinePerindopril may increase the antihypertensive activities of Barnidipine.Approved
BenazeprilBenazepril may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
BendazacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bendazac is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Bendroflumethiazide is combined with Perindopril.Approved
BenmoxinBenmoxin may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Withdrawn
BenorilateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benorilate is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
BenoxaprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benoxaprofen is combined with Perindopril.Withdrawn
BenzthiazideThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Benzthiazide is combined with Perindopril.Approved
BenzydamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzydamine is combined with Perindopril.Approved
BepridilPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Bepridil.Approved, Withdrawn
BetaxololBetaxolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
BethanidineBethanidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
BevoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bevonium is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
BietaserpineBietaserpine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Experimental
BimatoprostPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Bimatoprost.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololBisoprolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Perindopril can be decreased when it is combined with Boceprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
BortezomibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bortezomib is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
BosentanBosentan may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
BQ-123Perindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of BQ-123.Investigational
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
BretyliumPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Bretylium.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the antihypertensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
BrofaromineBrofaromine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Experimental
BromfenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromfenac is combined with Perindopril.Approved
BromocriptineThe serum concentration of Bromocriptine can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
BucillamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bucillamine is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
BufexamacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bufexamac is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Experimental
BumadizoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bumadizone is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
BumetanideBumetanide may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
BupranololPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Bupranolol.Approved
ButriptylineThe serum concentration of Butriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
CabergolineThe serum concentration of Cabergoline can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
CadralazineCadralazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Experimental
CafedrinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Cafedrine.Investigational
CanagliflozinThe risk or severity of renal failure and hyperkalemia can be increased when Canagliflozin is combined with Perindopril.Approved
CandesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candesartan is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
Candesartan cilexetilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candesartan cilexetil is combined with Perindopril.Approved
CandoxatrilCandoxatril may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Experimental
CaptoprilPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Captopril.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Perindopril can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
Carbaspirin calciumThe therapeutic efficacy of Perindopril can be decreased when used in combination with Carbaspirin calcium.Experimental, Investigational
CarbetocinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbetocin is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
CaroxazoneCaroxazone may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Withdrawn
CarprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carprofen is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
CarteololCarteolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
CarvedilolPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CastanospermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Castanospermine is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
CelecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Celecoxib is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Celiprolol.Approved, Investigational
ChloroquineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroquine is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Chlorothiazide is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Chlorthalidone is combined with Perindopril.Approved
Choline magnesium trisalicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Choline magnesium trisalicylate is combined with Perindopril.Approved
CicletaninePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Cicletanine.Investigational
CilazaprilPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Cilazapril.Approved
CilnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
CiprofloxacinThe risk or severity of ventricular arrhythmias can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Ciprofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
ClarithromycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Clarithromycin can be decreased when used in combination with Perindopril.Approved
ClevidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Clevidipine.Approved, Investigational
ClofarabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clofarabine is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineThe serum concentration of Clomipramine can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ClonidineClonidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
ClonixinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonixin is combined with Perindopril.Approved
CloranololPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Cloranolol.Experimental
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Perindopril.Approved
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
ConivaptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Conivaptan is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
CryptenamineCryptenamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
CurcuminThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Curcumin is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
CyclopenthiazideThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Cyclopenthiazide is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
CyclophosphamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Cyclophosphamide.Approved, Investigational
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Cyclosporine can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CyclothiazideCyclothiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Dabigatran etexilate can be increased when Dabigatran etexilate is used in combination with Perindopril.Approved
DapagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Dapagliflozin.Approved
DapoxetineDapoxetine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Investigational
DebrisoquinDebrisoquin may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
DelaprilPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Delapril.Investigational
DelavirdineThe serum concentration of Delavirdine can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
DersalazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Perindopril can be decreased when used in combination with Dersalazine.Investigational
DeserpidinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Deserpidine.Approved
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Perindopril.Approved
DesipramineThe serum concentration of Desipramine can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
DiazoxideDiazoxide may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
DibenzepinThe serum concentration of Dibenzepin can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
DiclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenac is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Diclofenamide.Approved, Investigational
DiethylnorsperminePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Diethylnorspermine.Investigational
DiethylstilbestrolThe serum concentration of Diethylstilbestrol can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
DifenpiramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difenpiramide is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
DiflunisalThe therapeutic efficacy of Perindopril can be decreased when used in combination with Diflunisal.Approved, Investigational
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
DihydralazineDihydralazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
DihydroergotamineThe serum concentration of Dihydroergotamine can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Diltiazem can be decreased when combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
DimetacrineThe serum concentration of Dimetacrine can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Withdrawn
DinutuximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Dinutuximab.Approved, Investigational
DipyridamoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Dipyridamole.Approved
DorzolamidePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Dorzolamide.Approved
DosulepinThe serum concentration of Dosulepin can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
DoxazosinDoxazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
DoxepinThe serum concentration of Doxepin can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
DrospirenonePerindopril may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Drospirenone.Approved
DroxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Droxicam is combined with Perindopril.Withdrawn
DuloxetinePerindopril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.Approved
DuvelisibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Duvelisib is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
DyphyllineThe serum concentration of Dyphylline can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
E-6201The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when E-6201 is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
EfonidipinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Efonidipine.Approved, Investigational
EmpagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Empagliflozin.Approved
EnalaprilEnalapril may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalaprilat.Approved
EndralazineEndralazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Experimental
EnfuvirtideThe serum concentration of Enfuvirtide can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
EpanololPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Epanolol.Experimental
EpirizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epirizole is combined with Perindopril.Approved
EpitizideThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Epitizide is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
EplerenoneEplerenone may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Perindopril.Approved
EpoprostenolPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Epoprostenol.Approved
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eprosartan is combined with Perindopril.Approved
Ergoloid mesylateThe serum concentration of Ergoloid mesylate can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
ErgonovineThe serum concentration of Ergonovine can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
ErgotamineThe serum concentration of Ergotamine can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
EsmololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Perindopril.Approved
EstradiolThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Estradiol cypionateThe serum concentration of Estradiol cypionate can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Estradiol valerateThe serum concentration of Estradiol valerate can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Etacrynic acidEtacrynic acid may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
EtanerceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etanercept is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
EthenzamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethenzamide is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
Ethinyl EstradiolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
EtodolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etodolac is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EtofenamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etofenamate is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
EtoricoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoricoxib is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Etravirine can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
Evening primrose oilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Perindopril.Investigational, Nutraceutical
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
ExisulindThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Exisulind is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
FelbinacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Felbinac is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
FelodipinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FenbufenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenbufen is combined with Perindopril.Approved
FenoldopamPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Fenoldopam.Approved
FenoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenoprofen is combined with Perindopril.Approved
FentiazacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentiazac is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
FeprazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Feprazone is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
Ferulic acidPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Ferulic acid.Experimental
FimasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fimasartan is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
FloctafenineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Floctafenine is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Withdrawn
FlunixinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunixin is combined with Perindopril.Vet Approved
FlunoxaprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunoxaprofen is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
FlurbiprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurbiprofen is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
ForasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Forasartan is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
FosinoprilFosinopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
FostamatinibFostamatinib may increase the antihypertensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
FurazolidoneFurazolidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FurosemideFurosemide may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
GarlicThe serum concentration of Perindopril can be decreased when it is combined with Garlic.Approved, Nutraceutical
GuacetisalThe therapeutic efficacy of Perindopril can be decreased when used in combination with Guacetisal.Experimental
GuanabenzGuanabenz may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
GuanadrelGuanadrel may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
GuanazodinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanazodine.Experimental
GuanethidinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanethidine.Approved
GuanfacineGuanfacine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
GuanoclorPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoclor.Experimental
GuanoxabenzPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoxabenz.Experimental
GuanoxanPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoxan.Experimental
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
HarmalineHarmaline may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Experimental
Hemoglobin crosfumarilThe therapeutic efficacy of Perindopril can be decreased when used in combination with Hemoglobin crosfumaril.Experimental
HeparinThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Heparin.Approved, Investigational
HexamethoniumPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
HexobarbitalHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
HigenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Higenamine is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
HydracarbazineHydracarbazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Experimental
HydralazineHydralazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Hydrochlorothiazide is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Hydroflumethiazide is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
IbuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibuprofen is combined with Perindopril.Approved
IbuproxamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibuproxam is combined with Perindopril.Withdrawn
IcatibantIcatibant may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
IloprostThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iloprost is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Imidapril.Investigational
Imidazole salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imidazole salicylate is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Imipramine can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
IndapamideThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Indapamide is combined with Perindopril.Approved
IndenololPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Indenolol.Withdrawn
IndobufenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indobufen is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
IndomethacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
IndoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indoprofen is combined with Perindopril.Withdrawn
IndoraminIndoramin may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Withdrawn
IprindoleThe serum concentration of Iprindole can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
IproclozideIproclozide may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Withdrawn
IproniazidIproniazid may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Withdrawn
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Irbesartan is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
IronIron can cause a decrease in the absorption of Perindopril resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
Iron DextranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Iron Dextran.Approved, Vet Approved
IsocarboxazidIsocarboxazid may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
Isosorbide DinitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Isosorbide Dinitrate.Approved, Investigational
Isosorbide MononitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Isosorbide Mononitrate.Approved
IsoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoxicam is combined with Perindopril.Withdrawn
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Isoxsuprine.Approved, Withdrawn
IsradipineIsradipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
KebuzoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Kebuzone is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
KetanserinKetanserin may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Investigational
KetoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketoprofen is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
KetorolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Perindopril.Approved
LabetalolLabetalol may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
LacidipinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Lacidipine.Approved, Investigational
Lanthanum carbonateThe serum concentration of Perindopril can be decreased when it is combined with Lanthanum carbonate.Approved
LatanoprostLatanoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Leflunomide is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
LercanidipineLercanidipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Levobunolol.Approved
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
LevodopaPerindopril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LevosimendanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levosimendan is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
LinagliptinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Linagliptin is combined with Perindopril.Approved
LinsidominePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Linsidomine.Experimental
LisinoprilLisinopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
LisofyllineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisofylline is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
Lithium cationThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
LofepramineThe serum concentration of Lofepramine can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
LofexidinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Lofexidine.Approved, Investigational
LonazolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lonazolac is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
LornoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lornoxicam is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Losartan is combined with Perindopril.Approved
LovastatinThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
LoxoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxoprofen is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
LumiracoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lumiracoxib is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
MacitentanPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Macitentan.Approved
Magnesium salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Magnesium salicylate is combined with Perindopril.Approved
ManidipinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
MannitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mannitol is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
MasoprocolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Masoprocol is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
MebanazineMebanazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Withdrawn
MecamylamineMecamylamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
Meclofenamic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meclofenamic acid is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
Mefenamic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mefenamic acid is combined with Perindopril.Approved
MelitracenThe serum concentration of Melitracen can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Experimental, Investigational
MeloxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meloxicam is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
MesalazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Perindopril can be decreased when used in combination with Mesalazine.Approved
MestranolThe serum concentration of Mestranol can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
MetamizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metamizole is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methazolamide is combined with Perindopril.Approved
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
MethoserpidinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Methoserpidine.Experimental
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Methyclothiazide is combined with Perindopril.Approved
Methyl salicylateThe therapeutic efficacy of Perindopril can be decreased when used in combination with Methyl salicylate.Approved, Vet Approved
MethyldopaPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Methyldopa.Approved
Methylene blueMethylene blue may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
MethylergometrineThe serum concentration of Methylergometrine can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
MethylphenidateMethylphenidate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenobarbitalMethylphenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
MetipranololPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Metipranolol.Approved
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Metolazone is combined with Perindopril.Approved
MetoprololMetoprolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MibefradilPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Mibefradil.Investigational, Withdrawn
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Midazolam can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Illicit
MinaprineMinaprine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
MinoxidilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
MirodenafilMirodenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Perindopril.Investigational
MizoribineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mizoribine is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
MoclobemideMoclobemide may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
MoexiprilMoexipril may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
MofebutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mofebutazone is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
MolsidomineMolsidomine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidineMoxonidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
MuzoliminePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Muzolimine.Experimental
Mycophenolate mofetilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mycophenolate mofetil is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
Mycophenolic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mycophenolic acid is combined with Perindopril.Approved
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nabilone is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
NabumetoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nabumetone is combined with Perindopril.Approved
NadololPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Nadolol.Approved
NafamostatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nafamostat is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
NaftifineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Naftifine is combined with Perindopril.Approved
NaftopidilPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Naftopidil.Investigational
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
NaproxenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Naproxen is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
NebivololPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe serum concentration of Nefazodone can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Withdrawn
NepafenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nepafenac is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
NesiritideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Nesiritide.Approved, Investigational
NialamideNialamide may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Withdrawn
NicardipineNicardipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the vasodilatory activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
NifedipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Nifedipine.Approved
NifenazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nifenazone is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
Niflumic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niflumic Acid is combined with Perindopril.Approved
NiguldipinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Niguldipine.Experimental
NilvadipinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Nilvadipine.Approved, Investigational
NimesulideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nimesulide is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
NimodipineNimodipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
NisoldipineNisoldipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
NitrendipinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitrendipine.Approved, Investigational
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Perindopril.Approved
NitroaspirinThe therapeutic efficacy of Perindopril can be decreased when used in combination with Nitroaspirin.Investigational
NitroglycerinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroglycerin is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussideNitroprusside may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
Nitrous acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrous acid is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
NortriptylineThe serum concentration of Nortriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
ObinutuzumabPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Obinutuzumab.Approved, Investigational
OctamoxinOctamoxin may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Withdrawn
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olmesartan is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olopatadine is combined with Perindopril.Approved
OlsalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olsalazine is combined with Perindopril.Approved
OmapatrilatPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Omapatrilat.Investigational
OpipramolThe serum concentration of Opipramol can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
OrgoteinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orgotein is combined with Perindopril.Vet Approved
OxaprozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxaprozin is combined with Perindopril.Approved
OxprenololPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Oxprenolol.Approved
OxyphenbutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenbutazone is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Withdrawn
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paclitaxel is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
PalmidrolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Palmidrol is combined with Perindopril.Experimental, Nutraceutical
PapaverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Papaverine.Approved, Investigational
ParecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Parecoxib is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PargylinePargyline may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
ParthenolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Parthenolide is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
Patent BlueThe therapeutic efficacy of Perindopril can be decreased when used in combination with Patent Blue.Approved
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PenbutololPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PentobarbitalPentobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PentoliniumPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Pentolinium.Approved
PentoxifyllinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Pethidine.Approved
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
PheniprazinePheniprazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Withdrawn
PhenobarbitalPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
PhenoxybenzaminePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Phenoxybenzamine.Approved
PhenoxypropazinePhenoxypropazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Withdrawn
PhentolaminePhentolamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
Phenyl aminosalicylateThe therapeutic efficacy of Perindopril can be decreased when used in combination with Phenyl aminosalicylate.Approved
PhenylbutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylbutazone is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimecrolimus is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
PinacidilPinacidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
PindololPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Pindolol.Approved, Investigational
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipamperone is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
PiretanidePiretanide may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
PirfenidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pirfenidone is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
PirlindolePirlindole may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
PiroxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Piroxicam is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
PirprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pirprofen is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
PivhydrazinePivhydrazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Withdrawn
Platelet Activating FactorPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PolythiazideThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Polythiazide is combined with Perindopril.Approved
Potassium bicarbonatePotassium bicarbonate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Perindopril.Approved
Potassium cationPotassium may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
Potassium ChloridePotassium Chloride may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Perindopril.Approved, Withdrawn
Potassium CitratePotassium Citrate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PramipexoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pramipexole is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
PranoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pranoprofen is combined with Perindopril.Experimental, Investigational
PrazosinPrazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
PregabalinThe risk or severity of angioedema can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Pregabalin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PrimidonePrimidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcaineProcaine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProcarbazineProcarbazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
ProglumetacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proglumetacin is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
PropacetamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propacetamol is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropranololPropranolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
PropyphenazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propyphenazone is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
ProquazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proquazone is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
ProtriptylineThe serum concentration of Protriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PTC299The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when PTC299 is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Quetiapine.Approved
QuinaprilPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
QuinethazoneThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Quinethazone is combined with Perindopril.Approved
QuinineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
RamiprilRamipril may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
RasagilineRasagiline may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Perindopril.Approved
RemikirenRemikiren may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
RescinnaminePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Rescinnamine.Approved
ReserpineReserpine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
ResveratrolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Resveratrol is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
RilmenidineRilmenidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
RiociguatThe serum concentration of Riociguat can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
RisperidonePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RituximabPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Rituximab.Approved
RofecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rofecoxib is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
RopiniroleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropinirole is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Perindopril.Approved
RotigotineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rotigotine is combined with Perindopril.Approved
SacubitrilThe risk or severity of angioedema can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Sacubitril.Approved
SafrazineSafrazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Withdrawn
SalicylamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salicylamide is combined with Perindopril.Approved
Salicylic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Perindopril can be decreased when used in combination with Salicylic acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SalsalateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salsalate is combined with Perindopril.Approved
SaprisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Saprisartan is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
SaralasinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Saralasin is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
SaxagliptinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Saxagliptin is combined with Perindopril.Approved
SecobarbitalSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineSelegiline may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SelexipagPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Selexipag.Approved
SemapimodThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Semapimod is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
SeratrodastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Seratrodast is combined with Perindopril.Approved
SerrapeptaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Serrapeptase is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
SildenafilThe serum concentration of Sildenafil can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Simvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
SirolimusThe risk or severity of angioedema can be increased when Sirolimus is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
SitagliptinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sitagliptin is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
SitaxentanPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Sitaxentan.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Sodium aurothiomalateThe risk or severity of hypotension, nitritoid reactions, facial flushing, nausea, and vomiting can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Sodium aurothiomalate.Approved, Investigational
Sodium phosphate, monobasicPerindopril may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Sodium phosphate.Approved
SotalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sotalol is combined with Perindopril.Approved
SpiraprilPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Spirapril.Approved
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Spironolactone is combined with Perindopril.Approved
SRT501The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when SRT501 is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
St. John's WortThe metabolism of Perindopril can be increased when combined with St. John's Wort.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
StreptokinaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Streptokinase is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
SulfasalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulfasalazine is combined with Perindopril.Approved
SulindacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulindac is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
SuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Suprofen is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Withdrawn
SuxibuzoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Suxibuzone is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
TacrolimusThe metabolism of Tacrolimus can be decreased when combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
TadalafilTadalafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
TalinololPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Talinolol.Investigational
TamsulosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tamsulosin is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
TarenflurbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tarenflurbil is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
TasosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tasosartan is combined with Perindopril.Approved
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Telmisartan is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
TemocaprilPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Temocapril.Experimental, Investigational
TemsirolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Temsirolimus.Approved
TenidapThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tenidap is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
TenoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tenoxicam is combined with Perindopril.Approved
TepoxalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tepoxalin is combined with Perindopril.Vet Approved
TerazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Terazosin.Approved
TeriflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Teriflunomide is combined with Perindopril.Approved
TerlipressinPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Terlipressin.Approved, Investigational
TetrahydropalmatinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Tetrahydropalmatine.Investigational
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thalidomide is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TheodrenalinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Theodrenaline.Investigational
TheophyllineThe serum concentration of Theophylline can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
ThiamylalThiamylal may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThiopental may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Withdrawn
TianeptineThe serum concentration of Tianeptine can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
Tiaprofenic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiaprofenic acid is combined with Perindopril.Approved
TibolonePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Tibolone.Approved, Investigational
TicrynafenPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Ticrynafen.Withdrawn
TimololTimolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
TinoridineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tinoridine is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
TipranavirThe serum concentration of Perindopril can be decreased when it is combined with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TizanidineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Tizanidine is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
TolazolinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Tolazoline.Approved, Vet Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolcapone is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Withdrawn
Tolfenamic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolfenamic Acid is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
TolmetinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolmetin is combined with Perindopril.Approved
TolonidinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Tolonidine.Experimental
ToloxatoneToloxatone may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
TolvaptanTolvaptan may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Perindopril.Approved
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
TorasemideTorasemide may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
TrandolaprilTrandolapril may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
TranilastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranilast is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
TravoprostTravoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
TreprostinilTreprostinil may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamtereneTriamterene may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Perindopril.Approved
TriazolamThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
TribenosideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tribenoside is combined with Perindopril.Experimental
TrichlormethiazideThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Trichlormethiazide is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimazosinTrimazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Experimental
TrimethaphanTrimethaphan may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
TrimethoprimTrimethoprim may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Perindopril.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe serum concentration of Trimipramine can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
TriptolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triptolide is combined with Perindopril.Investigational
Trolamine salicylateThe therapeutic efficacy of Perindopril can be decreased when used in combination with Trolamine salicylate.Approved
UdenafilUdenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
UnoprostonePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Unoprostone.Approved, Investigational
UrapidilUrapidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Investigational
ValdecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valdecoxib is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Valproic AcidThe serum concentration of Valproic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
VardenafilVardenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Verapamil can be decreased when combined with Perindopril.Approved
VildagliptinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vildagliptin is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
VincaminePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Vincamine.Experimental
VincristineThe excretion of Vincristine can be decreased when combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
VinpocetinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Vinpocetine.Investigational
XipamidePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Xipamide.Experimental
XylometazolinePerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Xylometazoline.Approved, Investigational
YohimbineYohimbine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ZaltoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaltoprofen is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational
ZidovudineThe serum concentration of Zidovudine can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
ZileutonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zileuton is combined with Perindopril.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZofenoprilPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Zofenopril.Experimental
ZomepiracThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zomepirac is combined with Perindopril.Withdrawn
Food Interactions
  • Herbs that may attenuate the antihypertensive effect of perindopril include: bayberry, blue cohash, cayenne, ephedra, ginger, ginseng (American), kola and licorice.
  • High salt intake may attenuate the antihypertensive effect of perindopril.
  • Perindopril may decrease the excretion of potassium. Salt substitutes containing potassium may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference

Michel Vincent, Jean Baliarda, Bernard Marchand, Georges Remond, "Process for the industrial synthesis of perindopril." U.S. Patent US4914214, issued April 03, 1990.

US4914214
General References
  1. Hurst M, Jarvis B: Perindopril: an updated review of its use in hypertension. Drugs. 2001;61(6):867-96. [PubMed:11398915]
  2. Jastrzebskal M, Widecka K, Naruszewicz M, Ciechanowicz A, Janczak-Bazan A, Foltynska A, Goracy I, Chetstowski K, Wesotowska T: Effects of perindopril treatment on hemostatic function in patients with essential hypertension in relation to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2004 Oct;14(5):259-69. [PubMed:15673060]
  3. Parker E, Aarons L, Rowland M, Resplandy G: The pharmacokinetics of perindoprilat in normal volunteers and patients: influence of age and disease state. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2005 Sep;26(1):104-13. [PubMed:15982858]
  4. Simpson D, Noble S, Goa KL: Perindopril: in congestive heart failure. Drugs. 2002;62(9):1367-77; discussion 1378-9. [PubMed:12076191]
  5. Yasumatsu R, Nakashima T, Masuda M, Ito A, Kuratomi Y, Nakagawa T, Komune S: Effects of the angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril on tumor growth and angiogenesis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2004 Oct;130(10):567-73. Epub 2004 Jul 27. [PubMed:15449186]
  6. Yoshiji H, Kuriyama S, Kawata M, Yoshii J, Ikenaka Y, Noguchi R, Nakatani T, Tsujinoue H, Fukui H: The angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis: possible role of the vascular endothelial growth factor. Clin Cancer Res. 2001 Apr;7(4):1073-8. [PubMed:11309359]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014928
KEGG Drug
D03753
KEGG Compound
C07706
PubChem Compound
107807
PubChem Substance
46508767
ChemSpider
96956
ChEBI
8024
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1581
Therapeutic Targets Database
DNC001114
PharmGKB
PA450877
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Perindopril
ATC Codes
C09AA04 — PerindoprilC10BX11 — Atorvastatin, amlodipine and perindoprilC09BX02 — Perindopril and bisoprololC09BX01 — Perindopril, amlodipine and indapamideC09BB04 — Perindopril and amlodipineC09BA04 — Perindopril and diuretics
AHFS Codes
  • 24:32.04 — Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors
FDA label
Download (149 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Active Not RecruitingOtherMethamphetamine Abuse / Methamphetamine Dependence / Substance Abuse1
1RecruitingTreatmentPTSD1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMethamphetamine Dependence / Substance-Related Disorders1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMetastatic Colorectal Cancers1
2CompletedNot AvailableHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)1
2CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2RecruitingPreventionAging / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Sedentary Lifestyle1
2RecruitingTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2TerminatedDiagnosticBMI >30 kg/m21
2WithdrawnTreatmentChildhood Cancer Survivors1
3CompletedPreventionMarfan Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Microalbuminuria1
3CompletedTreatmentHypertension,Essential1
3CompletedTreatmentHypertension,Essential / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
3TerminatedTreatmentCongestive Cardiomyopathy1
4CompletedTreatmentBlood Pressures / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Proteinuria1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)3
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Induction of intra-operative hypotension1
4CompletedTreatmentMarfan Syndrome1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentArterial Hypertension2
4RecruitingTreatmentArterial Hypertension / Blood Pressures / Dyslipidemias / Lipid Metabolism Disorders1
4RecruitingTreatmentCerebral Small Vessels Disease1
4RecruitingTreatmentNonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAging / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHypertension,Essential2
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableHypertension,Essential1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHematoma, Subdural, Chronic1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Abbott products inc
  • Aurobindo pharma ltd
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc
  • Lupin ltd
  • Roxane laboratories inc
Packagers
  • Aurobindo Pharma Ltd.
  • Inyx Usa Ltd.
  • Ipca Laboratories Ltd.
  • Lupin Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Roxane Labs
  • Servier Canada Inc.
  • Solvay Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral2 mg/1
TabletOral4 mg/1
TabletOral8 mg/1
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral2.5 mg
TabletOral5 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral10 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral2.5 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral5 mg
TabletOral2 mg
TabletOral4 mg
TabletOral8 mg
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Aceon 8 mg tablet3.14USD tablet
Perindopril erbumine 8 mg tablet2.8USD tablet
Aceon 4 mg tablet2.58USD tablet
Perindopril erbumine 4 mg tablet2.3USD tablet
Aceon 2 mg tablet2.22USD tablet
Perindopril erbumine 2 mg tablet1.98USD tablet
Coversyl 8 mg Tablet1.23USD tablet
Coversyl 4 mg Tablet0.88USD tablet
Coversyl 2 mg Tablet0.7USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5162362No1992-11-102009-11-10Us
CA2473205No2010-05-182023-01-22Canada
CA1341196No2001-03-062018-03-06Canada
US7846961No2009-10-052029-10-05Us
US6696481No2003-04-152023-04-15Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP2.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.22 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.56ALOGPS
logP0.63ChemAxon
logS-2.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.79ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area95.94 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity95.69 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability40 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9156
Blood Brain Barrier-0.8411
Caco-2 permeable-0.7871
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6826
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8589
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.919
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8638
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8542
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.549
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8796
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8612
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9088
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8375
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7142
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5951
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8814
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9266
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9082
Rat acute toxicity1.9432 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9839
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8678
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dipeptides. These are organic compounds containing a sequence of exactly two alpha-amino acids joined by a peptide bond.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Dipeptides
Alternative Parents
Alpha amino acid esters / N-acyl-L-alpha-amino acids / Alpha amino acid amides / Indoles and derivatives / Pyrrolidine carboxylic acids / N-acylpyrrolidines / Fatty acid esters / Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives / Tertiary carboxylic acid amides / Carboxylic acid esters
show 8 more
Substituents
Alpha-dipeptide / Alpha-amino acid ester / N-acyl-l-alpha-amino acid / N-acyl-alpha-amino acid / N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives / Alpha-amino acid amide / Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Indole or derivatives / N-acylpyrrolidine / Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid or derivatives
show 25 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
dicarboxylic acid monoester, ethyl ester, alpha-amino acid ester, organic heterobicyclic compound (CHEBI:8024)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II by release of the terminal His-Leu, this results in an increase of the vasoconstrictor activity of angiotensin. Also able to inactivate bradykinin, a potent...
Gene Name
ACE
Uniprot ID
P12821
Uniprot Name
Angiotensin-converting enzyme
Molecular Weight
149713.675 Da
References
  1. Alfakih K, Hall AS: Perindopril. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2006 Jan;7(1):63-71. [PubMed:16370923]
  2. Brugts JJ, Ferrari R, Simoons ML: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition by perindopril in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2009 Apr;7(4):345-60. doi: 10.1586/erc.09.2. [PubMed:19379059]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  4. Song JC, White CM: Clinical pharmacokinetics and selective pharmacodynamics of new angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors: an update. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(3):207-24. [PubMed:11929321]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Soluble frizzled-related proteins (sFRPS) function as modulators of Wnt signaling through direct interaction with Wnts. They have a role in regulating cell growth and differentiation in specific cell types (By similarity). SFRP4 plays a role in bone morphogenesis. May also act as a regulator of adult uterine morphology and function. May also increase apoptosis during ovulation possibly through modulation of FZ1/FZ4/WNT4 signaling (By similarity). Has phosphaturic effects by specifically inhibiting sodium-dependent phosphate uptake (PubMed:12952927).
Specific Function
Wnt-protein binding
Gene Name
SFRP4
Uniprot ID
Q6FHJ7
Uniprot Name
Secreted frizzled-related protein 4
Molecular Weight
39826.305 Da
References
  1. Bukhari SA, Shamshari WA, Ur-Rahman M, Zia-Ul-Haq M, Jaafar HZ: Computer aided screening of secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4): a potential control for diabetes mellitus. Molecules. 2014 Jul 11;19(7):10129-36. doi: 10.3390/molecules190710129. [PubMed:25019556]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name
BCHE
Uniprot ID
P06276
Uniprot Name
Cholinesterase
Molecular Weight
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Mehta A, Iyer L, Parmar S, Shah G, Goyal R: Oculohypotensive effect of perindopril in acute and chronic models of glaucoma in rabbits. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010 May;88(5):595-600. doi: 10.1139/y10-026. [PubMed:20555429]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Proton-dependent oligopeptide secondary active transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products.
Gene Name
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID
P46059
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 15 member 1
Molecular Weight
78805.265 Da
References
  1. Knutter I, Wollesky C, Kottra G, Hahn MG, Fischer W, Zebisch K, Neubert RH, Daniel H, Brandsch M: Transport of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors by H+/peptide transporters revisited. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Nov;327(2):432-41. doi: 10.1124/jpet.108.143339. Epub 2008 Aug 19. [PubMed:18713951]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Peptide:proton symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides.
Gene Name
SLC15A2
Uniprot ID
Q16348
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 15 member 2
Molecular Weight
81782.77 Da
References
  1. Knutter I, Wollesky C, Kottra G, Hahn MG, Fischer W, Zebisch K, Neubert RH, Daniel H, Brandsch M: Transport of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors by H+/peptide transporters revisited. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Nov;327(2):432-41. doi: 10.1124/jpet.108.143339. Epub 2008 Aug 19. [PubMed:18713951]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on July 22, 2018 19:29