Identification

Name
Perindopril
Accession Number
DB00790  (APRD01178)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Perindopril is a nonsulfhydryl prodrug that belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class of medications. It is rapidly metabolized in the liver to perindoprilat, its active metabolite, following oral administration. Perindoprilat is a potent, competitive inhibitor of ACE, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Perindopril may be used to treat mild to moderate essential hypertension, mild to moderate congestive heart failure, and to reduce the cardiovascular risk of individuals with hypertension or post-myocardial infarction and stable coronary disease.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (2S,3AS,7as)-1-[(2S)-2-{[(2S)-1-ethoxy-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino}propanoyl]octahydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid
  • Perindoprilum
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Perindopril arginineTFT5IM1KGB612548-45-5RYCSJJXKEWBUTI-YDYAIEMNSA-N
Perindopril erbumine1964X464OJ107133-36-8IYNMDWMQHSMDDE-MHXJNQAMSA-N
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Perindoprilatprodrug2UV6ZNQ92K95153-31-4ODAIHABQVKJNIY-PEDHHIEDSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AceonTablet2 mg/1OralSymplmed Pharmaceuticals, Llc2014-10-102017-03-01Us
AceonTablet4 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-07-202011-06-30Us
AceonTablet2 mg/1OralXOMA (US) LLC1993-12-30Not applicableUs
AceonTablet4 mg/1OralAbbvie2010-12-142014-01-01Us
AceonTablet8 mg/1OralSymplmed Pharmaceuticals, Llc2014-10-102017-03-01Us
AceonTablet8 mg/1OralXOMA (US) LLC1993-12-30Not applicableUs
AceonTablet8 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-10-262011-06-30Us
AceonTablet2 mg/1OralAbbvie2010-12-142014-01-01Us
AceonTablet4 mg/1OralSymplmed Pharmaceuticals, Llc2014-10-102017-03-01Us
AceonTablet8 mg/1OralAbbvie2010-12-142014-01-01Us
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-perindoprilTablet2 mgOralApotex Corporation2018-03-08Not applicableCanada
Apo-perindoprilTablet8 mgOralApotex Corporation2007-02-02Not applicableCanada
Apo-perindoprilTablet4 mgOralApotex Corporation2018-03-08Not applicableCanada
Apo-perindopril ArginineTablet5 mgOralApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-perindopril ArginineTablet2.5 mgOralApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-perindopril ArginineTablet10 mgOralApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Auro-perindoprilTablet4 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2018-03-07Not applicableCanada
Auro-perindoprilTablet2 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2018-03-07Not applicableCanada
Auro-perindoprilTablet8 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2018-03-07Not applicableCanada
Mar-perindoprilTablet2 mgOralMarcan Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-perindopril-indapamidePerindopril erbumine (8 mg) + Indapamide (2.5 mg)TabletOralApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-perindopril-indapamidePerindopril erbumine (2 mg) + Indapamide (0.625 mg)TabletOralApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-perindopril-indapamidePerindopril erbumine (4 mg) + Indapamide (1.25 mg)TabletOralApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Arcosyl PlusPerindopril arginine (5.0 mg) + Indapamide (1.25 mg)TabletOralServierNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Arcosyl PlusPerindopril arginine (10.0 mg) + Indapamide (2.5 mg)TabletOralServierNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Arcosyl Plus LdPerindopril arginine (2.5 mg) + Indapamide (0.625 mg)TabletOralServierNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Coversyl PlusPerindopril erbumine (4 mg) + Indapamide (1.25 mg)TabletOralServier2002-12-19Not applicableCanada
Coversyl PlusPerindopril erbumine (8 mg) + Indapamide (1.25 mg)TabletOralServierNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Coversyl Plus HdPerindopril erbumine (8.0 mg) + Indapamide (2.5 mg)TabletOralServier2009-05-07Not applicableCanada
Coversyl Plus LdPerindopril erbumine (2 mg) + Indapamide (0.625 mg)TabletOralServier2003-05-16Not applicableCanada
International/Other Brands
Coversyl (Servier)
Categories
UNII
Y5GMK36KGY
CAS number
82834-16-0
Weight
Average: 368.4678
Monoisotopic: 368.231122144
Chemical Formula
C19H32N2O5
InChI Key
IPVQLZZIHOAWMC-QXKUPLGCSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H32N2O5/c1-4-8-14(19(25)26-5-2)20-12(3)17(22)21-15-10-7-6-9-13(15)11-16(21)18(23)24/h12-16,20H,4-11H2,1-3H3,(H,23,24)/t12-,13-,14-,15-,16-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S,3aS,7aS)-1-[(2S)-2-{[(2S)-1-ethoxy-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino}propanoyl]-octahydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid
SMILES
[H][C@]12C[C@H](N(C(=O)[C@H](C)N[C@@H](CCC)C(=O)OCC)[C@@]1([H])CCCC2)C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension, mild to moderate congestive heart failure, and to reduce the cardiovascular risk of individuals with hypertension or post-myocardial infarction and stable coronary disease.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Perindopril is a nonsulfhydryl prodrug that is metabolized via first pass effect (62%) and systemic hydrolysis (38%) to perindoprilat, its active metabolite, following oral administration. Perindoprilat lowers blood pressure by antagonizing the effect of the RAAS. The RAAS is a homeostatic mechanism for regulating hemodynamics, water and electrolyte balance. During sympathetic stimulation or when renal blood pressure or blood flow is reduced, renin is released from the granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidneys. In the blood stream, renin cleaves circulating angiotensinogen to ATI, which is subsequently cleaved to ATII by ACE. ATII increases blood pressure using a number of mechanisms. First, it stimulates the secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone travels to the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and collecting tubule of nephrons where it increases sodium and water reabsorption by increasing the number of sodium channels and sodium-potassium ATPases on cell membranes. Second, ATII stimulates the secretion of vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH) from the posterior pituitary gland. ADH stimulates further water reabsorption from the kidneys via insertion of aquaporin-2 channels on the apical surface of cells of the DCT and collecting tubules. Third, ATII increases blood pressure through direct arterial vasoconstriction. Stimulation of the Type 1 ATII receptor on vascular smooth muscle cells leads to a cascade of events resulting in myocyte contraction and vasoconstriction. In addition to these major effects, ATII induces the thirst response via stimulation of hypothalamic neurons. ACE inhibitors inhibit the rapid conversion of ATI to ATII and antagonize RAAS-induced increases in blood pressure. ACE (also known as kininase II) is also involved in the enzymatic deactivation of bradykinin, a vasodilator. Inhibiting the deactivation of bradykinin increases bradykinin levels and may sustain the effects of perindoprilat by causing increased vasodilation and decreased blood pressure.

Mechanism of action

There are two isoforms of ACE: the somatic isoform, which exists as a glycoprotein comprised of a single polypeptide chain of 1277; and the testicular isoform, which has a lower molecular mass and is thought to play a role in sperm maturation and binding of sperm to the oviduct epithelium. Somatic ACE has two functionally active domains, N and C, which arise from tandem gene duplication. Although the two domains have high sequence similarity, they play distinct physiological roles. The C-domain is predominantly involved in blood pressure regulation while the N-domain plays a role in hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and proliferation. ACE inhibitors bind to and inhibit the activity of both domains, but have much greater affinity for and inhibitory activity against the C-domain. Perindoprilat, the active metabolite of perindopril, competes with ATI for binding to ACE and inhibits and enzymatic proteolysis of ATI to ATII. Decreasing ATII levels in the body decreases blood pressure by inhibiting the pressor effects of ATII as described in the Pharmacology section above. Perindopril also causes an increase in plasma renin activity likely due to a loss of feedback inhibition mediated by ATII on the release of renin and/or stimulation of reflex mechanisms via baroreceptors.

TargetActionsOrganism
AAngiotensin-converting enzyme
inhibitor
Human
USecreted frizzled-related protein 4
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Rapidly absorbed with peak plasma concentrations occurring approximately 1 hour after oral administration. Bioavailability is 65-75%. Following absorption, perindopril is hydrolyzed to perindoprilat, which has an average bioavailability of 20%. The rate and extent of absorption is unaffected by food. However, food decreases the extent of biotransformation to peridoprilat and reduces its bioavailability by 35%.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Perindoprilat, 10-20% bound to plasma proteins

Metabolism

Extensively metabolized, with only 4-12% of the dose recovered in urine following oral administration. Six metabolites have been identified: perindoprilat, perindopril glucuronide, perindoprilat glucuronide, a perindopril lactam, and two perindoprilat lactams. Only perindoprilat is pharmacologically active. Peridoprilat and perindoprilat glucuronide are the two main circulating metabolites.

Route of elimination

Perindopril is extensively metabolized following oral administration, with only 4 to 12% of the dose recovered unchanged in the urine.

Half life

Perindopril, 1.2 hours; Peridoprilat, 30-120 hours. The long half life of peridoprilat is due to its slow dissociation from ACE binding sites.

Clearance
  • 219 - 362 mL/min [oral administration]
Toxicity

The most likely symptom of overdose is severe hypotension. The most common adverse effects observed in controlled clinical trials include cough, digestive symptoms, fatigue, headache, and dizziness.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Perindopril Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic AcidPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of 1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid.
AbacavirPerindopril may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
AcarboseAcarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Perindopril which could result in a higher serum level.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Acebutolol.
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Aceclofenac is combined with Perindopril.
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Acemetacin is combined with Perindopril.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Perindopril which could result in a higher serum level.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Perindopril.
AclidiniumPerindopril may decrease the excretion rate of Aclidinium which could result in a higher serum level.
AcrivastinePerindopril may decrease the excretion rate of Acrivastine which could result in a higher serum level.
Food Interactions
  • Herbs that may attenuate the antihypertensive effect of perindopril include: bayberry, blue cohash, cayenne, ephedra, ginger, ginseng (American), kola and licorice.
  • High salt intake may attenuate the antihypertensive effect of perindopril.
  • Perindopril may decrease the excretion of potassium. Salt substitutes containing potassium may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference

Michel Vincent, Jean Baliarda, Bernard Marchand, Georges Remond, "Process for the industrial synthesis of perindopril." U.S. Patent US4914214, issued April 03, 1990.

US4914214
General References
  1. Hurst M, Jarvis B: Perindopril: an updated review of its use in hypertension. Drugs. 2001;61(6):867-96. [PubMed:11398915]
  2. Jastrzebskal M, Widecka K, Naruszewicz M, Ciechanowicz A, Janczak-Bazan A, Foltynska A, Goracy I, Chetstowski K, Wesotowska T: Effects of perindopril treatment on hemostatic function in patients with essential hypertension in relation to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2004 Oct;14(5):259-69. [PubMed:15673060]
  3. Parker E, Aarons L, Rowland M, Resplandy G: The pharmacokinetics of perindoprilat in normal volunteers and patients: influence of age and disease state. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2005 Sep;26(1):104-13. [PubMed:15982858]
  4. Simpson D, Noble S, Goa KL: Perindopril: in congestive heart failure. Drugs. 2002;62(9):1367-77; discussion 1378-9. [PubMed:12076191]
  5. Yasumatsu R, Nakashima T, Masuda M, Ito A, Kuratomi Y, Nakagawa T, Komune S: Effects of the angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril on tumor growth and angiogenesis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2004 Oct;130(10):567-73. Epub 2004 Jul 27. [PubMed:15449186]
  6. Yoshiji H, Kuriyama S, Kawata M, Yoshii J, Ikenaka Y, Noguchi R, Nakatani T, Tsujinoue H, Fukui H: The angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis: possible role of the vascular endothelial growth factor. Clin Cancer Res. 2001 Apr;7(4):1073-8. [PubMed:11309359]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014928
KEGG Drug
D03753
KEGG Compound
C07706
PubChem Compound
107807
PubChem Substance
46508767
ChemSpider
96956
ChEBI
8024
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1581
Therapeutic Targets Database
DNC001114
PharmGKB
PA450877
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Perindopril
ATC Codes
C10BX11 — Atorvastatin, amlodipine and perindoprilC09AA04 — PerindoprilC09BX02 — Perindopril and bisoprololC09BA04 — Perindopril and diureticsC09BB04 — Perindopril and amlodipineC09BX01 — Perindopril, amlodipine and indapamide
AHFS Codes
  • 24:32.04 — Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors
FDA label
Download (149 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Active Not RecruitingOtherMethamphetamine Abuse / Methamphetamine Dependence / Substance Abuse1
1RecruitingTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMethamphetamine Dependence / Substance-Related Disorders1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMetastatic Colorectal Cancers1
2CompletedNot AvailableHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2CompletedTreatmentAbdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)1
2CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2RecruitingPreventionAging / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Sedentary Lifestyle1
2RecruitingTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2TerminatedDiagnosticBMI >30 kg/m21
2WithdrawnTreatmentChildhood Cancer Survivors1
3CompletedPreventionMarfan Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Microalbuminuria1
3CompletedTreatmentHypertension,Essential1
3CompletedTreatmentHypertension,Essential / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
3TerminatedTreatmentCongestive Cardiomyopathy1
4CompletedTreatmentBlood Pressures / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Proteinuria1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)3
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Induction of intra-operative hypotension1
4CompletedTreatmentMarfan Syndrome1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentArterial Hypertension2
4RecruitingTreatmentArterial Hypertension / Blood Pressures / Dyslipidemias / Lipid Metabolism Disorders1
4RecruitingTreatmentCerebral Small Vessels Disease1
4RecruitingTreatmentNonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAging / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHypertension,Essential2
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableHypertension,Essential1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHematoma, Subdural, Chronic1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Abbott products inc
  • Aurobindo pharma ltd
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc
  • Lupin ltd
  • Roxane laboratories inc
Packagers
  • Aurobindo Pharma Ltd.
  • Inyx Usa Ltd.
  • Ipca Laboratories Ltd.
  • Lupin Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Roxane Labs
  • Servier Canada Inc.
  • Solvay Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral2.5 mg
TabletOral5 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral10 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral2.5 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral5 mg
TabletOral2 mg
TabletOral4 mg
TabletOral8 mg
TabletOral
TabletOral2 mg/1
TabletOral4 mg/1
TabletOral8 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Aceon 8 mg tablet3.14USD tablet
Perindopril erbumine 8 mg tablet2.8USD tablet
Aceon 4 mg tablet2.58USD tablet
Perindopril erbumine 4 mg tablet2.3USD tablet
Aceon 2 mg tablet2.22USD tablet
Perindopril erbumine 2 mg tablet1.98USD tablet
Coversyl 8 mg Tablet1.23USD tablet
Coversyl 4 mg Tablet0.88USD tablet
Coversyl 2 mg Tablet0.7USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5162362No1992-11-102009-11-10Us
CA2473205No2010-05-182023-01-22Canada
CA1341196No2001-03-062018-03-06Canada
US7846961No2010-12-072029-10-05Us
US6696481No2004-02-242023-04-15Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP2.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.22 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.56ALOGPS
logP0.63ChemAxon
logS-2.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.79ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area95.94 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity95.69 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability40 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9156
Blood Brain Barrier-0.8411
Caco-2 permeable-0.7871
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6826
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8589
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.919
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8638
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8542
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.549
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8796
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8612
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9088
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8375
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7142
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5951
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8814
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9266
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9082
Rat acute toxicity1.9432 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9839
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8678
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dipeptides. These are organic compounds containing a sequence of exactly two alpha-amino acids joined by a peptide bond.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Dipeptides
Alternative Parents
Alpha amino acid esters / N-acyl-L-alpha-amino acids / Alpha amino acid amides / Indoles and derivatives / Pyrrolidine carboxylic acids / N-acylpyrrolidines / Fatty acid esters / Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives / Tertiary carboxylic acid amides / Carboxylic acid esters
show 8 more
Substituents
Alpha-dipeptide / Alpha-amino acid ester / N-acyl-l-alpha-amino acid / N-acyl-alpha-amino acid / N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives / Alpha-amino acid amide / Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Indole or derivatives / N-acylpyrrolidine / Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid or derivatives
show 25 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
dicarboxylic acid monoester, ethyl ester, alpha-amino acid ester, organic heterobicyclic compound (CHEBI:8024)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II by release of the terminal His-Leu, this results in an increase of the vasoconstrictor activity of angiotensin. Also able to inactivate bradykinin, a potent...
Gene Name
ACE
Uniprot ID
P12821
Uniprot Name
Angiotensin-converting enzyme
Molecular Weight
149713.675 Da
References
  1. Alfakih K, Hall AS: Perindopril. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2006 Jan;7(1):63-71. [PubMed:16370923]
  2. Brugts JJ, Ferrari R, Simoons ML: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition by perindopril in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2009 Apr;7(4):345-60. doi: 10.1586/erc.09.2. [PubMed:19379059]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  4. Song JC, White CM: Clinical pharmacokinetics and selective pharmacodynamics of new angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors: an update. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(3):207-24. [PubMed:11929321]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Soluble frizzled-related proteins (sFRPS) function as modulators of Wnt signaling through direct interaction with Wnts. They have a role in regulating cell growth and differentiation in specific cell types (By similarity). SFRP4 plays a role in bone morphogenesis. May also act as a regulator of adult uterine morphology and function. May also increase apoptosis during ovulation possibly through modulation of FZ1/FZ4/WNT4 signaling (By similarity). Has phosphaturic effects by specifically inhibiting sodium-dependent phosphate uptake (PubMed:12952927).
Specific Function
Wnt-protein binding
Gene Name
SFRP4
Uniprot ID
Q6FHJ7
Uniprot Name
Secreted frizzled-related protein 4
Molecular Weight
39826.305 Da
References
  1. Bukhari SA, Shamshari WA, Ur-Rahman M, Zia-Ul-Haq M, Jaafar HZ: Computer aided screening of secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4): a potential control for diabetes mellitus. Molecules. 2014 Jul 11;19(7):10129-36. doi: 10.3390/molecules190710129. [PubMed:25019556]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name
BCHE
Uniprot ID
P06276
Uniprot Name
Cholinesterase
Molecular Weight
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Mehta A, Iyer L, Parmar S, Shah G, Goyal R: Oculohypotensive effect of perindopril in acute and chronic models of glaucoma in rabbits. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010 May;88(5):595-600. doi: 10.1139/y10-026. [PubMed:20555429]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Proton-dependent oligopeptide secondary active transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products.
Gene Name
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID
P46059
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 15 member 1
Molecular Weight
78805.265 Da
References
  1. Knutter I, Wollesky C, Kottra G, Hahn MG, Fischer W, Zebisch K, Neubert RH, Daniel H, Brandsch M: Transport of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors by H+/peptide transporters revisited. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Nov;327(2):432-41. doi: 10.1124/jpet.108.143339. Epub 2008 Aug 19. [PubMed:18713951]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Peptide:proton symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides.
Gene Name
SLC15A2
Uniprot ID
Q16348
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 15 member 2
Molecular Weight
81782.77 Da
References
  1. Knutter I, Wollesky C, Kottra G, Hahn MG, Fischer W, Zebisch K, Neubert RH, Daniel H, Brandsch M: Transport of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors by H+/peptide transporters revisited. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Nov;327(2):432-41. doi: 10.1124/jpet.108.143339. Epub 2008 Aug 19. [PubMed:18713951]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 10, 2018 13:39